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Austria- Hungary, including Dalniatia, Bosnia, Bucharest, Belgrade, 
and Montenegro. "With 33 Maps and 44 Plans. Tenth edition. 
1905 8 marks 

The Eastern Alps, including the Bavarian Highlands, Tyrol, Salzburg, 
Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola. With 
53 Maps, 10 Plans, and 7 Panoramas. Tenth edition. 1903. 10 marks 

Belgium and Holland, including the Grand- Duchy of Luxem- 
bourg. Wit 15 Maps and 30 Plans. Fourteenth edition. 1905. 6 marks 

The Dominion of Canada, with Newfoundland and an Excursion 
to Alaska. With 13 Maps and 12 Plans. Third edition. 1907. 6 marks 

Constantinople and Asia Minor, in German only : 

Konstantinopel und Kleinasien nebst den Hauptrouten- durch die 

Balkanhalbinsel und einem Ausflug auf der Anatolischen Bahn. 

Mit 9 Karten, 34 Planen und Grundrissen. 1905 6 marks 

Denmark see Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 

Egypt, Lower and Upper Egypt, Lower and Upper Nubia, and the 

Sudan. With 23 Maps, 66 Plans, and 59 Vignettes. Fifth edition. 

1902 '. '. 15 marks 

England see Great Britain. 

Prance : 

Paris and its Environs, with Routes from London to Paris. With 

13 Maps and 38 Plans. Fifteenth edition. 1904 6 marks 

Northern France from Belgium and the English Channel to the Loire 

excluding Paris and Its Environs. With 13 Maps and 40 Plans. 

Fourth edition. 1905 : 7 marks 

Southern France from the Loire to the Pyrenees, Auvergne, the 

Cevennes, the French Alps, the Ehone Valley, Provence, the French 

Riviera, and Corsica. With 30 Maps, 36 Plans, and a Panorama. 

Fourth edition. 1902 9 marks 


Berlin and its Environs. With 6 Maps and 18 Plans. Second edition. 

1905 3 marks 

Northern Germany as far as the Bavarian and Austrian frontiers. 

With 49 Maps and 75 Plans. Fourteenth edition. 1904 . . 8 marks 
Southern Germany (Wurteniberg and Bavaria). With 30 Maps and 

23 Plans. Tenth edition. 1907 6 marks 

The Rhine from Rotterdam to Constance, including the Seven Mountains, 

the Moselle, the Volcanic Eifel, the Taunus, the Odenwald and 

Heidelberg, the Vosges Mountains, the Black Forest, etc. With 

52 Maps and 29 Plans. Sixteenth edition. 1906 7 marks 

Great Britain. England, Wales, and Scotland. With 22 Maps, 
58 Plans, and a Panorama. Sixth edition. 1906 10 marks 

London and its Environs. With 4 Maps and 24 Plans. ' Fourteenth 
edition. 1905 6 marks 

Greece, the Greek Islands, and an Excursion to Crete. With 11 Maps, 
25 Plans, and a Panorama of Athens. Third edition. 1905. 8 marks 

Holland see Belgium and Holland. 


I. Northern Italy, including Leghorn, Florence, Ravenna, and Routes 
through Switzerland and Austria. With 30 Maps and 40. Plans. 
Thirteenth edition. 1906 8 marks 

II. Central Italy and Rome. With 14 Maps, 49 Plans, a Panorama 
of Rome, a view of the Forum Romanum, and the Arms of the 
Popes since 1417. Fourteenth edition. 1904 7 marks 50 pf. 

777. Southern Italy and Sicily, with Excursions to the Lipari Islands, 
Malta, Sardinia, Tunis, and Corfu. With 27 Maps and 24 Plans. 
Fourteenth edition. 1903 6 marks 

Italy from the Alps to Naples. With 26 Maps and 44 Plans. 
1904 8 marks 

Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, including an Excursion to 
Spitzbergen. With 37 Maps , 22 Plans , and 3 Panoramas. Eighth 
edition. 1903 8 marks 

Palestine and Syria, including the principal routes through Meso- 
potamia and Babylonia. With 20 Maps, 52 Plans, and a Panorama 
of Jerusalem. Fourth edition. 1906 12 marks 

Portugal see Spain and Portugal. 

Riviera see Southern France. 

Russia, in German or French only: 

Rutland. Europ. RuBland, Eisenbahnen in Russ.-Asien, Teheran, Pe- 
king. Mit 20 Karten, 40 Planen u. 11 Grundr. 6. Aufl. 1904. 15 marks 

Russischer Sprachfuhrer. 4. Aufl. 1903 1 mark 

Russie. Avec 19 cartes et 32 plans. 3 e edition. 1902 .... 15 marks 

Manuel de langue Russe. 3 e edition. 1903 1 mark 

Scotland see Great Britain. . 

Spain and Portugal, with Excursions to Tangier and the Balearic 
Islands. With 7 Maps and 47 Plans. Second edition. 1901. 16 marks 

Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol. 
With 63 Maps, 17 Plans, and 11 Panoramas. Twenty-first edition. 
1905 8 marks 

Tyrol see The Eastern Alps. 

The United States, with an Excursion into Mexico. With 25 Maps 
and 35 Plans. Third edition. 1904 12 marks 



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'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy piayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part ot all ! ' 


The chief object of the Handbook for Paris, which is 
now issued for the fifteenth time, and corresponds with the 
fifteenth French edition, is to render the traveller as nearly 
as possible independent of the services of guides, commission- 
naires, and innkeepers, and to enable him to employ his time 
and his money to the best advantage. 

Objects of general interest, described by the Editor from 
his personal observation, are those with which the Handbook 
principally deals. A detailed account of all the specialties of 
Paris would of course far exceed the limits of a work of this 
character; but it will be found that the present volume, while 
recording the gigantic transformations in the external ap- 
pearance of the city since the beginning of the Second Empire, 
has also bestowed considerable attention on the historical 
and archaeological aspects of the French metropolis. 

The Maps and Plans, upon which the utmost care has 
been bestowed, will, it is hoped, be found serviceable. Those 
which relate to Paris itself (one clue-map, one large plan, 
five special plans of the most important quarters of the city, 
and one omnibus-plan) have been collected in a separate cover 
at the end of the volume, and may if desired be severed from 
the Handbook altogether. The subdivision of the Plan of the 
city into three sections distinguished by different colours 
will be found materially to facilitate reference, as it ob- 
viates the necessity of unfolding a large sheet of paper at 
each consultation. 

A short account of the routes from London to Paris, and 
of the principal towns of Northern France, with their magni- 
ficent Gothic churches, will be acceptable to most travellers. 

In the Handbook are enumerated both the first-class 
hotels and those of humbler pretension. The latter may often 
be selected by the 'voyageur en gargon' with little sacrifice 
of real comfort, and considerable saving of expenditure. The 
asterisks indicate those hotels and restaurants which the 
Editor has reason to believe to be provided with the comforts 
and conveniences expected in an up-to-date establishment, 
and also to be well managed and with a reasonable scale of 


charges. Houses of a more modest character, when good of 
their class, are described as 'good' or 'very fair'. At the same 
time the Editor does not doubt that comfortable quarters are 
to be obtained at houses both of the first and second class that 
he has not recommended or even mentioned. It should, how- 
ever, be borne in mind that hotels are liable to constant 
changes, and that the treatment experienced by the traveller 
otten depends on circumstances which can neither be fore- 
seen nor controlled. 

The Editor begs to tender his grateful acknowledgments 
to travellers who have sent him information for the benefit of 
the Handbook, and hopes that they will continue to favour 
him with such communications, especially when the result 
of their own experience. Hotel- bills, with annotations showing 
the traveller's opinion as to his treatment and accommodation, 
are particularly useful. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers is the sole passport to his commendation, 
and that advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded 
from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned against 
persons representing themselves as agents for Baedeker's 


R. = room, route. 

A. = attendance. 
L. = light. 

B. = breakfast. 
D. = dinner. 

dej. = dejeuner (luncheon). 

pens. = pension, i.e. board and lodging. 

rfmts. = refreshments. 

omn. = omnibus. 

carr. = carriage. 

A». = Avenue. 

Boul. = Boulevard. 

fr. = franc. 

c. = centime. 

N. = north, northern, etc. 

S. = south, etc. Also, supper. 

E. = east, etc. 

W. = west, etc. 

M. = Engl. mile. 

r. = right. 

1. = left. 

ft. = En.l. foot. 

kil. = kilometre. 

kg. = kilogramme. 

hr. = hour. 

min. = minute. 

ca. = circa (about). 

comp. = compare. 

The letter d after a name, with a date, indicates the year of the 
person's death. 

Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 



I. Language. Money. Expenses. Season. Passports. 

Custom House xi 

II. Railways xii 

III. Outline of History xiv 

IV. General Remarks on Paris xxii 

V. Weights and Measures xxviii 

VI. Bibliography xxx 

VII. Remarks on Northern France xxxii 

Sketch of French Art, by Dr. Walther Oensel . . . xxxiii 

Preliminary Information. 

1 . Arrival in Paris I 

2. Hotels, Pensions, and Apartments 2 

3. Restaurants 12 

4. Cafe's. Brasseries. Pastry Cooks 21 

5. Baths. Hairdressers. Lavatories, etc 24 

6. Conveyances 25 

7. Railway Stations. Railway Offices and Agents. ... 29 

8. Post and Telegraph Offices. Telephones 31 

9. Theatres. Circuses. Music Halls. Balls 33 

10. Concerts. Art Exhibitions. Sport. Clubs 40 

11. Shops and Bazaars 44 

12. Booksellers. Reading Rooms. Libraries. Newspapers . . SI 

13. Physicians. Dentists. Nursing Homes. Hospitals ... 53 

14. Divine Service 54 

15. Embassies and Consulates. Ministerial Offices. Banks . 56 

16. Distribution of Time. Preliminary Drive. Diary. ... 57 

Eoute Bight Bank of the Seine. 

1 . Place de la Concorde, Jardin des Tuileries, and Champs- 
Elysees 63 

Petit Palais: Muse'e de laVille; Collection Dutuit . . 69 

2. The Boulevards 77 

3. From the Western Boulevards to the Louvre. PlaceVendome 86 

4. Palace and Galleries of the Louvre 02 

A. Ground Floor. — Sculptures: Ancient Sculptures 96. 

— Asiatic Museum 105. — Egyptian Museum 107. — 
Mediaeval and Renaissance Sculptures 108. — Modern 
Sculptures 112. 


Route Page 

B. First Floor. — Picture Gallery: Salle Duchatel 120. 
Salon Carre" 121. Salle des Primitifs Italiens 123. 
Grande Galerie: Italians (continuation) 124. Spanish 
School 127. Flemish School 129. Salle Van Dyck 130. 
Rubens Gallery 131. Smaller Rooms of the Flemish 
and Dutch Schools 132. French Rooms 138. Salle des 
Portraits 141. French Schools of the 18th and 19th 
Centuries 141, 143. — Rotonde d'Apollonl44. Galerie 
d'Apollon 144. Salle des Bijoux 147. — Salle des Sept 
Cheminees 148. Salle Henri II 148. Collection La 
Caze 149. — Ancient Bronzes. Furniture of the 17th 
and 18th Centuries 151. — Collection of Drawings 
153. — Smaller Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern 
Objects of Art 154. — Donation Rothschild 155. — 
Asiatic Antiquities (continuation) 156. Egyptian 
Museum (continuation) 157. — Antique Pottery 159. 

C. Second Floor. — Picture Gallery (continuation). French 
School of the 19th Cent. Thomy-Thie'ry Collection 162. 
— Muse'e de Marine 164. — Ethnographical Museum. 
Chinese Museum 165. — Chalcographie. Collection 
Grandidier. Museum of Decorative Art 166. 

5. From the Louvre to the Place de la Bastille. Hotel deVille 167 

Quartier du Marais, 176. — Musee Carnavalet, 180. 

6. Quarter to the N.E. of the Louvre, as far as the Boulevards 

(Place de la Re'publique) 187 

Halles Centrales, 188. — Quartier du Temple, 194. 

7. From the Louvre and the Palais-Royal to the Boulevard 

Montmartre and the Boulevard des Italiens 195 

Bibliotheque Nationale, 1P5. 

8. Quarters to the N. of the Interior Boulevards 203 

Montmartre, 208. 

9. Western Quarters, to the N. of the Champs-Elyse'es . . . 215 

L,es Batignolles, 217. — Neuilly, 218. 

10. Western Quarters, to the S. of the Champs-Elyse'es . . . 219 

Passy, 228. — Auteuil, 229. 

11. Bois de Boulogne 230 

12. North-Eastern Quarters. Buttes-Chaumont 234 

13. Eastern Quarters. Pere-Lachaise. Faubourg St. Antoine . 237 

14. Vincennes 247 

The Cite and the Left Bank of the Seine. 

15. The Cite" and the He St. Louis 253 

Palais de Justice and Sainte-Chapelle, 255. — Notre-Dame 

16. QuaTtier Latin 263 

Musee de Cluny, 266. — Sorbonne, 274. — Pantheon, 276. 

17. Quartier St. Germain . 282 


Route Page 

18. Hotel des Invalides. Champ-de-Mars 295 

Muse's d'Artillerie and Musee de l'Arme'e, 297, 300. — 
Eglise des Invalides, 301. — Tomb of Napoleon I., 302. — 
Eiffel Tower, 304. 

19. The Luxembourg 306 

20. The Jardin des Plantes 317 

21. The Southern Quarters. The Gobelins. Montparnasse . 321 

Environs of Paris. 

22. From Paris to St. Cloud and Sevres. Meudon 331 

A. By Railway, 331-336. — B. By Steamboat, 336. 

23. From Paris to Versailles 340 

From Versailles to St. Germain-en-Laye, 361. 

24. From Paris to St. Germain-en-Laye 362 

A. By direct railway, 362. — B. By railway via Marly-le- 
Roi, 363. — C. By steam-tramway, 364. 

25. From Paris to St. Denis and Enghien. Montmorency . . 370 

26. From Paris to Pontoise 380 

From Pontoise to Beaumont, 383. 

27. From Paris to Beaurnont-sur-Oise 384 

28. From Paris to Chantilly 386 

From Chantilly to Cre'py-en-Valois via Senlis, 395. - 

29. From Paris to Cre'py-en-Valois via Dammartin .... 396 

30. From Paris to Sceaux 397 

31. From Paris to Chevreuse 400 

32. From Paris to Montlhe'ry 402 

33. From Paris to Verneuil-l'Etang 406 

34. From Paris to Fontainebleau 408 

Routes from London to Paris. 

35. By Folkestone, Boulogne, and Amiens 417 

36. By Dover, Calais, and Amiens 423 

37. By Newhaven, Dieppe, and Rouen 425 

38. By Southampton, Havre, and Rouen 432 

List of Artists 436 

Index 445 

List of Maps and Plans, 
A. Maps. 

1. Bois de Boulogne, p. 231. 

2. Bois de Vincennes, p. 250. 

3. Immediate Environs of Paris, p. 330. 

4. Asnieres, Rueil, and Bougival, p. 332. 

5. Bois de Meudon, p. 335. 

6. St. Cloud and Sevres, p. 336. 

7. Environs of St. Germain-en-Laye, p. 369. 


8. St. Denis and Pontoise, p. 371. 

9. Remoter Environs of Paris, p. 384. 

10. Forest of Chantilly, p. 394. 

11. Clamart, Sceaux, and Villejuif, p. 398. 

12. Forest of Fontainebleau, p. 414. 

13. Railway Map of France, at the end of the book. 

B. Plans. 

1. Key-Plan of Paris. 

2. Plan of Paris in three sections. 

3. Special Plan of Ch amps-Ely s^es and Champ-de-Mars District. 

4. „ „ ,, Champs -Elyse"es, Western Boulevards, and 


5. „ „ ,, Eastern Boulevards and Les Halles. 

6. ., ,, ,, Hotel des Invalides and Palais du Luxem- 

bourg District. 

7. „ ,, ., Cite, Place de la Bastille, and Jardin des 


8. Omnibus, Tramway, and Railway Plan of Paris. 

9. Historical Plan of the Louvre and Tuileries, p. 93. 
10, 11, 12. Galleries of the Louvre, pp. 96, 115, 162. 
13, 14. Musee Carnavalet. pp. 161, 182. 

15. Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, p. 190. 

16. Bibliotheque Nationale, p. 196. 

17. Cemetery of Montmartre, p. 212. 

18. Cemetery of Pere-Lachaise, p. 238. 

19. Palais de Justice, p. 256. 

20. Muse'e de Cluny, p. 266. 

21. Ecole des Beaux-Arts, p. 285. 

22. Hotel des Invalides, p. 296. 

23. Mustfe du Luxembourg, p. 308. 

24. Jardin des Plantes, p. 318. 

25. Town and Park of Versailles, p. 340. 

26. Chateau de Versailles, p. 344. 

27. St. Germain-en-Laye, p. 366. 

28. St. Denis, p. 372. 

29. Enghien. Montmorency, p. 378. 

30. Chateau of Chantilly, p. 388. 

31. Park of Chantilly, p. 394. 

32. Fontainebleau, p. 414. 

33. Boulogne, p. 417. 

34. Amiens, p. 421. 

35. Calais, p. 423. 

36. Dieppe, p. 425. 

37. Rouen, p. 427. 

38. Le Havre, p. 433. 



I. Language. Money. Expenses. Season. Passports. 
Custom House. 

Language. For those who wish to derive instruction as well 
as pleasure from a visit to Paris, the most attractive treasury of 
art and industry in the world, some acquaintance with French is 
indispensable. The metropolis of France, it is true, possesses Eng- 
lish hotels , English professional men , English 'valets de place', 
and English shops ; but the visitor who is dependent upon these is 
necessarily deprived of many opportunities of becoming acquainted 
with the most interesting characteristics of the place. 

Monet. The decimal Monetary System of France is extremely 
convenient in keeping accounts. The Banque de France issues 
Banknotes of 5000, 1000, 500, 200, 100, and 50 francs, and 
these are the only banknotes current in France. The French 
Oold coins are of the value of 100, 50, 40, 20, 10, and 5 francs ; 
Silver coins of 5, 2, 1, and l /; Bronze of 10, 5, 2, and 
1 centime (100 centimes = 1 franc). 'Sou' is the old name, still 
in common use, for 5 centimes; thus, a 5-franc piece is sometimes 
called 'une piece de cent sous', 2 fr. = 40 sous, 1 fr. = 20 sous, 
i/ 2 fr. = 10 sous. Italian, Belgian, Roumanian, and Swiss gold coins 
are also received at their full value, and the Austrian gold pieces 
of 4 and 8 florins are worth exactly 10 and 20 fr. respectively. 
Belgian, Swiss, and Greek silver coins (except Swiss coins with the 
seated figure of Helvetia) are also current at full value ; but Italian 
silver coins, with the exception of 5-lira pieces, should be refused. 
The stranger should also be on his guard against counterfeit silver 
coins, and should refuse obsolete coins such as those with heads of 
Louis Philippe or of Napoleon without the laurel wreath. The only 
foreign copper coins current in France are those of Italy, but others 
are frequently accepted without demur. 

English banknotes, gold, and even silver aTe generally received 
at the full value. The table at the beginning of the book shows the 
comparative value of the French, English, American, and German 
currencies, when at par. The currency of Belgium, Switzerland, 
Italy, and Greece is the same as that of France. 

The traveller should always be provided with small change 
(petite monnaie) , as otherwise he may be put to inconvenience in 
giving gratuities, purchasing catalogues, etc. 

Expbnses. The cost of a visit to Paris depends of course 
on the tastes and habits of the traveller. If he selects a hotel of a 


high class, dines at the table d'hdte, visits the theatres, drives in 
the parks and environs, and finally indulges in suppers a la carte, 
he mast he prepared to spend 30-40 fr. a day or upwards. Those, 
however, who visit Paris for the sake of its monuments, its galleries, 
its collections, and not for its pleasures, will have little difficulty, 
with the aid of the information in the Handbook, in limiting their 
expenditure to 15-20 fr. a day. 

Sbason. Spring and autumn are the best seasons for a visit to 
Paris, the former perhaps deserving the preference as having fewer 
rainy days. The long days of summer are in some respects admir- 
ably adapted for sight-seeing; but the heat is often excessive, and 
the absence after June of a large proportion of the ordinary resi- 
dents deprives the city of one of its most characteristic features. 

Passpoets are now dispensed with in France, but they are often 
useful in proving the traveller's identity, procuring admission to 
museums on days when they are not open to the public, obtaining 
delivery of registered letters, etc. 

Among the principal passport-agents in London are: Buss, 4 Adelaide 
Street, Strand (charge is., including agent's fee) ; C. Smith and Son, 23 Craven 
Street, Charing Cross (inclusive fee is.); Thomas Cook and Son, Lndgate 
Circus (fee 3s. Sd.); and Henry Blacklock and Co. (Bradshaw's Guides, 
fee 5s.). 

Custom House. In order to prevent the risk of unpleasant de- 
tention at the 'douane' or custom-house, travellers are strongly re- 
ciommended to avoid carrying with them any articles that are not 
absolutely necessary. Cigars, tobacco, and matches are chiefly sought 
for by the custom-house officers. The duty on cigars amounts to 
about 138., on tobacco to 6-10s. per lb. Articles liable to duty 
should always be 'declared'. Books and newspapers occasionally 
give rise to suspicion and may in certain cases be confiscated. — 
The octroi is a duty on comestibles levied at the entrance of Paris 
and other large towns, but travellers' luggage is usually passed on 
a simple declaration that it contains none. 

II. Railways. + 

The faTes per English mile are approximately: 1st cl. 18 c, 
2nd cl. 12 c, 3rd cl. 8 c, to which a tax of ten per cent on each 
ticket costing more than 10 fr. is added. Return - tickets (Billets 

t Railway - station , la gare (also Vembarcadire) ; booking-office , le 
guichet or bureau; first, second, or third class ticket, un billet de premiere, 
dt seconde, de troisieme classe; to take a ticket, prendre tin billet; to 
register the luggage , /aire enregistrer les bagagei; luggage-ticket, bulletin 
de bagage; waiting-room, salle d'atlenle; refreshment-room, le buffet (third 
class, la buvette); cloak-room, la consigne; platform, le quai, le trottoir; 
carriage, le wagon; compartment, le compartiment, le eoupi; smoking com- 
partment, fumeurs; ladies' compartment, dames seules; guard, conducteur ; 
porter, facteur; to enter the carriage, monler en wagon; take your seats! 
en voilure! to alight, descendre; to change carriages, changer de voiture; 
express train to Calais, le train express pour Calais, Vexpress de Calais. 


d'aller et retour) are issued by all the railway-companies at a reduc- 
tion of 20-25 per cent; those issued on Sat. and the eves of great 
festivals are available for three days. On some of the suburban lines, 
however, there is no reduction on return-tickets. Tickets are usu- 
ally collected at the 'sortie'. The mail trains ('trains rapides') 
generally convey first-class passengers only, and the express trains 
('trains express'), first-class and second-class only. The carriages 
are inferior to those in most other parts of Europe. The trains aTe 
not always provided with smoking carriages, but in the others 
smoking is allowed unless any one of the passengers objects. 

Before starting, travellers are generally cooped up in the close 
and dusty waiting-rooms, and are not admitted to the platform until 
the train is ready to receive them; nor is any one admitted to the 
platform to take leave of friends without a platform-ticket (10 c.) 
which may be obtained from the ticket-checker or in some cases 
(e.g. at the Gare de Lyon) from an automatic machine. 

Travellers within France are allowed 30 kilogrammes (66 Engl, 
lbs.) of luggage free of charge; those who are bound for foreign 
countries are allowed 25 kilogr. only (55 lbs.); 10 c. is charged 
for booking. At most of the railway-stations there is a consigne, 
or left-luggage office, where a charge of 10 c. per day is made for 
one or two packages, and 5 c. per day for each additional article. 
Where there is no consigne, the employees will generally take care 
of luggage for a trifling fee. The railway-porters (factews) are not 
entitled to remuneration, but it is usual to give a few sous for their 
services. The occasionally extortionate demands of the Parisian 
porters should be firmly resisted. — Dog Tickets cost 30 c. for 20 kilo- 
metres (12 4 /2 M.) or less, and 5 c. for each additional 3 kilometres 
(l 3 /4 M.), with 10 c. for 'registration'. 

Railway Restaurants (usually dear and often poor) are found at the 
principal stations, but the stoppages of the trains are usually so short 
that travellers are advised to carry the necessary provisions with them. 

Sleeping Carriages ( Wagons -lits) and Restaurant Carriages (Wagons- 
restaurants) are run in the chief night and day expresses respectively. 
Dej. 3V2-5, D. H/2-7 fr. (wine extra), according to the line; 2nd cl. on cer- 
tain lines in Normandy, dej. 2«/<, B. 3 J /2 fr- — Pillows and Coverlets may 
be hired at the chief stations (1 fr.). 

The most trustworthy information as to the departure of trains 
is contained in the Indicateur des Chemins de Fer, published weekly 
(85 c). There are also separate and less bulky time-tables for the 
different lines ('Livrets Chaix'): du Nord, de l'Est, de l'Ouest, etc. 
(50 c.) ; and the Livret Chaix des Environs de Paris (40 c). 

Railway time is always that of Paris, but the clocks in the in- 
terior of the stations, by which the trains start, are purposely kept 
five min. slow. Belgian (Greenwich or West Europe) railway time 
is 4 min. behind, and 'Mid Europe' time (for Germany, Switzerland, 
and Italy) 56 min. in advance of French railway time. 

III. Outline of History. 

The history "f Paris throughout is intimately involved with that of 
France; and the following chronological sketch includes the chief historical 
events mentioned in our description of the city. 

At the time of the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar (B. C. 58- 
51), the Parisii were a tribe settled on the banks of the Sequana or 
Seine, and their chief village was Lutetia, situated on the present 
island of La Cite. In course of time Lutetia gradually increased 
in importance and became the occasional residence of several Ro- 
man emperors, among whom were Constantius Chlorus (293-306), 
who built the palace of the Thermae, and Julian the Apostate (361- 
363), who referred to it as his 'dear Lutetia'. Gratian was defeated 
and slain by Maximus in the vicinity (383). 

Christianity was introduced by St. Denis about 250 A.D.; and 
in 360 a council was convened in the town under the name of 
Parisea Civitas, whence the modern name is derived. — In the 
4th cent. France was invaded by the Franks, the Burgundians, and 
Visigoths; the Roman power collapsed; and feudalism began. 

Merovingian Dynasty — Clovis I. (481-511). son of Childeric, 
king of the Kipuarian Franks of Tournai, finally expelled Syagrius, 
son of the last Roman governor, embraced Christianity, and united 
all the Franks under the Merovingian Dynasty, which was so named 
from Meroueus or Merwiy , grandfather of Clovis. This dynasty, 
however, rapidly degenerated, the Frankish kingdom was several 
times divided, and a bitter rivalry arose between Austrasia, the king- 
dom of the E. Franks, and Neustria, that of the W. Franks. The 
descendants of Pepin of Heristal, the chief nobles of Austrasia and 
mayors of the palace in that kingdom and afterwards in Neustria and 
Burgundy also , seized the supreme power. In 732 Charles Mattel 
defeated the Saracens at Poitiers. 

Carlovingian Dynasty. — Pbpin, le Bref (752-768), son of 
Charles Martel, founded the second dynasty, the greatest member 
of which was Charlemagne (768-814). Charlemagne warred suc- 
cessfully against the Saracens, the Longobards, the Saxons, and the 
Avars, and was crowned emperor by the pope in 800. On the death 
of his son Louis I., le Debonaire (814-rt40), his possessions were 
divided by the Treaty of Verdun (843). France fell to Charles II., 
le Chauve (840-877), while Louis the German became king of Ger- 
many, and Loth'iire received Italy, Burgundy, and Lorraine. Charles 
le Chauve was succeeded by Louis II., le B'egue (877-879), Louis III. 
and Carloman (879-8r-2). then by Carloman alone (882-894), all 
of whom proved unable to defend their country against the incur- 
sions of the Normans. Charles III., le Oros, son of Louis the German 
and German emperor, was invited in 884 to succeed Carloman. He, 
however, left the defence of Paris to Count Odo, or Eudes, in whose 
favour he was deposed in 887. Charles III., le Simple f898-923). 
son of Louis le Begue, succeeded Eudes and founded the duchy of 


Normandy, but had to yield his throne to Robert (922-23), brother 
of Eudes, who was followed by his son-in-law Raoul (923-936). The 
last three Carlovingians, Louis IV., d'Outremer (936-954), Lothaire 
(954-986), and Louis V., le Faineant (986-987), were less powerful 
than the Dukes of France, Hugh the Great, son of Robert, and Hugh 

Capetian Dynasty. Hugh Capbt was the founder of the third 
or Capetian Dynasty (987). — Under Robert II., le Pieux (996- 
1031), Henri I. (1031-60), and Philip I. (1060-1108), France 
suffered from internal discord and wars with the dukes of Normandy. 
First Crusade, under Godfrey de Bouillon. 1096. — Louis VI., 
le Gros (1108-1137), encouraged the establishment of 'communes', 
as a check upon the power of the nobles. His minister was Suger, 
Abbot of St. Denis (p. 372). — Louis VII., le Jeune (1137-80), 
takes part in the Second Crusade (1147). His divorced wife, Eleanor 
of Guienne and Poitou, marries Henry Plantagenet. afterwards 
Henry H. of England. — Philip II., Auguste (1180-1223), under- 
takes the Third Crusade, in company with Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 
1189. On his return he attacks the English possessions in France, 
and defeats the English, Flemish, and German troops at Bouvines 
in 1214. — Louis vm., le Lion (1223-26). 

Louis IX., Sit. Louis (1226-70). This reign may be regarded as 
the most flourishing period in the medieval history of France. None 
of the four legitimate estates — king, barons, church, municipalities — 
were unduly strong. Architecture (Gothic style) and poetry flourished. 
Seventh and Eighth Crusades (to Egypt and Tunis). — Philip III., 
le Hardi (1270-86), acquires Provence by inheritance. — Philip IV., 
le Bel (1285-1314), continues the struggle against England, and 
conquers Flanders. Financial difficulties complicated by disputes 
with Pope Boniface VIII., leading to the suppression of the order 
of Knights Templar and the transference of the papal residence to 
Avignon. Public authority ('pouvoir publique') takes the place of 
feudal and ecclesiastical jurisdictions. The Etats Generaux convoked 
for the first time. — Louis X., le Hutin (1314-16). — Philip V., 
le Long (1316-22). — Charles IV., le Bel (1322-28), dies without 

House of Valois. — Philip VI. (1328-50). War with England, 
1337 ('Guerre de Cent Ans', 1337-1453). Battle of Cricy, 1346. 

John II., le Bon (1350-64); defeated and taken prisoner by 
the English at Poitiers, 1356. Etienne Marcel, prev6t des marchands, 
extends the fortifications of Paris and organizes the citizens for its 
defence, but is slain by an adherent of the Dauphin (1358). Peace 
of Bretigny, 1360. 

Charles V., le Sage (1364-80). The English expelled by Bert- 
rand du Guesclin. Foundation of the Bibliotheque Nationale, the 
Bastille, and the Palais des Tournelles. Extension and re-fortifl cation 
of Paris. 

xvi III. HiSIOiii. 

Charles VI. (1380-1422) becomes insane in 1392. The Flemings 
defeated at Roslecque, 1382. Paris, like the rest of France, torn by 
the factions of the Armagnacs. The French under the Constable 
d'AIbret defeated by Henry V. of England at Agincourt, 1415. 
Paris occupied by the English, 1421 . 

Charles VII. (1422-61). The siege of Orleans raised by Joan 
of Arc, 1429. Coronation atRheims. Joan burned at Rouen, 1431. 
Calais the only English possession in France. 

Louis XI. (1461-83), after suppressing the Ligue du Bien Public, 
succeeds in establishing the administrative and territorial unity of 
the country. Burgundy, Franche-Comte", Artois, and Provence are 
added to the French crown. Introduction of printing and establish- 
ment of a post-office. 

^Charles VIII. (1483-98) acquires Brittany by his marriage with 
Anne de Bretagne. Conquest of Naples, 1495. Paris scourged by 
famine and plague. 

Louis XII. (1498-1516), 'le plre du peuple', first king of the 
younger branch of the House of Valois , conqueror of Milan and (in 
alliance with the Spaniards) of Naples. Having quarrelled with his 
Spanish allies, he Is defeated by them on the Oarigliano (1503), in 
a battle in which Bayard takes part. The League of Cambrai is 
formed for the purpose of expelling the Venetians from the main- 
land of Italy. The Venetians are defeated at Agnadello, 1509 ; but 
they succeed in destroying the League, and defeat the French at 
Ravenna, 1512. 

Francis I. (1515-47) , of the second branch of the House of 
Valois, defeats the Swiss at Marignano and recovers the Duchy of 
Milan. Four wars with Charles V. for the possession of Burgundy 
and Milan. Francis defeated and taken prisoner at Pavia, 1525. 
The king was a patron of art and adorned and improved Paris. The 
palace of the Louvre and the Hdtel de Ville were begun in this reign, 
many new buildings erected, churches restored, and fortifications 

Henri II. (1547-59), husband of Catherine de Medicis, accident- 
ally killed at a tournament (p. 186). Metz, Toul, and Verdun 
annexed to France, 1556. Final expulsion of the English. 

Francis II. (1559-60), husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland. 

Charles IX. (1560-74), brother of Francis II. Regency of 
Catherine de Midicis, the king's mother. Beginning of the Religious 
Wars. Louis de Conde", Antoine de Navarre, and Admiral Coligny, 
leaders of the Huguenots ; Francois de Guise and Charles de Lorraine 
command the Roman Catholic army. Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
24th August, 1572. Building of the Tuileries. 

Henri III. (1574-89), brother of his two predecessors; flies 
from Paris, where a rebellion had broken out, by the advice of his 
mother, Catherine de Me'dicis (d. 1588); assassinated at St. Cloud 
by Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar. 


House of Bourbon. — HbnbiIV. (1589-1610), first monarch of 
the House of Bourbon, defeats the Roman Catholic League at Arques 
In 1589 and at Ivry in 1590, becomes a Roman Catholic in 1593, and 
captures Paris in 1594. Sully, his minister. Religious toleration 
granted by the Edict of Nantes (1 598). Henri, divorced from Mar- 
garet of Valois in 1599, marries Marie de Me'dicis the following 
year; assassinated by Ravaillac in 1610. Paris greatly embellished 
during this reign; the Pont Neuf finished and the Louvre enlarged. 

Louis XIII. (1610-43), a feeble monarch, under the regency of 
his mother, Marie de Me'dicis, and the influence of his favourites, 
Concini and De Luynes, until 1624, when Richelieu (d. 1642) be- 
comes minister. English fleet defeated at Re, 1627; La Rochelle 
taken from the Huguenots. France takes part in the Thirty Years' 
War against Austria. The embellishment of Paris continued; new 
bridges, quays, and streets constructed and the Jardin des Planter 

Louis XIV., le Grand (1643-1715), under the regency of his 
mother, Anne of Austria. Ministers : Mazarin (d. 1661) ; Louvois 
(d. 1691), who reorganized the military forces and established the 
standing army; and Colbert (d. 1683), who reformed all branches of 
the administration. Generals: Turenne (d. 1675), Condi (i. 1686), 
Luxembourg (d. 1695). 

War of the Fronde against the court and Mazarin. Condtf 
(Due d'Enghien) defeats the Spaniards at Rocroy in 1643, and at 
Lens in Holland in 1648. Turenne defeats the Bavarians at Nord- 
lingen, 1644. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) assigns Alsace to 
France, with the exception of Strassburg and Montbeliard. Submis- 
sion of the Fronde. Peace of the Pyrenees, with Spain, 1659. Louis 
marries Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV. of Spain, 1660. 

Death of Mazarin, 1661. The king governs alone. After the 
death of his father-in-law Louis lays claim to the Spanish Nether- 
lands. Turenne conquers Hainault and part of Flanders, 1667. 
Condi? occupies the Franehe Comti. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 
consequence of the Triple Alliance, 1668. 

War with Holland, Passage of the Rhine, 1672. Occupation 
of the provinces of Utrecht and Guelderland. Victories of Turenne 
over the Imperial army in Alsace, 1674. Death of Turenne at 
Sassbach, 1675. 

Admiral Duquesne defeats the Dutch fleet near Syracuse, 1676. 
Marshal Luxembourg defeats William of Orange at Montcassel, 1677. 
Peace of Nymwegen, 1687. Strassburg occupied, 1681. Occupation 
of Luxembourg. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685. Devast- 
ation of the Palatinate, 1688. Marshal Luxembourg defeats the 
Imperial troops at Fleurus (1690) and Steenkerke (1692), and Wil- 
liam of Orange at Neerwinden, 1693. Catinat defeats the Duke of 
Savoy at Marsaglia, 1693. The French fleet under Admiral Tourville 
defeated bythe English ztLaHogue, 1692. Peace of Ryswyck, 1697. 

Baede kks. Paris, tftth Edit. D 

xviii m. HISTORY. 

Spanish war of succession, 1701-14. Victory of Vendome at 
Vittoria (1702), and of Tallard at Speyer (1702). Taking of Lan- 
dau, 1702. Victory at Hochstadt (1703) ; defeat at Hochstadt , or 
Blenheim (1704), by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene 
of Savoy. Marshal Villars defeated by Prince Eugene at Turin 
(1706), and by Marlborough and the Prince at Ramillies (1709), 
Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet (1709). Peace of Utrecht, 
1713. Peace of Rastadt, 1714. 

Louis XIV. pushed the doctrine of absolute power to extremes, 
but at the same time endeavoured to justify his theories by the 
exact discharge of his kingly duties. He aimed at conferring a 
homogeneous administration upon France and at distributing the 
burden of taxation more justly, and favoured industry and commerce, 
thus laying the foundations of the future prosperity of the country. 
Le Brun, the painter, to whom was entrusted the decoration of the 
royal palaces, was as absolute in the domain of art as the king was 
in that of government. The Academies des Beaux-Arts, des Inscrip- 
tions, and des Sciences were founded in this reign, in which also 
French literature attained its zenith : Corneille, Racine, Moliere, La 
Fontaine, Boileau, Bossuet, Fenelon, Descartes, Pascal, La Bruyere. 
Mme. de Sevigne, etc. — More than eighty streets and thirty-three 
churches were added to Paris ; the Hotel des Invalides, the Obser- 
vatory, and the Colonnade of the Louvre were completed; the College 
Mazarin, the Gobelins, and several triumphal arches were begun, and 
the fortifications were converted into boulevards. The Palace of 
Versailles enlarged. 

Louis XV. (1715-74) ; eight years' regency of the Duke of Or- 
leans. Manies Marie Lesczinska of Poland (1725). The king took 
no interest in public affairs, but abandoned himself to a life of 
pleasure. After the regency France was governed successively by the 
Due de Bourbon (1723-26), Cardinal Fleury (1726-43), the minions 
of Mme. de Pompadour (1745-62), the king's mistress, the Due de 
Choiseul (1758-62), and the creatures of Mme. Dubarry, another 
royal mistress. Austrian War of Succession (1741-48). Defeat at 
Dettingen by George II. of England (1743). Defeat of the Dutch and 
English at Fontenoy (1746), of the Austrians under Charles of Lor- 
raine at Rocoux (1746), and of the Allies near Laeffelt (Lawfeld) 
in 1747. Taking of Maastricht and Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748. 
Naval war against England. 

Seven years' war with England (1756-63). Duke of Cumberland 
defeated by Marshal d'Estrees, 1757. The French under Prince de 
Soubise defeated the same year by Frederick the Great at Ross- 
bach, and in 1758 at Crefeld, by the Duke of Brunswick. The 
French defeated at Minden (1759). The French defeated by Marshal 
Broglie at Bergen, 1760. — French possessions in N. America sur- 
rendered at the Peace of Paris, 1763. — Acquisition of Lorraine 
(1766) and Corsica (1768). — From this reign date the Panthedn, 


the Eeole Militaire, the Palais Bourbon, the Afmf, and other impor- 
tant buildings ; and. the Jardin des Plantes was extended. — Voltaire, 
Rousseau, and Diderot the most influential writers. 

Louis XVI. (1774-93), married to Marie Antoinette, daughter 
of Francis I. and Maria Theresa, 1770. American "War of In- 
dependence against England, 1777-83. Exhaustion of the finances 
of France; Vergennes, Turgot, Necker, de Calonne , de Brienne, 
and Necker (a second time), ministers of finance. 

1789. Revolution. Assembly of the States General at Ver- 
sailles, 5th May. Their transformation into a National Assembly, 
17th June. Oath of the Jeu de Paume (p. 342), 20th June. 
National GuaTd established, 13th July. Storming of the Bastille, 
14th July. The 'Femmes de la Halle' at Versailles, 5th Oct. Con- 
fiscation of ecclesiastical property, 2nd Nov. 

1790. Fete de la Fe"dd*ration in the Champ-de-Mars (p. 304). 

1791. The Emigration. The royal family escapes from Paris, but 
is intercepted at Varennes, 22nd June. Oath to observe the Con- 
stitution, 14th Sept. Assemblee Legislative. 

1792. "War with Austria, 20th April. Storming of the Tuileries, 
10th Aug. The king arrested, 11th Aug. Massacres in Sept. 
Cannonade of Valmy against the Prussians, 20th Sept. The Na- 
tional Convention opened, and royalty abolished, 21st Sept. 

First Republic proclaimed, 25th Sept. Custine enters Mayenee, 
21st Oct. Battle of Jemappes against the Austrians, 6th Nov. Con- 
quest of Belgium. 

1793. Louis XVI. beheaded , 21st Jan. Republican reckoning 
of time introduced, 22nd Sept. t . Reign of Terror. The queen 
beheaded, 16th Oct. Worship of Reason introduced , 10th Nov. 

1794. Robespierre's fall and execution, 27th July (9th Ther- 

1795. Conquest of Holland by Pichegru. Bonaparte commander 
of the troops of the Convention against the Royalists, 4th Oct. 
(13th Vendemiaire). Dikbctosy established, 27th Oct. 

1796. Bonaparte's successes in Italy (Montenotte, Millesimo, 
Lodi, Milan, Mantua, Castiglione, Bassano, and Arcole). French 

+ The year had 12 months : Vendemiaire (month of the vendange, 
or vintage) from 22nd Sept. to 21st Oct., Brumaire (brume, fog) 22nd Oct. 
to 20th Nov., and Frimaire (frimas, hoar-frost) 21st Nov. to 20th Dec, were 
the three autumn-months; — Nivose (neige , snow) 21st Dec. to 19th Jan., 
Pluviose (pluie, rain) 20th Jan. to 18th Feb., and Ventose (vent, wind) 
19th Feb. to 20th March, winter - months ; — Germinal (germe, germ), 
21st March to 19th April , Flor^al (ffeur , flower) 20th April to 19th May, 
and Prairial (prairie, meadow) 20th May to 18th June, spring-months; — 
Messidor (moisson, harvest) 19th June to 18th July, Thermidor (therme, 
warmth) 19th July to 17th Aug., and Fructidor {fruit, fruit) 18th Aug. to 
16th Sept., summer months. — Each month had 30 days, and consisted of 
3 decades, weeks being abolished. At the close of the year there were 
5 jours compUmmtaires , 17th to 21st Sept. — The republican calendar 
was discontinued by a decree of 9th Sept., 1805. 



armies repulsed in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Return of 
Bonaparte to France. 

1797. Victory at Rivoli, 14th Jan. Taking of Mantua, 2nd 
Feb. The Anstrians commanded by Archduke Charles, at first 
victorious, are defeated by Bonaparte. Peace of Campo Formio, 
17th Oct. Change in the Directory on 18th Fructidor (4th Sept.). 

1798. Bonaparte in Egypt. Victory of the Pyramids, 21st July. 
Defeated by Nelson at the battle of the Nile , 1st Aug. 

1799. Bonaparte invades Syria. Acre attacked. Victory of 
Aboukir, 25th July. Fall of the Directory, 9th Nov. (18th Brumaire). 
Establishment of the Consulate, 24th Dec. Bonaparte First Consul. 

1800. Bonaparte's passage of the St. Bernard, 13-16th May. 
Victories at Piacenza, Montebello, Marengo, and Hohenlinden. At- 
tempt to assassinate Napoleon at Paris, 23rd Dec. 

1801. Peace of Luneville wi th Germany, 9th Feb. Concordat, 
17th July. 

1802. Peace of Amiens with England, 27th March. Bonaparte 
(with Cambace'res and Lebrun) elected Consul for life, 2nd Aug. 

First Empire. 1804. Napoleon I. proclaimed emperor by the 
Senate, 18th May ; crowned at Notre-Dame by Pope Pius VII., 2nd 

1805. Renewal of war with Austria. Capitulation of Vim, 17th 
Oct. Defeat of Trafalgar, 21st Oct. Battle of Austerlitz, 2nd Dec. 
Peace of Pressburg, 26th Dec. 

1806. Establishment of the Rhenish Confederation, 12th July. 
War with Prussia. Battles of Jena and Auerstddt, 14th Oct. Entry 
into Berlin, 27th Oct. Continental blockade. 

1807. War with Russia and Prussia. Battles of Eylau and Fried- 
land. Treaty of Tilsit, 8th July. Occupation of Lisbon, 30th Nov. 

1808. War in Spain, in order to maintain Joseph Bonaparte on 
the throne. Code Napoleon. 

1809. Conquest of Saragossa. Renewed war with Austria. 
Battle of Eckmuhl. Vienna entered, 13th May. Battles of Aspern, 
or Essling, and Wagram. Peace of Vienna, 14th Oct. Abolition of 
the temporal power of the pope. 

1810. Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise , daughter of 
Francis II. of Austria, 11th March. Napoleon at his zenith. 

1812. Renewed war with Russia. Battles of Smolensk and Bo- 
rodino. Moscow entered, 15th Sept. Retreat begun, 19th Oct. 
Passage of the Beresina. — Wellington's victory at Salamanca. 

1813. Battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Orossbeeren, Dresden, Katz- 
bach, Kulm, Leipzig (16-18th Oct), Hanau, etc. 

1814. Battles of Brienne, La Rothiere, Montmirail, Laon, Arcis- 
sur-Aube, and Paris. The Allies enter Paris, 31st March. Abdica- 
tion of the Emperor, 11th April. His arrival at Elba, 4th May. 

The frightful scenes of devastation enacted during the Revolu- 
tion, especially in 1793, were at least beneficial in sweeping away ■ 


the overgrown conventual establishments, which occupied the best 
sites and one-third of the area of the city. The Musee of the Louvre 
was founded under the Directory, while extensive improvements in 
Paris were undertaken under Napoleon (p. xxvi). 

Restoration. 1814. Louis XVIII. (1814-24) proclaimed king, 
6th April. First Peace of Paris, 30th May. 

1815. Napoleon's return from Elba; at Cannes on 1st, and at 
Paris on 20th March. Battles of Ligny and Waterloo, 16th and 
18th June. Second entrance of the Allies into Paris, 7th July. 
Second Peace of Paris, 20th Nov. Napoleon banished to St. Helena, 
where he dies (5th May, 1821). 

1823. Spanish campaign, to aid Ferdinand VII. , under the 
Due d'Angouleme, son of Charles X. 

1824. Chables X. (1824-30). 

1830. Conquest of Algiers. — Ordinances of St. Cloud (25th 
July), abolishing the liberty of the press and dissolving the chamber. 
Revolution of July (27th-29th). Fall of the Bourbons. 

House of Orleans. 1830. Louis Philippe (1830-48), son of 
the Due d'Orleans (Egalite - ), elected king, 7th Aug. Continued war 
in Africa ; consolidation of the French colony of Algeria. 

1832. Capture of Antwerp. 

1835. Fieschi's attempt ou the life of the king, who had failed 
to satisfy the demands of the democratic party. 

1840. Body of Napoleon transferred from St. Helena to Paris. 

1848. Revolution op Febbuaby (23rd and 24th). 

Second Republic. 1848. Sanguinary conflicts in Paris, 23rd to 
26th June. Louis Napoleon, son of the former King of Holland 
and nephew of Napoleon I., elected President, 10th Dec. 

1851. Dissolution of the Assemble'e. Coup d'Etat, 2nd Dec. 

Second Empire. 1852. Napoleon III. (1852-70), elected em- 
peror by plebiscite, 2nd Deo. 

1853. Marriage of Napoleon III. with Eugenie, Countess of Mon- 
tijo (b. at Granada in 1826). — The wholesale transformation of 
Paris begun. 

1854. War with Russia. Crimean campaign. — 1855. First 
Universal Exhibition at Paris. — 1856. Peace of Paris, 30th March. 
— 1859. War with Austria. Battles of Magenta (4th June) and 
Solferino (24th June). Peace of Villafranca, 11th July. — 1860. 
Nice and Savoy added to France. Expeditions to China and Syria. 
— 1862. Mexican expedition. — 1867. Dispute with Prussia about 
Luxembourg. Second Universal Exhibition. 

1870. War with Prussia. Declaration of war, 19th July. Battles 
in August : Weissenburg (4th), Worth (6th), Spichern (6th), Borny, 
Rezonville, and Gravelotte (14th , 16th, 18th), Beaumont (30th). 
Battle of Sedan, 1st Sept. Surrender of Napoleon HI. 

Third Republic proclaimed, 4th Sept. Capitulation of Strassburg, 
27th Sept., and of Afete, 27th Oct. Battles near Orleans, 2nd-4thDec. 

xxii m. HISTORY. 

1871. Battle of St. Quentin, 19th Jan. Capitulation of Paris, 
28th Jan. The Germans enter Paris, 1st March. 

Communakd Insurbection, 18th MaTch. Seat of government 
removed to Versailles , 20th March. Second siege of Paris, 2nd 
April. — 21st May. Upwards of 238 public and other edifices -were 
destroyed by the Communards. — Peace of Frankfort, 10th May. 
— Thiers, chief of the executive since 17th Feb., appointed Presi- 
dent of the Republic, 31st August. 

1873. Death of Napoleon III., 9th Jan. — Marshal Macmahon 
appointed president instead of M. Thiers, 14th May. Final evac- 
uation of France by the German troops, 16th Sept. — Macmahon's 
tenure of the presidency fixed at seven years, 20th Nov. 

1875. Republican Constitution finally adjusted, 25th Feb. 

1877. Reactionary ministry of May 16th (Broglie-Fourtou). — 
1878. Third Universal Exhibition. 

1879. Jules Grevy becomes president in place of Marshal Mac- 
mahon. The Chambers of the Legislature return to Paris. 

1881. Expedition to Tunis. — 1882-85. Expeditions to Ton- 
quin and Madagascar. — 1885. Peace with China, 9th June. Peace 
with Madagascar, 17th Dec. — 1887. Sadi Carnot becomes pre- 
sident in place of M. Gre"vy, 3rd Dec. — 1889. Fourth Universal 
Exhibition. — 1894. Assassination of President Carnot, by the 
Italian Caserio, 24th June. J. Casimir Perier elected president two 
days later. — 1895. Resignation of Casimir Perier and election of 
Felix Faure to the presidency, Jan. 15th and 17th. Expedition 
to Madagascar and annexation of that island. — 1896. Nicholas II., 
Czar of Russia, visits Paris. — 1897. The president visits St. 
Petersburg. — 1899. Death of M. Faure (Feb. 17th). M. Emile 
Loubet succeeds him (Feb. 18th). Dreyfus Trial. — 1900. Fifth 
Universal Exhibition. — 1901. Nicholas II. revisits France. — 1902. 
M. Loubet visits St. Petersburg. — 1903. Edward VII. of England 
visits Paris. M. Loubet visits London. 

IV. General Remarks on Paris. 

Paris, the capital and by far the largest town of France, is situ- 
ated in 48° 50' N. lat. and 2° 20' E. long, on the Seine, which flows 
through it from S.E. to S."W., after receiving its principal affluent, 
the Marne, just above the city. The height of Paris above the sea- 
level varies from 80 ft. at Grenelle, to 420 ft. at Montmartre. The 
city covers an area of about 20,000 acres, of which 1760 are occu- 
pied by the river. As early as the beginning of the 13th cent, the 
population was nearly 200,000; in 1675, under Louis XIV., it 
reached 540,000; in 1789 it was 600,000; in 1821, 763,000; in 
1836, 868,000; in 1852, 1,053,262; in 1860, after the inclusion 
of the faubourgs, 1,525,255; in 1870, 1,825,274; and in 1896, 
2,536,834. The last census (1901) showed a population of 2,714,068, 


including about 250,000 foreigners. If we add the population of 
environs practically, though not officially, forming part of the cap- 
ital, we find that Paris is really a community of nearly 3 million 

The part of the Seine within the city is about 7 M. long and is 
crossed by 31 bridges. It contains two islands of some size, the lie 
St. Louis and the He de la Cite, each formed by the union of several 
islets. Paris is thus naturally divided into three parts ; the quarters 
on the right bank, the Cite with the island of St. Louis, and the 
quarters on the left bank. The old distinctions between Old Paris, 
the Faubourgs, and the Communes Annexe"es have entirely dis- 
appeared, and the only sensible difference between the various 
districts now consists in the greater traffic observable in the central 
quarters. A glance at the Plan will show the limits of Old Paris, 
bounded by the first circle of boulevards, the so-called Grands 
Boulevards (p. 78). It should be noted, however, that on the left 
bank the old city of Paris extended as far as the boulevards to the 
S. of the garden of the Luxembourg. Outside the Great Boulevards 
lie the Old Fauboubgs or suburbs, the names of which are still 
preserved in those of the chief streets radiating from the centre 
of the city, and extending to the Outer Boulevards (Boulevards 
Exterieurs, p. 78). The Faubourgs themselves are generally named 
after the corresponding district of the old town. The most important 
on the right bank, named from E. to W., are the Faubourgs St. 
Antoine, du Temple, St. Martin, St. Denis, Poissonniere, Mont- 
martre, and St. Honore. Those on the left bank are less known, 
with the exception of the Faubourg St. Oermain, which from an 
early period formed part of the old. city. The Faubourgs of St. 
Antoine and the Temple are the great industrial districts, the former 
being the headquarters of the manufacture of furniture, and the 
latter of the various fancy articles classed together as 'articles de 
Paris' (real and imitation jewellery, artificial flowers, toys, articles 
in leather and carved wood, etc.). The Faubourgs of St. Martin, 
St. Denis, and Poissonniere are rather commercial than infihstrial, 
and form the centre of the wholesale and export trade of the great 
capital. The streets near the centre of the town, however, partic- 
ularly the Great Boulevards,. contain many of the finest Tetail shops 
in Paris. The Faubourg Montmartre and the quarters of the Ex- 
change, the Palais-Royal, and the Ope"ra are the financial quarters 
of the town, and also contain nearly all that is necessary for the 
comfort and entertainment of visitors to Paris. The Faubourg St. 
Honore" and the Champs-Elyse'es are occupied by the mansions of 
the aristocracy of wealth, while the Faubourg St. Germain is more 
or less sacred to the aristocracy of blood, and contains most of the 
embassies and ministerial offices. The Quartier Latin or Quartitr 
des Ecoles, which adjoins the Faubourg St. Germain on the E., 
owes its name to the fact of its being the seat of the university and 


of many of the scientific institutions of Paris. It also contains sev- 
eral of the chief libraries. 

The principal Communbs Annexbbs, or outlying districts within 
the fortifications, but not incorporated with the city till 1860, are 
the following, enumerated from E. to W. : Bercy, carrying on an ex- 
tensive wine and export trade; Charonne, Menilmontant, Belleville, 
La Villette, La Chapelle, and Montmartre, the principal quarters of 
the working classes and the seat of the largest workshops ; Les Ba- 
tignolles, with the studios of numerous artists and many handsome 
private houses (on the side next the Park of Monceau); Passy and 
Auteuil, with their villas ; Orenclle, with iron foundries and chemical 
works ; Vaugirard, Montrouge, etc. , inhabited by persons of moderate 
means, small shopkeepers, and artisans, and containing numerous 
large market-gardens. 

The Administration of Paris is shared between a Prefect of tin 
Seine, appointed by government, and a Town Council (Conseil Mu- 
nicipal), elected by the citizens. The annual budget amounts to 
350,000,000 fr. (upwards of 10,000,000*.). The city is subdivided 
into twenty Arrondissbmbnts, separated from each other by the 
principal arteries of traffic, and each governed by a Maire and two 
councillors: 1. Louvre; 2. Bourse; 3. Temple ; 4. Hotel de Ville ; 
5. Pantheon ; 6. Luxembourg ; 7. Palais - Bourbon ; 8. Elysee ; 
9. Opera; 10. Enclos St. Laurent; 11. Popincourt; 12. Reuilly; 
13. Les Oobelins ; 14. Observatoire ; 15. Vaugirard; 16. Passy; 
17. Les Batignolles-Monceaux ; 18. Montmartre ; 19. Les Buttes- 
Chaumont ; 20. Menilmontant. 

The Fortifications of Paris, constructed in 1840-44, were 
greatly extended after 1871. The inner Enceinte is 21 M. in length, 
and is strengthened by bastions, a moat, and a glacis. A series of 
seventeen Forts Detaches, at different distances from the city, up to 
a maximum of 2 M. , forms a second enceinte, while a second line 
of forts, at a greater distance from the ramparts, has also been con- 
structed on the heights commanding the valley of the Seine. The area 
includod within this elaborate system of fortifications is 400 sq. M. 
in extent, and besides the capital itself embraces the seven towns 
of Versailles, Sceaux, Villeneuve-St-Georges, St. Denis, Argenteuil, 
Enghien, and St. Germain-en-Laye. — The garrison of Paris consists 
of 40 regiments of infantry, 12 of cavalry, and 5 of artillery. 

As a rule the Parisian may be said to invite and deserve the 
confidence of travellers. Accustomed by long usage to their pre- 
sence, he is skilful in catering for their wants, and recommends 
himself to them by his politeness and complaisance. In return the 
traveller in France should accustom himself to the inevitable 's'il 
vous plait', when ordering refreshments at a cafe" or restaurant, or 
making any request. It is also customary to address persons even of 
humble station as 'Monsieur, 'Madame', or 'Mademoiselle'. 


The Sergents de Ville, or Gardiens de la Paix, who are to be 
met with in every street and public resort, are always ready to 
give information when civilly questioned. Visitors should avoid the 
less frequented districts after night-fall, and, as a general rule, it is 
not advisable to linger even in other quarters later than 1 a.m. They 
should also be on their guard against the huge army of pickpockets 
and other rogues, who are quick to recognize the stranger and skilful 
in taking advantage of his ignorance. It is perhaps unnecessary 
specially to mention the card-sharpers sometimes met with in the 
suburban and other trains, or the various other dangers to purse and 
health which the French metropolis shares with other large towns. 

The Parisian directory, published annually, and familiarly known 
as the i Bottin\ which may be consulted at the principal hotels and 
cafes and also (for a fee of 10-15 c.) at various book-shops, will often 
be found useful by those who make a prolonged stay at Paris. It con- 
sists of two huge volumes, one of which contains a list of the streets 
and their inhabitants , while the other gives the addresses of the 
most important persons in the provinces, and even of a number of 
persons in foreign countries. 

All strangers intending to settle in Paris must make a Declaration of 
their intention, with proof of their identity, within fifteen days, at the 
Prefecture de Police, a6 Quai des Orfevres (Palais de Justice), between 
10 and 4. Foreigners who intend to practise any trade, business, or pro- 
fession in Paris or other part of France must also make a declaration to 
that effect within a week. 

Paris, l la Ville-Lumiere', is not only the political metropolis of 
France, but also the centre of the artistic, scientific, commercial, 
and industrial life of the nation. Almost every branch of French 
industry is represented here, from the fine-art handicrafts to the 
construction of powerful machinery ; but Paris is specially known 
for its 'articles de luxe' of all kinds. 

Paris has long enjoyed the reputation of being the most cosmo- 
politan city in Europe, where the artist, the scholar, the merchant, 
and the votary of pleasure alike find the most abundant scope for 
their pursuits. Nor does this boast apply to modern times only; as 
early as the 12th cent, the 'Twelve Masters of Paris' played in 
mediaeval poetry a r61e analogous to that of the Seven Sages in ancient 
Greece. For its early cosmopolitan character the city was chiefly 
indebted to its University, to which students of all nationalities 
flocked in order to be initiated into the mysteries of the scholasticism 
which was taught here by its most accomplished professors. At the 
same time industrial and commercial pursuits made rapid strides, 
in consequence of which the population increased rapidly, and an 
extension of the municipal boundaries was repeatedly rendered ne- 
cessary. The early economic development of Paris is farther attested 
by the great 'Foire du Lendit', which was held each June in the 
plain between Paris and St. Denis, and by the famous 'Livre des 


Metiers', or trades-regulations, edited by Etienne Boyleau in 1258. 
Of the great buildings of that period little now remains but a few 
religious edifices (Notre- Dame, Ste. Chapelle, Tour St. Jacques). 
Towards the close of the middle ages the adverse fortunes of the 
French kings frequently compelled them to give up their residence 
in the capital ; but the municipal element continued all the more 
steadily to develop itself, and, as the preponderating characteristic, 
gave birth to that 'esprit parisien', which found expression in French 

For a brief period, with the beginning of the Renaissance at the 
end of the 15th cent., the arts threatened to desert Paris; numerous 
lordly chateaux were built in the provinces, especially in Touraine. 
But by the middle of the 16th cent, the capital had already regained 
all its prestige in this domain. The Louvre, the Tuileries, and the 
Hdtel de Ville, the three master-pieces of the second Renaissance and 
the centres of political life, date from this period, as do also the Palais 
du Luxembourg and the Palais- Cardinal (the present Palais-Royal). 

The zenith of the monarchy under Louis XIV. (p. xvii) was natur- 
ally favourable to the extension and embellishment of the capital. If 
the king was in a position to say 'l'Etat c'est moi', Paris no less truly 
absorbed all the vital forces of the nation. Many of the most charac- 
teristic monuments of Paris date from this reign, including the Colon- 
nade of the Louvre, the Place Vendome, the Hotel des Invalides, and 
upwards of thirty churches. Characteristic of this period also are the 
great 'hotels' or mansions of the nobility, which proudly stand back 
from the streets and transport into the very heart of the city some of 
the majestic isolation of a country-seat. Aiming at no exterior effect, 
but all the more sumptuous and luxurious within, they stand in ab- 
solute contrast with the Italian palazzi (e.g. Hotel Lambert, p. 262). 
— The Pantheon and the Palais-Bourbon are among the chief build- 
ings of the 18th century. 

During the Revolution and the period immediately succeeding 
it (1789-1804) the unquestioned predominance of Paris, received a 
temporary check from the political disorganisation of the day ; but 
under the Dibectoky (1795), and particularly during the Fiest 
Empire (1804-14), the city speedily regained its pre-eminence. The 
artistic and other booty of the Napoleonic campaigns was devoted to 
the embellishment of the capital, while the emperor sought to distract 
the restless political spirit of the Parisians by a feverish activity in 
the construction of public edifices. He began the N. wing uniting 
the Louvre and the Tuileries, laid out the Rue de Rivoli, and built the 
Bourse. Under his orders new squares, bridges, and quays were every- 
where begun, though most of them were left unfinished. 

During the somewhat inglorious period of the Restoration 
(1814-30), Paris enjoyed a golden era of prosperity. France had 
entered upon the enjoyment of the rich heritage of glory bequeathed 
by the Revolution and the First Empire, without feeling the heavy 


sacrifices that it had cost. The blessings of peace appeared doubly 
desirable after their long absence. At this epoch liberal politicians 
achieved their greatest triumphs, French literature and art used their 
utmost endeavours to resume their world-wide sway, and French 
society exhibited itself in its most refined and amiable aspect. In 
more than one of the sciences, Paris led the way. 

The July Monahchy (1830-48) continued the same general 
course, though with less success. Louis-Philippe resumed with new 
ardour the completion of the modern Paris begun by Napoleon. Over 
100 million francs were spent in his reign on new streets, churches, 
public buildings, bridges, sewers, squares, etc. 

But under Napoleon III. (President of .the Republic in 1848, 
Emperor 1852 - 70) , Paris underwent a transformation on a scale 
of magnificence hitherto unparalleled. Napoleon appointed Georges 
Eugene Haussmann (1809-91) to be Prefect of the Seine, and under 
his directions dense masses of houses and numbers of tortuous streets 
were replaced by broad boulevards, spacious squares, and palatial 
edifices. A beginning was made with the great arteries of traffic 
running N. and S. : the Boulevards de Strasbourg and de Sebastopol 
(p. 84) on the right bank, and the Boulevards du Palais (p. 255) 
and St. Michel (p. 263) in the He de la Cite and on the left bank. 
These were followed by the Boulevards Haussmann (p. 215) and 
de Magenta (p. 85) on the right bank, the Boul. St. Germain (p. 293) 
on the left bank, the prolongations of the Rues de Rivoli (p. 167), 
de Turbigo, de Lafayette, etc., and the laying out of the magnificent 
quarter around the park of the Champs-Elysees. The Louvre (p. 92) 
and the Bibliotheque Nationale (p. 195) were enlarged; the Holies 
Centrales (p. 188) and the Tribunal de Commerce (p. 258) were built ; 
and the Opera (p. 79) was begun. Haussmann was ably seconded 
by the engineer Ad. Alphand (1817-91), who was entrusted with the 
care of the parks and public promenades. To Alphand's skill are due 
the laying out of the Bois de Boulogne (p. 230), the Bois de Vin- 
cennes (p. 250), the Pare Monceau (p. 217), the Buttes-Chaumont 
(p. 235), and many of the square-gardens. 

The enormous municipal debt incurred by these extensive altera- 
tions was farther increased by the war of 1870-71 and by the excesses 
of the Commune. This sufficiently accounts for the slackened activity 
under the Third Republic. Yet Paris was not content with ad- 
equately completing works already begun, such as the Opera; import- 
ant new streets were laid out, the Hotel de Ville (p. 169) was rebuilt 
on an enlarged scale, and the Palais du Trocadero (p. 225), the new 
Sorbonne (p. 274), and many educational structures were erected. 
The Pare de Montsouris (p. 329), many new squares, and the im- 
portant undertaking of the Metropolitain (p. 28) also date from this 
period. Finally, the public parks and gardens have been converted 
into a kind of museum of modern art, by the erection in them of the 
Sculptures purchased by the city at the annual exhibitions (p. 41). 



Modem Paris has been criticised for the uniformity of its general 
appearance. But the truth is that the more closely the city is studied 
the more striking becomes its extraordinary variety. Some quarters, 
with their sombre and deserted palaces, are vaguely reminiscent of 
old Italian towns; others are noisy and gay with an outdoor life 
recalling the sunny south; while others again (e.g. Rue de Venise, 
Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, etc.), picturesque or gloomy, transport us 
back to the middle ages. The Seine, with its flotilla of merchant 
ships and barges, conveys, especially after dark, the impression of a 
sea-port. The boulevards at night, with their electric lights and bril- 
liant illuminations, suggest a city of pleasure, always en fete. And the 
charming environs, with the woods of Boulogne, Vincennes, Meudon, 
and Montmorency, add a final touch to the variety that is one of the 
charms of the seductive capital, which no one quits without regret. 

The beauty of Paris has been celebrated by French writers of all 
ages and by many foreigners. We finish by quoting Montaigne, whose 
quaint and picturesque language is thus translated by John Florio : 
'Paris hath my hart from my infancy, whereof it hath befalne me as 
of excellent things : the more other faire and stately cities I have seene 
since, the more Mr beauty hath power and doth still usurpingly gaine 
upon my affection. I love her so tenderly, that even Mr spotts, her 
blemishes, and Mr warts are deare unto me'. 

Weights and Measures. 

(In use since 1799.) 




































































































































































































































































7 '?i 





























The English equivalents of the French weights and measures 
are given approximately. 

Millier = 1000 kilogrammes = 19 cwt. 2 qrs. 22 lbs. 6 oz. 
Kilogramme, unit of weight, = 2 i / 5 lbs. avoirdupois = 

27/ 10 lbs. troy. 
Quintal = 10 myriagrammes = 100 kilogrammes = 220 lbs. 
Hectogramme (Yio kilogramme) = 10 decagrammes = 100 gr. 
= 1000 decigrammes. (100 grammes = 3 l / 5 oz.; 15 gr. 
= 1/2 oz. ; 10 gr. = 1/3 oz. ; 71/2 gr- = l /« oz.) 

Hectolitre = i/ 10 cubic metre = 100 litres = 22 gallons. 
Decalitre = l / i oo cubic metre = 10 litres = 2 l / 5 gals. 
Litre, unit of capacity, = l 3 / 4 pint; 8 litres = 7 quarts. 

Thermometric Scales. 






















1— 1 























































































































































































































































3 33 














VI. Bibliography. 

The following is a very brief list of recent and easily accessible 
English books on Paris, which will be found useful supplements 
to this Handbook. 

The Stones of Paris in History and Letters, by B. E. and C. M. 
Martin (2 vols., illustrated; London, 1900). 

Historical Guide to Paris, by Grant Allen (London, 1898). 

Paris, by Augustus J. C. Hare (2 vols. ; 2nd ed., London, 1900). 

Days near Paris, by Aug. J. C. Hare (London, 1887). 

Memorable Paris Houses, by Wilmot Harrison (illus. ; London, 

An Englishman in Paris (London, 1892). 

Some Memories of Paris, by F. Adolphus (Edinburgh, 1895). 

Paris, by Hilaire Belloc (London, 1900/ 

The Life of Paris, by Richard Whiteing (London, 1900). 

Were and How to Dine in Paris, by Rowland Strong (London, 1900). 

Old and New Paris, by H. Sutherland Edwards (2 vols. ; illus. ; 
London, 1893). 

Paris in Old and Present Times, by Philip Oilbert Hamerton (folio, 
illus. ; London, 1885). 

The Manual of French Law, by H. Cleveland Coxe, is an alpha- 
betical handbook to French law as it affects foreigners. 

The 'Annuaire Statistique do la Ville de Paris' and 'Hachette's 
Almanac' will often be found of service. 

VII. Remarks on Northern France. 

The majority of visitors to Paris will find comparatively little to 
interest them in the provinces of Northern France. The scenery is 
seldom so attractive as to induce a prolonged stay, while the 
towns are mere repetitions of the metropolis on a small scale. 
The modern taste for improvement , 'which has been so strongly 
developed and so magnificently gratified in Paris, has also mani- 
fested itself in the provincial towns. Broad and straight streets 
with attractive shop -windows are rapidly superseding old and 
crooked lanes ; whole quarters of towns are being demolished, and 
large, regular squares taking their place ; while the ramparts of 
ancient fortifications have been converted into boulevards, faintly 
resembling those at Paris. Admirably adapted as these utilitarian 
changes doubtless are to the requirements of the age, it cannot 
but be deeply regretted that the few characteristic remnants of 
antiquity which survived the storms of the wars of the Huguenots 
and the great Revolution , and have hitherto resisted the mighty 
centralising influence of the metropolis, are now rapidly vanishing. 


The towns of France, as a rule, present less variety than those 
of most other countries. They almost invariably rejoice in their 
boulevards, glass-arcades, 'jardins des plantes', theatres, and cafe's, 
all of -which aTe feeble reproductions of their great Parisian models. 
Each also possesses its museum of natural history, its collection 
of casts and antiquities, and its picture-gallery, the latter usually 
consisting of a few modern pictures and a number of mediocre 
works of the 17th and 18th centuries. 

The magnificent churches, however, which many of these towns 
possess, offer attractions not to be disregarded by even the most 
hasty traveller. The Gothic style, which originated in France, has 
attained a high degree of perfection in the northern provinces, espe- 
cially in Normandy, which was a district of great importance in the 
middle ages. Architects will find abundant material here for the 
most interesting studies, and even the amateur cannot fail to be 
impressed by the gems of Gothic architecture, such as St. Ouen at 
Rouen, or the cathedral of Chartres, notwithstanding the alterations 
which most of them have undergone. The Huguenots made de- 
plorable havoc in the interiors of the churches, and the Revolution 
followed their example and converted the sacred edifices into 'Tem- 
ples of Reason'. The task of restoring and preserving these noble 
monuments has been begun and is now everywhere progressing. 

Hotels of the highest class and fitted up with every modern 
comfort are found in such towns only as Havre, Rouen, Dieppe, and 
Tours, where the influx of visitors is very great, and where the 
charges are quite on a Parisian scale. In other places the inns 
generally retain their primitive provincial characteristics, which, 
were it not for their frequent want of cleanliness, might prove 
rather an attraction than otherwise. The usual charges at houses 
of the latter description are — R. 2 fr., L. 25-50 c, A. 50 c. 
The table d'h6te dinner (3-4 fr.) at 5.30 or 6 o'clock is generally 
better than a repast procured at other places or hours. The dejeuner 
(l^a-^.fr.) at 10 or 11 o'clock will be regarded as superfluous by 
most English travellers , especially as it occupies a considerable 
time during the best part of the day. A slight luncheon at a cafe, 
which may be partaken of at any hour , will be found far more 
convenient and expeditious. In southern districts, as on the 
Loire , wine is usually included in the charge for dinner. In 
Normandy a kind of cider is frequently drunk in addition to, or 
as a substitute for wine. The usual fee for attendance at hotels 
is 1 fr. per day, if no charge is made in the bill; if service is 
charged, 50 c. a day in addition is generally expected. At the cafe's 
also the waiters expect a trifling gratuity, but the obnoxious system 
is not carried to such an extent as in the metropolis. 

The Churches, especially the more important, are open the 
whole day; but, as divine service is usually performed in the 
morning and evening, the traveller will find the middle of the day 


or the afternoon the most favourable time for visiting them. The 
attendance of the sacristan, or 'Suisse', is seldom necessary; 
the usual gratuity is 50 c. 

Considerable English communities are resident in many of the 
towns mentioned in the Handbook, and opportunities of attending 
English churches are frequent (e.g. at Calais, Boulogne, Dieppe, 
Havre, and Rouen). 

The Musbums are generally open to the public on Sundays 
and Thursdays from 12 to 4 o'clock, when they are often crowded. 
Visitors may always obtain access at other times for a gratuity 
(1 fr.). Catalogues may be borrowed from the concierge. 

A fuller account of N. France is given in Baedeker's Handbook 
to Northern France. 

Sketch of French Art 


Db. "Walthee Gensel. 

The earliest achievements of art in France, as illustrated in the 
historical museum at Saint - Germain -en - Laye , possess hut little 
interest for the majority of visitors to Paris ; even the monuments 
of the Gallo-Roman period and of the Merovingian and Carlovingian 
epochs are of real importance only to the professed archaeologist. 
The ordinary art-lover rinds little to attract him in French art before 
the close of the 9th century. About the year 1000, however, its 
Romanesque churches and sculptures placed France in the front 
rank of artistic nations; a century and a half later Gothic art arose 
in Northern France, where it speedily attained its earliest and 
finest perfection; during the Renaissance period French artists 
produced works , notably in the domains of profane architecture 
and sculpture, which need not shrink from comparison with Italian 
works of the same date; in the 17th and 18th centuries Paris 
was the home of an imposingly gorgeous decorative art, which com- 
pelled the admiration and emulation of the rest of Europe; and 
since the Revolution the dominant currents of modern art have 
flowed from the same centre. The course of the vast development 
thus indicated abounds in vicissitudes, and it is the object of the 
following sketch to throw some light upon the various stages. For 
the study of French architecture Paris by itself is insufficient ; but 
for painting and sculpture an exceptionally rich field of study is 
afforded by the Louvre, the Luxembourg, the Trocadero, and the 
Muse"es de Cluny, Carnavalet, and Galliera, supplemented by Ver- 
sailles, St. Denis, and Chantilly in the immediate environs, and 
Fontainebleau and Compiegne a little farther off. 

Among the many causes that contributed to the development of 
Romanesque Abchitectubb may be noted the enormous growth in 
the power of the church; the need of providing fitting shrines for 
the relics brought home by the numerous pilgrims ; the necessity 
of rebuilding the churches burned by the Northmen, and the effort 
to make the new churches larger and more lasting than their pre- 
decessors ; and, perhaps, also the relief experienced all over Christen- 
dom on the lapse of the year 1000, which had been universally 
expected to bring the end of the world. Romanesque architecture 
adhered in general to the fundamental forms of the Roman basilica, 
though at the same time it developed these and incorporated with 
them Byzantine, French, and Saracenic elements. In the North at 

sxxiv FRENCH ART. 

least the arrangement of a nave betwixt lower aisles, with the former 
supported by pillars instead of columns, is practically universal. 
The transepts project but slightly beyond the aisles , and, in the 
French examples, almost invariably terminate in a straight line. 
The simple apse is developed into a choir, frequently with radiating 
chapels. Many churches posse ss a vestibule, in some cases forming 
practically an anterior nave. The edifice is crowned by a square, 
an octagonal, or (more rarely) a circular tower, rising above the cross- 
ing, or on one side of the choir, or in the centre of the facade. 
Occasionally two, three, or even six towers are found. But the main 
distinguishing feature of the fully developed Romanesque style is 
the vault. The tunnel-vaulting of antiquity is universal in South 
Eastern France and was there most persistently adhered to; but in 
Burgundy and Northern France, where at first the choir and aisles 
only were vaulted, the nave receiving a fiat roof, a transition was 
made at an early period to the groined vault, the full importance of 
which, however, was not at first recognized. Finally, in South 
Western France we find domed structures, recalling San Marco at 
Venice, the most prominent of which is the church of St. Front at 
Perigueux. The most celebrated Romanesque churches in France are 
St. Sernin at Toulouse and Ste. Foy at Conques in the S., Notre-Dame- 
du-Port at Clermont-Ferrand and St. Paul at Issoire in Auvergne, 
St. Philibert at Tournus and Ste. Madeleine at Vezelay in Burgundy, 
St. Etienne and the Trinite" at Caen in the North West, Notre- 
Dame at Poitiers in the West, and Ste. Croix at Bordeaux in the 
South West. 

The substitution of heavy stone vaulting for the earlier wooden 
roofs involved a substantial increase in the thickness of the walls 
and a very great reduction in the size of the windows and other 
light-openings. The result was somewhat heavy and sombre, and 
an endeavour to relieve this effect was made by the free use of 
painting and sculpture. In the interior, sculptures were chiefly 
placed on the capitals of the pillars; on the exterior, at first in the 
pediment , ot tympanum , over the portal , but later on the entire 
facade. Byzantine influence manifests itself in Southern France not 
only in the exaggerated length of the figures and in the peculiar 
arrangement of the folds of the drapery, but also in the preference 
shown for chimaeras, dragons, quadrupeds with human heads, and 
similar monsters. The sculptors of Burgundy and Auvergne, however, 
early developed a certain measure of independence and began to 
utilize the native flora and fauna as patterns for carvings. The exe- 
cution is still generally clumsy, but the dignity of the general result, 
the feeling for decorative effect, the rich play of fancy, the profound 
sincerity and delightful abandon of the sculptors, all lead us to 
prize these 'Bibles in stone' as the significant heralds of a great art. 
Every lover of art will be richly repaid by a close study of the por- 
tals and capitals of St. Oilles, St. Trophime at Aries, the monastery 


of Moissac , and the churches of Autun, Charlieu, and Vezelay , for 
which an opportunity is afforded by the casts in the Trocadero Museum. 

The original paintings in the Romanesque churches have utterly 
disappeared, with the exception of a few fragments at Tours, Poi- 
tiers, Liget, and some other spots ; but numerous miniatures of the 
period have been preserved. Industrial art was at a comparatively 
low ebb during the Romanesque period; but a promising beginning 
may be detected in the work of the goldsmiths and in the allied art 
of enamelling, as well as in the embroidering of tapestry. 

We have seen how the employment of the Romanesque vaulting 
led to the darkening of church-interiors. However welcome this 
may have been in the vivid sunlight of the south, it suited ill with 
the misty climate of the north. An escape from this disadvantage 
was found when the architects realized that they might build their 
naves as wide and as high as they chose and pierce their walls with 
as many windows as they desired , if only the piers that supported 
the vaulting were sufficiently strengthened from without, above the 
aisles. The invention of ordinary and flying buttresses led to the 
rise of a new architecture, that was to prevail in the north for over 
three centuries ; and that invention was made in the Isle de France, in 
the centre of Northern France . The French , therefore, have some show 
of reason on their side when they attempt to displace the originally 
contemptuous name of Gothic Art in favour of the title 'French 
Art'. Light could now be admitted so freely that the churches 
seemed almost 'built of light', to borrow a phrase once applied to 
the Sainte Ohapelle at Paris. The huge windows were now univer- 
sally and naturally set in the pointed arches originally borrowed 
from the East ; and their gradual adornment with richer and richer 
tracery; the embellishment of the buttresses with bosses and crockets, 
and of the pediments with flnials ; the prolongation of the nave into 
the choir and of the aisles into the ambulatory; and the enhanced 
size and importance accorded to the crossing and the transepts are 
all characteristic features of the Gothic style that were practically 

The extraordinarily rapid and rich development of the new art 
was most powerfully fostered by the contemporaneous growth in 
the power of the towns , which is evidenced by the fairs of Troyes, 
Beaucaire, and St. Denis, and by the rise and n|ogress of the trade- 
guilds. Just as the French Romanesque churches arose chiefly in 
connection with the monasteries (especially Cistercian and Cluniac 
monasteries) and bore a priestly stamp , so the Gothic cathedrals 
typify the strength and prosperity of the towns and , in spite of all 
their heavenward aspiration, breathe the joy of mundane life. No 
town was willing to lag behind the rest, so the wondrous buildings 
arose in every quarter. 

"Whether Gothic art attained its highest development in France 
is a somewhat unfruitful question , for every answer must be more 

xxxvi FRENCH ART. 

or less dictated by peisonal taste. There is, however, no doubt that 
in France it reached its earliest period of bloom. And the earliest 
examples , in which there are evident traces of a mighty struggle, 
naturally attract the student first and retain his interest longest. 
The transition from Romanesque to Gothic may be traced in the 
abbey church of St. Denis, consecrated by Abbot Suger in the 
year 1140. The earliest purely Gothic cathedral of large size is that 
of Laon, with its incomparably spacious interior. Notre Dame at 
Paris and the cathedral of Chartres were both founded in the 12th 
century, while Bheims and Amiens belong wholly to the 13th. In all 
these, as contrasted with later buildings, the horizontal line is strongly 
emphasized. The facade of Notre Dame rises in five distinct stories. 
One cannot too much admire the taste and skill with which the 
architect has graduated these, from the elaborate portals lying closest 
to the eye, up to the severely simple towers. Unfortunately much of 
the original effect has been lost, owing to the ill-advised modem 
isolation of the church, which deprives it of its foil, and also owing 
to the erection of huge modern piles in the neighbourhood. All the 
same, Notre Dame and the cathedrals of Chartres, Rheims, and 
Amiens attain the high-water mark of early Gothic. The older 
bell-tower and the spacious interior of Chartres produce a sin- 
gularly impressive effect, while Rheims is imposing from the bound- 
less wealth of its sculptures ; but Amiens is, perhaps, the most 
harmonious of the large cathedrals and one of the most perfect 
buildings of the middle ages , in the consistency and the uni- 
formity of its construction and in its union of boldness with self- 
restraint, of dignity with grace. Amongst the other chief mon- 
uments of this fabulously active period we may mention the 
cathedrals of Beauvais, Bouen, Le Mans, Tours, Bourges, Troyes, 
Auxerre, and Dijon. The most famous examples of late-Gothic 
('style rayonnant' ; 14th cent.) are the church of St. Ouen at 
Bouen in the North, and the cathedral of AIM in the South. Free- 
dom has been fully achieved; the general effect suggests a consum- 
mate mastery over the difficulties of the forms. The horizontal 
line seems to have disappeared from view; the building towers 
towards heaven as if detached from earth. But this development 
concealed within itself the germ of decline. The cleverest arith- 
metician became atjlast the greatest builder , works of art degene- 
rated into artful devices, over-elaboration usurped the place of 
simple delight in richness, and the loving handling of detail sank 
into pettiness and pedantry. 

Secular architecture developed more slowly and therefore enjoyed 
a longer period of bloom than ecclesiastical. The most imposing 
Gothic castles belong to the 14th century : vi%. the palace of the Popes 
at Avignon and the castle of Pierrefonds , so successfully restored 
by Viollet-le-Duc. No other civic palace can bear comparison with 
the noble Palais de Justice at Bouen, founded as late as the close 

FRENCH ART. xxxvii 

of the 15th century. The most beautiful private mansions are the 
Hotel Jacques Cceur at Bourges (details at the Trocade'ro) and 
the Parisian residence of the Abbots of Cluny (now the Muse'e de 
Cluny) at Paris. 

As the 13th century marks the zenith of Gothic architecture in 
France, so it also marks the first great period of French Sculpture. 
'I am convinced', says the Marquis de Laborde , 'that the Gothic 
sculptors would have advanced to the ideal beauty, and even to the 
boldest study of the nude, had that been the object sought by their 
contemporaries; but the desire then was for typical forms of search- 
ing truth, suffering and mystic in aspect, clad with the conventual 
shyness that was the fashion of the time.' These works are not at 
first easily understood by those who approach them direct from a 
study of the antique or of the Renaissance. We must lose ourselves 
in contemplating them, before they will begin to speak to us. These 
Christs , Madonnas , and Apostles are monumental figures in the 
truest sense of the phrase , with their supramundane expression of 
countenance , their simple yet significant gestures , and the scanty 
folds of their robes , which adapt themselves so wonderfully to the 
architecture. The Death of the Virgin in Notre Dame at Paris, the 
figures on the facade of Chartres, and the 'Beau Dieu J of Amiens 
are among the most pregnant sculptures of all time (casts at the 
Trocade'ro). But so strict a feeling of style cannot maintain itself 
long. Either it will degenerate into a system of empty formulae, ot 
it will be broken down by the victorious pressure of realism. The 
latter was the case here. The Naturalistic Reaction which set in 
in the 14th century exercised a destructive effect upon ecclesiastical 
sculpture, but on the other hand wrought for good on the sepulchral 
monuments, as may be traced in the crypt of St. Denis. It may, 
however, be questioned whether, left to themselves, the French 
sculptors could have attained the high level on which we find this 
new tendency at the close of the 14th century. Salvation came from 
the north, the same north in which a little later the painters Van 
Eyck produced their masterpieces. A number of Flemish artists were 
then working at the court of the French kings — Pepin of Huy near 
Liege, Beauneveu of Valenciennes, Paul of Limburg, Jacquemart of 
Hesdin. The most renowned, however, was the Burgundian school, 
with Claux Slitter at its head. The Moses fountain , the statues on 
the facade of the Chartreuse near Dijon, and the tomb of Philip the 
Bold, which Sluter executed in 1387 et seq. with the aid of bis 
pupils Jean de Marville and Claux de Werwe, may be boldly placed 
beside the works of Donatello, who flourished more than a genera- 
tion later. The famous statuettes of 'Pleureurs' from the tomb of 
Philip, well-known from numerous reproductions, may be compared 
with the larger mourners from the contemporary tomb of Philippe 
Pot in the Louvre. The latter tomb and the wonderful altar at Aix are 
now usually attributed to Jacques Morel, who is supposed to have 

xxxviii FRENCH ART. 

been the sculptor of the unfortunately mutilated sepulchral statues 
of Charles I. of Bourbon and his consort at Souvigny. Casts of most 
of these works may be seen at the Trocade'ro. 

Decorative Sculpture naturally found its most favourable 
field for development in the cathedrals, especially in the choir- 
apses. In late-Gothic (Flamboyant Style ; 15th cent.) the work of 
the stone-carver overshadowed and almost smothered that of the 
architect. The rood-screens at Troyes and Limoges and the library 
staircase in Rouen may be mentioned among famous works in the 
interior of cathedrals. Side by side with sculpture in stone advances 
wood-carving , which manifests its finest results in the fajades of 
private houses, on screens and chests, but above all on choir-stalls 
(Amiens). Finally some good carving in ivory was also achieved, 
e.g. the Coronation of the Virgin in the Louvre. 

The extraordinary poverty that prevailed in the department of 
Painting at this time stands in curious contrast to the well-being 
enjoyed by sculpture and architecture, though this remark must be 
limited to fresco-painting and easel-painting. While the Van Eycks, 
Van der Weyden, and Memling were busily engaged in Flanders, 
and while in Italy the quattrocento beheld these branches of painting 
advancing from stage to stage, we can discover in France only a 
few names and almost fewer works. On the other hand the long- 
established art of miniature-painting now reached its highest point. 
The MSS. illuminated about 1400 for the Duke of Berri, the cruel 
but no less splendour-loving third son of John II., are veritable 
gems. The finest of these, now one of the most precious treasures 
at Chantilly, is beyond question the Livre d'Heures, with its land- 
scapes, views of castles, and genre-scenes. But even in this case 
the artists were 'Franco-Flemings' — the above-mentioned Beau- 
neveu, Jacquemart, and Paul. Glass Painting also enjoyed a brilliant 
development in the Gothic period. The illumination pouring from all 
sides into the churches through the tall upright lights and the great 
rose-windows that had been developed from the ancient 'oculi', re- 
quired to be subdued, while the windows themselves had to be 
embellished. The finest stained glass of the 12th century in France is 
in the windows of the W. facade of Chartres, and the finest of the 
13th century is in the rose-windows of Notre-Dame (north portal), 
Rheims, Bourges, and Tours, and in the windows of the cathedrals 
of Le Mans and. Chartres and of the exquisite Sainte Chapelle at Paris. 
The connection between glass-painting and painting proper is, how- 
ever, not very close ; the glass-painters are more concernedwith the 
colour-effect of the whole than with accuracy in the drawing and 
colouring of details ; they think nothing of giving a man yellow hair 
and a green beard. The moTe technically perfect the painting be- 
came at a later period, the more completely was the naive sense of 
colour lost. 

The art of Enamelling is another branch of painting that was 

FRENCH ART. xxxix 

carried to a high point of perfection in this period, especially 
at Limoges. The 12tb and 13th centuries saw the zenith of 'Email 
Champleve*', in which the artist engraves the designs upon the metal 
plate and fills in the lines or grooves with enamel (Ital. smalto ; Fr. 
email); while the 14th and 15th centuries saw the perfection of 
'Email Translucide', in which the entire plate is covered with a thin 
coating of enamel, allowing the engraved design to shine through. 
Finally, the weaving of Tapbstry attained to great perfection during 
the 15th century in the workshops of Arras, Auiusson, and Paris. 
The finest example of this period now to be found in Paris is the 
series illustrating the romance of the Lady and the Unicorn, in the 
Muse"e de Cluny. 

In spite, however, of the fact that some artists produced great 
works during the first half of the 16th century, signs of exhaustion 
had already begun to appear. Gothic architecture continued, indeed, 
to be practised after the beginning of the 16th century, as is 
proved by the choir-apses at Amiens and Chartres, the Grosse Horloge 
at Rouen, and the Tour St. Jacques and the church of St. Merri at 
Paris; but on the whole it had by that time outlived its mandate, 
and even Franco-Flemish art had said its last word in the works of 
Sluter. What L. Oourajod calls a 'relaxation of realism' awakened 
a strong desire for beauty and nobility of form — a desire that 
could be satisfied only from the South. As early as 1450 the 
greatest artists were under the influence of the Italian Renais- 
sance. Elements from both the North and the South are found 
strangely mingled in Jean Foucquet of Tours (b. 1415) , the most 
important French painter of this period, who had spent several years 
in Italy and painted the portrait of Pope Eugenius IV. The Livre 
d'Heures painted by Foucquet for Etienne Chevalier, and now at 
Chantilly, is one of the most exquisite creations in the whole range 
of miniature -painting; while the portraits of the Chancellor des 
Ursins and Charles VII. in the Louvre proclaim the same artist as 
a great portrait-painter. Two of his younger contemporaries — Jean 
Bourdichon, who painted the famous Heures of Anne of Brittany, 
and Jean Perreal — had also visited Italy. The centre of French 
art at this period was Tours, and here also worked Michel Colombe 
(d. 1512), the most celebrated sculptor of the time. Colombe's chief 
work is the tomb of Francis II., Duke of Brittany, in Nantes, and 
some authorities are inclined to ascribe to him also the expressive 
Entombment at Solesmes. Casts of both these works are at the Tro- 
cadero, while the Louvre contains an original work of Colombe (St. 
George and the Dragon). 

The relations of the court, but more particularly the Italian cam- 
paigns of the French kings, turned the scale. Charles VIII. brought 
back with him not only paintings but painters, and under Louis XI. 
began that great immigration of Italian artists into France which 
culminated under Francis I. In 1507 Andrea Solario painted the 


chapel of Chateau Gaillon ; in 1516 Leonardo da Vinci came to France, 
in 1518 Andrea del Sarto, in 1530 Rosso, in 1631 Primaticcio. 

The result, the Fkench Renaissance, did not wholly come up 
to expectation — least of all in the domain of painting. The plant, 
which in Italy itself had passed its best, could put forth only a few 
feeble blossoms when transplanted to a foreign soil. The freely 
restored paintings by Rosso, Primaticcio, and Niccolo dell' Abbate at 
Fontainebleau (School of Fontainebleau) reveal, it may be, a strong 
sense of decorative effect, but in the details they are steeped in af- 
fectation. The Frenchman Jean Cousin, whose Last Judgment in 
the Louvre has been extolled beyond its merits, was really little 
more than a skilful master of foreshortening. The only really at- 
tractive painters of this century are Jean Clouet (d. ca. 1640) and 
his son Francois Clouet (d. 1572) , surnamed Janet , and both are 
remarkable for having remained almost entirely free from Italian 
influence, manifesting a certain early-French dryness in their por- 
traits (Bibliotheque Nationale, Louvre, Chantilly). 

The fate of ABCHrTECTUBE was more fortunate. The native art, 
instead of simply abdicating in favour of the foreign mode, was strong 
enough to combine with it to form a new and distinctive style. The 
architectural styles under Francis I. and Henri II. have a character 
of their own. If an error was formerly made in ascribing all the 
sumptuous buildings of Francis I. to Italian architects, such as Fra 
Qiocondo and Boccadoro, modern criticism seems to have overshot 
the mark in denying these foreigners almost any share in them Some 
buildings indeed, such as Fontainebleau, seem now to have been 
definitively restored to native architects, but in the case of others, 
e.g. the Hotel de Ville at Paris, it is still uncertain whether the 
'maitre macon' mentioned in the original documents was not merely 
the builder or the successor of the Italian 'architecte'. Among the 
most illustrious names of the French Renaissance are those of Pierre 
Lescot (Louvre, Musee Carnavalet), Philibert de VOrme (Chateau 
d'Anet, the portal of which is now in the court of the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts ; Tuileries), PierreChambiges (Fontainebleau and St.Ger- 
main-en-Laye), Jean Bullanl (Chateau d'Ecouen ; Chantilly), and 
the Ducerceau family, headed by the famous theorist and draughts- 
man of that name. Building was most actively carried on in Tou- 
raine, where there arose in rapid succession the chateaux of Cham- 
lord, Chenonceaux, and Blois, with its transcendently beautiful 
staircase. The chateau of Gaillon near Rouen, now utterly demol- 
ished, must have been one of the finest castles of its time. 
Ecclesiastical architecture claims few important works at this 
period, with the exception of St. Eustache at Paris, the church of 
Oisors, and the noble choir of St. Pierre at Caen, the masterpiece 
of Hector Sohier. The Hotel Bourgtheroulde at Rouen (partly Gothic) 
and the Maison Francois Premier in Paris are conspicuous examples 
of domestic architecture. Under Francis I. traces of the old native 


architecture are still abundant ; turrets and corner-pavilions , lofty 
chimneys, round and elliptical arches, all occur in conjunction 
with columns and pilasters. But the style of Henri II. has already 
passed wholly into the region of the classical orders, albeit with a few 
modifications in the earlier French taste. A calm and measured 
regularity has taken the place of the former gay fancy. 

The number of Italian Sculptors engaged in France at the be- 
ginning of the 16th century is almost larger than that of the architects. 
Girolamo della Robbia embellished the Chateau de Madrid (now- 
destroyed) on the confines of the Bois de Boulogne; Cellini, who 
sojourned in France in 1537 and again in 1540-45, there chiselled 
his great Nymph of Fontainebleau (now in the Louvre) ; and there 
were others only less famous. The three Juste (property Betti) 
were Florentines, who flourished at Dol about 1500 but afterwards 
succeeded to the inheritance of Michel Colombe at Tours. Their 
chief work is the tomb of Louis XII. at St. Denis, with two re- 
presentations of the deceased (nude recumbent figure below, kneel- 
ing figure clad in ermine above), bas-reliefs, and allegorical figures 
at the corners. This arrangement was the model for many later 
tombs. But the three greatest sculptors of the French Renaissance 
aTe Frenchmen — Pierre Bontemps, Jean Goujon, and Germain 
Filon. To Bontemps, less well-known than his contemporaries 
but certainly not inferior to them, is due the exquisite urn contain- 
ing the heart of Francis I., and perhaps also the execution of 
most of the tomb of that king at St. Denis, designed by Phil, de 
l'Orme. No lov^r of art will forget Goujon's bas-reliefs or his 
charming nymphs on the Fontaine des Innocents at Paris, whose 
slender forms with their masterly drapery harmonize so wonderfully 
with the space allotted to them. His caryatides in the Louvre aTe 
perhaps the most beautiful works in all modern art. The famous 
'Diana' in the Louvre is especially characteristic of his style as well 
as of the taste of the period. Finally we may mention the 'gisant' 
on the monument of Cardinal de Bre'ze at Rouen, as a wonderfully 
realistic youthful work by Goujon. The magnificent counterpart of 
this monument (which was executed by Jean Cousin) is the adja- 
cent tomb of the two Cardinals d'Amboise , the bewilderingly rich 
architecture of which was designed by Rolland Leroux (1520-25). 
PiLon's name is inseparably connected with the tomb of Henri II. 
at St. Denis, though he was not the only artist employed upon it. 
The poignantly realistic 'gisants', and the powerful kneeling bronze 
statues of the royal pair are equally admirable. The kneeling figure 
of the chancellor Birague and the Dead Christ in the LouvTe are 
also full of character, whereas the three Cardinal Virtues supporting 
the urn with the heart of Henri II. are distinctly inferior to similar 
figures by Goujon. 

Amongst the productions of industrial art at this period our at- 
tention is specially aroused by the Enamels and the Fayencb. The 


art of enamelling entered upon a new stage -with the invention of 
enamel painting and became secularized ; i.e. instead of enamelled 
altar-pieces, paxes, and reliquaries we find plates, vases, and cups. 
The new Limoges School was founded by Monvaerni and Nardon Peni- 
caud and reached its zenith under Leonard Limousin, Pierre Rey- 
mond, and Jean Penicaud the Younger. The now growing inclination 
towards portraits in enamel and the reproduction of entire pictures 
cannot hut seem a mistake, and even the above-mentioned masters 
were most successful when they restricted themselves to purely de- 
corative work. While Italian influence soon made itself evident 
amongst the enamels, ceramic art remained purely French. The 
products of Gubbio, Deruta, or Urbino have little in common with 
the elegant ivory -like fayence of Saint Porchaire, or with the 
dishes decorated with monsters, fish, and the like by Bernard Palissy 
(d. 1590), unique both as a man and as an artist, or with the pot- 
tery of Rouen, Nevers, or Moustiers. "We now also meet with ad- 
mirable works in the domains of cabinet-making, goldsmith's work, 
and tin work (Ft. Briot; d. after 1600), as well as among bronzes 
and medals, while the arts of glass-painting (Pinaigrier and Jean 
Cousin; in St. Gervais, St. Etienne-du-Mont , etc.) and tapestry- 
weaving show no falling off. The Renaissance nobly continued the 
traditions of the Gothic period in investing even the humblest ob- 
jects with an artistic charm, and that in a higher degree than ever 

The Reigns of Henbi IV. and Louis XIII. were not very rich in 
great works of art. The ecclesiastical Abchitbctube of the period 
is characterized by the fajade of St. Qervais, in which the colonnades 
of different orders placed one above the other suggest a grammatical 
exercise. Salomon de Brosse, its builder, was also the architect 
of the Palais du Luxembourg, which is imposing in spite of its 
heaviness. De Brosse was older than the two more celebrated ar- 
chitects, Jacques Lemercier, builder of the Palais Cardinal (now the 
Palais Royal), the church of St. Roch, and the Sorbonne, and Man- 
sart, who designed the older portion of the Bibliotheqe Nationale 
and the dome of the Val-de-Grace, though his reputation is chiefly 
as a builder of palaces (Maisons near St. Germain, etc.). Mansart 
was the inventor of 'mansard' roofs. The oldest parts of Paris now 
existing owe their characteristic appearance to this period, from 
which also date a considerable number of the older private man- 
sions, with facades uniformly rising from enclosed courts entered 
by lofty gateways. A characteristic survival of the period is the 
Place des Vosges, which presents an exceedingly monotonous effect 
in spite of the alternation of brick and stone. 

The most influential Sculptors were now Jean Bologne or Oio- 
vanni da Bologna (b. at Douai; d. 1608) and his pupils (Franche- 
ville, De Vries, Duquesnoy, Van Opstal), all of whom were com- 
pletely Italianized. A more individual and a more French style 

FRENCH ART. xliii 

was shown by Barthelemy Prieur(d. 1611 ; Montmorency monument 
in the Louvre) and by Pierre Biard (d. 1609), to whom we find a 
difficulty in attributing two such different works as the elegant 
rood-loft in St. Etienne-du-Mont and the energetically realistic 
Goddess of Fame in the Louvre. In the succeeding generation these 
were followed by Simon Ouillain (d. 1658; bronze statues from the 
Pont au Change, in the Louvre) , Jacques Sarrasin (d. 1 660 ; caryatides 
in the Louvre), Oillea Ouerin (d. 1678), and finally, and above all, the 
brothers Francois and Michel Anguier (d. 1669 and 1686). The chief 
works of Frangois, which vary in excellence, are his numerous tombs 
(e.g. those of De Thou and Longueville in the Louvre); Michel's 
best work is now to be seen in the external and internal embellish- 
ment of the Val-de-Grace (the Nativity is now in St. Roch) and in 
the sculptures on the Porte St. Denis. Almost all the sculptors of 
the 'Siecle Louis XIV.' studied the works of these sculptors, who 
themselves saw the beginning of that age. 

Practically only one of the Coubt Painters of this time has re- 
tained his fame through the succeeding centuries, viz. SimonVouet 
(d. 1649), who formed himself in Italy on Paolo Veronese and 
Guido Reni. The scanty remains of Vouet's decorative painting re- 
veal a love of bold colour and considerable skill in dealing with large 
i-urfaces, but his religious easel-pictures are for us devoid of all at- 
traction. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) and Claude Lorrain (1600- 
1682), the two greatest painters, worked in Rome, far from France 
and the French court. It is not easy to mete out justice to the works 
of Poussin, at one time extravagantly over-praised and now fre- 
quently under-estimated. The elegant expression of a high-bred 
sentiment was his chief aim, and in contrast to the superficiality 
of most of his contemporaries, this effort is doubly grateful. But 
his religious pictures seem cold to us, owing to his frequent borrow- 
ings from the antique and the Renaissance, and the over-elabor- 
ation of his composition , in which we might almost inscribe 
geometrical figures. His landscapes, such as the 'Orpheus', the 
'Diogenes', and the 'Seasons'', are more inspiring, though their colour- 
ing has unfortunately faded. Claude Lorrain's scene-paintings are 
as indifferent to us to-day as his petty mythological figures. But 
he depicted atmospheric phenomena with a boldness, and blended 
local colours into a general tone with a skill, that had no rivals un- 
til the days of Turner and Corot. The modern cry for 'atmosphere 
and light' is here clearly uttered for the first time. The works of 
EustacheLe Sueur (1617-55), the 'French Raphael', appeal to us as 
more essentially religious than Poussin's. A deep and true piety 
breathes from the 'Life of St. Bruno'. The age of the wars of religion 
was also the age of Fran$ois de Sales, the apostle of love, and of Vin- 
cent de Paul, the friend of the sick and the poor. We may compare 
the too sentimental paintings of Le Sueur with the vigorous works 
of Philippe de Champaigne (of Brussels,-! 602-74), who was connected 


with the convent at Port Royal. The latter is, however, more 
attractive as a portrait-painter. 

It is difficult to select the Tight standpoint to view the Abt op 
Louis XIV. After the king's assumption of the reins of government 
(1661), a thoroughly monarchic art begins. Opposition to all inde- 
pendent efforts, and an abrupt hostility to everything foreign and 
even to the mass of the people at home distinguish this 'golden age'. 
The 'Roi Soleil' is a Roman Imperator, the heroes of the tragedies 
are Romans, art also must be Roman. The 'Academie' founded in 
1648 developed in sharpest contrast with the 'maitrises', or old 
guilds. Everything was reduced to formula. But this cold and 
pompous art had something grand in its uniformity, its self-con- 
fidence, and its definiteness of aim; and the effect was heightened 
not only by the personalities of the king and his minister Colbert, 
but still more by the art-dictatorship of Charles Le Brun (1619-90). 
However unmoved Le Brun's paintings may leave us, there is 
something singularly imposing, almost recalling the universal 
geniuses of the Renaissance, in the manner in which he designed 
the magnificent decorations of the Galerie des Glaces at Versailles 
and the Galerie d'Apollon in the Louvre, sketched groups in bronze 
and marble for the sculptors, and painted and drew patterns for his 
Manufacture des Gobelins, which then included nearly every branch 
of industrial art. The bronzes by Coyzevox, the cabinets by Boule, 
the mirrors by Cucci, the arabesques by Birain all harmonize 
with Le Brun's ceiling-paintings, just as these harmonize with the 
buildings of Mansart and the gardens of Le Notre, and as the entire 
creative art of the period harmonizes with the tragedies of Racine. 
Art as a whole must be regarded as a setting for the court of 
Louis XIV., but it is a decorative art of the very highest rank. 

The Architecture of the period is much less satisfactory. 
Perraulfs famous colonnade at the Louvre now excites as little 
enthusiasm as the fatiguing facade of the palace at Versailles by 
Hardouin and Mansart (1645-1709) or as the Palais des Invalides by 
Bruant. The great dome of the Invalides by Mansart and that of 
the Val-de-Grace, now at last completed, are, howeveT, honourable 
exceptions to the rule. With Painting it is much the same. Who 
now cares for La Fosse, Jouvenet, or Coypel? The portrait-painters 
Mignard , Largilliere , a.nd'>Rigaud — all admirably represented at 
the Louvre — are, however, still interesting. Sculpture occupies 
a much higher position. However absurd Voltaire's dictum may 
now appear, that Francois Girardon (1628-1715) had 'attained to 
all the perfection of the antique', we cannot refuse our admiration 
to that sculptor's tomb of Richelieu (in the church of the Sor- 
bonne), his 'Rape of Proserpine' and statues of rivers, and above 
all to his charming leaden relief of 'Diana at the bath', in the park 
of Versailles. With him may be named a crowd of others: Legros, 
Le Hongre, the two Marsy, Desjardins, Lepautre, Van Cleve, Tuby, 


Theodon , Mazeline , and Hurtrelle. A more important name than 
Girardon's is that of Charles Antoine Coyzevox (1640-1720). His 
most prominent works are his large tombs, especially those of Cardinal 
Mazarin (now in the Louvre) and Colbert (in St. Eustache) ; but 
his other works merit close inspection for their masterly treatment 
and their union of charm and elegance of conception. Among these 
may be mentioned the horses in the Place de la Concorde, the bronze 
statue of Louis XIV. (MuseeCarnavalet), the 'Nymph with the shell', 
and numerous busts (in the Louvre). Nicolas and Guillaume Coustou 
(1658-1733 and 1677-1746), his pupils, who assisted him in the 
execution of the 'Vow of Louis XIII.' in Notre Dame, belong partly 
to the following epoch. Among the chief works of Nicolas Coustou 
rank the figures of the Rhone and Saone at the Tuileries and the 
Caesar in the Louvre ; among those of Guillaume are the admirable 
Marly horses in the Place de la Concorde and the tomb of Cardinal 
Dubois in St. Roch. Of the sculptors of the 17th century, however, 
the French themselves think most highly of Pierre Puget (1622-94), 
who studied under Bernini and worked at Toulon. His compositions, 
notably the 'Milo of Croton' in the Louvre, produce a strong im- 
pression, in spite of their exaggerated pathos. 

The reaction against this stiff and grandiose art was not long of 
coming. Louis XIV. was succeeded by Louis XV., the pious Mme. 
de Maintenon was followed by the dissipated Regent and a little later 
by Mme. dePompadour. We may date the prevalence of the art called 
by the French 'Dix-Huitibmb', from the beginning of the Regency 
(1715) to the death of the Pompadour (1764). It was a super- 
ficial, gallant, and dissipated art, the charm of which, however, 
cannot be denied. It is the faithful reflection of the age. Everything 
harmonizes: the gorgeous but comfortable apartments, in the decorat- 
ion of which Oppenordt and Meissonier excelled; the charming villas 
for gallant rendezvous ; the pale blue, sea-green, and rose-pink paint- 
ing; the cabinets with their rich bronze ornaments; the chairs and 
"sofas, with their gilt carvings and luxurious silken upholstery ; the 
terracottas and the porcelain statuettes from the factory at Sevres ; 
and indeed even the costumes of the pleasure-loving, immoral, 
yet charming society, with its powder and patches. Everything 
that was formerly straight is now bent in the most wanton manner 
and embellished with all manner of flourishes and scrolls ['rococo' 
from rocaille, shell) ; every door-knob seems to be designed for the 
pressure of a delicate feminine hand. After a brief reign (for as 
early as 1763 Grimm writes that everything was then made 'a la 
grecque') the rococo style gave place to the Style Louis XVI, 
which in France at least always retained delicate and graceful 
forms. The cabinets of this period (by Oelen, Eiesener, Beneman, 
and others), decorated with the daintiest inlaid designs , are now 
almost more highly prized than the earlier works by Cressant and 


The eailiest and also the greatest painter of the 'Dix-Huitieme' is 
Antoine Watteau (1684-1722), -who came to Paris in his eighteenth 
year to assist in the decoration of the Opera House and speedily 
rose to fame by his representations of ' Fetes Oalantes 1 . In his scenes 
of rural festivals and in his figures from Italian comedy ('Embark- 
ation for Cythera'; 'Gilles'; both in the Louvre) this master is 
unapproached. In both , he is the faithful mirror of his age , but 
his magical colouring sheds such a poetic glamour, that we seem to 
be transported into a fairyland full of roguish grace and pleasant 
dalliance. His successors, Lancret and Pater, are skilful and charm- 
ing artists , but are seldom inspired by even a breath of the poetry 
of Watteau. The truest representative of the Pompadour epoch is 
Francois Boucher (1703-70). A study of his numerous pictures in 
the Louvre is not enough for a proper estimation of this artist, for 
it is chiefly as a decorative painter, in his ceilings and panels, that 
he reveals his character. Next to Boucher rank Fragonard and 
Baudouin, -whose drawings especially are prized. The 18th century 
■was rich in portrait-painters also, the first place being claimed by 
the pastel painter Quentin de La Tour (1704-88), 'the magician', as 
Diderot calls him. The strikingly lifelike and characteristic portraits 
by this master are the chief boast of the mustfe of St. Quentin, 
his native town ; while the charmingly graceful female portraits by 
Nattier are among the attractions of Versailles. 

Here also reaction set in early. Boucher himself lived to hear 
the thundering philippic of Diderot, who re-christened the 'painter 
of the graces' as the 'painter of demireps'. But this verdict was 
moral, not sesthetic. Emotionalism was simply the transition from 
frivolity to the Spartan virtue of the Revolution. Diderot had found 
a man after his own heart in Jean Baptiste Greuze (1726-1805), 
whose 'Rustic Bride' and 'Prodigal Son' practically synchronized 
with Diderot's 'Natural Son' and Rousseau's 'Heioise'. Greuze re- 
mains to this day a popular favourite, not, however, on account of 
these moral pictures with their hard colouring, but on account of 
Ms paintings of girls ('The Broken Pitcher'; the 'Milkmaid', etc.), 
in whose grace there are still traces of the sensuous charm of the 
preceding epoch. More important as a painter is Greuze's elder 
contemporary Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), one of 
the best painters of still-life that ever lived, an excellent portrait- 
painter, and an acute, amiable, and original observer of simple 
domestic scenes ('Grace', the 'Industrious Mother', etc., in the 
Louvre). The true forerunners of the later classicism were, however, 
at this period Vien, the teacher of David, Cochin, and Hubert Robert, 
with his views of Roman ruins. 

The rococo style never thoroughly permeated the art of Scuxf- 
tube. Allegrain, with his nymphs, and Clodion, with his sensuously 
animated terracotta groups of Bacchantes, Satyrs, and Cupids, touch 
upon its outskirts in the soft grace and 'morbidezza' of their methods 

FRENCH ART. xlvii 

of treatment; but side by side with them stand such artists as 
Bouchardon, the 'French Phidias', with his Grenelle Fountain, 
which may almost be termed severe. Pigalle (1714-85) pays un- 
restrained homage to the pictorial taste of the period in the tombs of 
Marshal Saxe (StrassburgJ and the Comte d'Harcourt (Notre Dame), 
as well as in the monument of Louis XV. at Rheims, but he also 
expresses its philosophical ideas in his allegorical compositions, and 
makes his bow to the antique in the nude statue of Voltaire. The 
amiable Pajou (1730-1809) vacillates between antique severity and 
French grace, between frivolity and sentiment, in his Pluto, Bac- 
chante, and statue of Queen Marie Lesczinska as Caritas (in the 
Louvre). A similar vacillation is shown by Falconet, who may be 
better studied in St. Petersburg than in Paris. Lemoyne (Louvre, 
Versailles) and Caffieri (d. 1792; busts of Rotrou, La Chaussee, 
J. B. Rousseau, etc.) are admirable portrait-sculptors, but both are 
far excelled by Jean Antoine Houdon (1741-1828), whose seated 
statue of Voltaire is one of the masterpieces of realistic portraiture, 
and whose 'Diana' (bronze replica in the Louvre of the original 
marble in St. Petersburg) is among the most perfect nude figures 
in modern art. 

The transition to classicism was most easily accomplished in 
Architectube. To be convinced that at least in the case of great 
religious and secular edifices the frivolous fashionable taste was left 
far behind , we need glance only at the facade of St. Sulpice by 
Servandoni (1733) , the portal of St. Eustache by Mansart de Jouy 
(1755), the Ecole Militaire (1756), the buildings on the Place de la 
Concorde by Odbriel (1772), and the Pantheon, begun by Soufflot 
in 1764. The writings of the Jesuit Langier (1753), the architect 
Blondel (1756), and the archaeologists Mariette and Caylus, and 
finally and above all the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum 
and the reports of visitors to these spots , speedily assisted the 
classical tendency to gain a decided victory. 

Thus the appearance of Jacques Louis David (1748-1825) does 
not signalize a complete revolution, as was at one time assumed, but 
the close of a decade of development ('Belisarius', 1781; 'Oath of 
the Horatii', 1785). His significance lies in the fact that he deduced 
the logical consequences and elevated them with adamantine strict- 
ness into a law of universal application. Individuality was once more 
repressed , and all art once more reduced to a formula. The fruits 
of this new Renaissance are before us everywhere to this day. Even 
the most famous pictures (David's 'Leonidas' and 'Rape of the Sabines') 
look like painted copies of bas-reliefs. The artist is in touch with us 
only when he is unfaithful to his own principles, as in the 'Coronation 
of Napoleon' (Louvre), the sketch of 'Marat after death' (Carnavalet), 
and his lifelike portraits. It is the same with the architecture of the 
Revolution and the Empire. 'The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel', 
says Saint-Paul, 'is a copy of the arch of Septimius Severus , the 

xlviii FRENCH ART. 

Vend6me Column is a reproduction of Trajan's Column , and the 
Madeleine is a temple which might be dedicated without alteration 
to Jupiter Capitolinus'. Grace as such seemed to be banished from 
art. Greuze and Clodion died in penury, and Fragonard spent his 
last days in painting laTge allegorical and decorative pieces. 

At first glance the Nineteenth Century presents the appearance 
of a veritable chaos. la previous times the architect either adapted 
the prevailing style to the altered circumstances or developed a 
new one from it. Now , however , he builds in the Greek style to- 
day , in the Renaissance to-morrow , or passes unconcernedly from 
Gothic to baroque. In the same way the painter imitates the Greeks 
or the Italians , Rubens or Rembrandt, the Pre-Raphaelites or the 
Japanese. In the realm of sculpture we find ourselves at one time 
face to face with the most exalted idealism, at another with the 
most uncompromising realism. Our judgment, too, is rendered all 
the more difficult because many of the artists still stand so near us 
in point of time , that we cannot wholly free ourselves from the 
influence of personal inclinations or antipathies. 

In the first quarter of the century the controlling influence in 
the sphere of Painting was that of David. In the year 1800 Guerin 
(d. 1833), the most thorough-going pupil of David, attained an extra- 
ordinary success with his 'Marcus Sextus'. Afterwards he devoted 
himself mainly to thepainting of tragic scenes. Girodet(i. 1824), it is 
true, selected romantic subjects (the 'Deluge', 'Burial of Atala'), but 
adhered to the relief-like execution and statuesque repose of his 
master. Gerard (d. 1837), who appeals to us mainly by his attractive 
portraits of women , is somewhat freer in style. His 'Cupid and 
Psyche' naturally excited universal admiration in a generation for 
whom Canova's group of the same subject was the highest expression 
of art. Qros (d. 1835) passes for a forerunner of romanticism ; but 
the warmer colouring and livelier movement of his battle-scenes do 
not blind us to his numerous weaknesses. An exceptional position 
is occupied by Prud'hon (d. 1823), who, in his charming 'Psyche' 
and his dramatic 'Revenge and Justice', produced a nevel and pleas- 
ing effect by combining the artistic traditions of the 18th century 
with suggestions borrowed from Correggio. 

The first great innovator, the first romanticist properly so called, 
was Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) , whose paintings of soldiers 
and horses announce, still more clearly than his 'Raft of the Me- 
dusa', the dawning of a new conception. There is practically no 
sense in the expression 'Romantic School' rinless we translate 
'romanticism' as meaning simply 'love of liberty'. A better appel- 
lation is School of 1830. The one common bond among the masters 
of this period, many of whom carried on violent feuds with each 
other, was their passion for independence. With few exceptions, 
however, they sought for freedom in form and colour only; they 
did not dare to take their subjects from the life around them, but 


found them in the history and legend of the middle ages, in the 
pages of the poets (Dante, Tasso, Shakespeare, Goethe, Byron), 
or in the scenes of the distant Orient. Raphael -was the model for 
one set, Rubens and Veronese for another. 

Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) and Jean Auguste Dominique 
Ingres (1780-1867) are not only the two greatest masters of this 
period but also represent its opposite poles. For Delacroix every 
picture assumed the form of a brilliant symphony of colours, so that 
his enemies asserted that he painted with 'an intoxicated broom' ; 
Ingres, on the contrary, considered that the 'integrity of art' depended 
upon the drawing. "While the former honoured Rubens above all 
other masters, the latter saw in the great Fleming 'something of a 
butcher' and held it blasphemy to compare Rembrandt with Raphael. 
The eternal antithesis between colouring and drawing was, perhaps, 
never so forcibly emphasized as now. Our taste has decided the 
controversy in favour of Delacroix. We feel keen admiration for the 
vigorous colouring of 'Dante's Boat' (1822), the 'Massacre of Chios', 
the 'Barricade', and the 'Crusaders', and count the paintings of the 
Palais Bourbon and St. Sulpice as among the greatest monumental 
works of the century. The 'Apothesis of Homer', on the other hand, 
leaves us cold in spite of its admirable drawing; the beautiful figures 
of 'CEdipuS' and "The Source' excite but a half-hearted admiration; 
and it is only in his portraits that Ingres makes any strong impression 
on us. Perhaps, however, the time will come when this master will 
be again accorded a more prominent place. 

The fame of Horace Vernet (d. 1863), Paul Delaroche (d. 1856), 
Deveria (d. 1865), Couture (d. 1879), and the other historical 
painters of the period has paled very considerably. The recon- 
struction of a historical scene, such as the 'Death of Elizabeth' or 
'Raphael in the Vatican', can satisfy us only when the immediate 
effect causes the artificiality of the process to be forgotten; but none 
of these masters had the strength to accomplish this. The longest 
life will doubtless belong to Vernet's pictures of contemporary history 
at Versailles. Among other masters of the period may be men- 
tioned the somewhat sentimental Ary Scheffer (d. 1858); Leopold 
Robert (d. 1835), who died prematurely but not before he had 
received universal admiration for his cheerful but rather too spick- 
and-span scenes of Italian life ; Decamps (d. 1860), who painted 
glowing pictures of Oriental life and found excellent followers in 
Fromentin, Marilhat, and others; and Chenavard (d. 1880), the 
author of the philosophical cartoons in the Picture Gallery of Lyons. 
A special meed of honour must be paid to Eippolyte Flandrin (d. 
1864), a pupil of Ingres and perhaps the only religious painter of 
modern times whose works reveal a genuinely pious spirit. 

Contemporaneously with this development there arose in France 
a new conception of landscape painting, the so-called Patsagb In- 
time. The aim was to reproduce the play of light and the atmo- 

Baedekfk. Paris. 15th Edit. d 


spheric effects of the fondly noted, though often simple motives of 
one's native land. Theodore Rousseau (d. 1867) is par excellence the 
great painter of trees ; Jules Dupre (d. 1889) depicted nature in her 
stormy moods; Charles Daubigny (d. 1878) loved to paint the peace- 
ful banks of the Oise; Narcisse Diaz (d. 1876) revelled in rustling 
forest glades threaded by glittering beams of sunlight. The greatest 
poet of this group, generally known as the School of Babwson, 
is Jean Baptists Corot (d. 1875). No other painter either before 
or since has regarded nature with such an intimate and genial gaze. 
In his pictures the meadows rustle, the birds twitter, the bees 
hum, and the sunbeams glance and play. Lovely nymphs dance in 
morning dew to the music of soft-breathing flutes. Other members 
of the Barbison group are Constant Troyon (d. 1865), vying with 
Rosa Bonlieur (A. 1899) as the greatest of the French animal-paint- 
ers, and Jean Francois Millet (d. 1875), the vigorous painter of 
peasant-life, who incarnates so powerfully the spirit of the text 'in 
the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread'. 

Under the Second Empire a number of new tendencies made 
themselves felt. The historical painters, such as Sylvestre and Lu- 
minals, tickled the jaded palates of their contemporaries with scenes 
of horror like 'Nero and Locusta'. Hamon, Oerome, and the other 
'Neo-Greeks' painted genre-scenes in antique costume , which al- 
lowed them to display their masterly treatment of the nude. 
Cabanel (d. 1889), the more talented Baudry (d. 1886; decoration 
of the Opera House) and Delaunay (d. 1891), and the still living 
Henner and Lefebvre sought for fame in the most finished portrayal 
of the female form divine. Contemporary military life was illustrated 
by De Neuvills (d. 1885) and Regnault, the latter of whom fell in 
the Franco-German war (1871). The great popular favourites were, 
however, Ernest Meissonier (1813-91) and Alfred Stevens (born 1828) 
of Belgium , two painters of the flue and minute who can be con- 
fidently ranked with the Dutch masters of the 17th century. The 
former loved to depict the heroes of his tiny canvases in the more 
brilliant costume of by-gone days ; the latter gave a faithful picture 
of the dress and manners of the fashionable women of his own time. 
An important event for the development of art in the following 
period was the appearance of Oustave Courbet (1819-77), who 
revealed an extraordinary power of realism in his 'Burial of Ornans' 
and other scenes of common life, as well as pre-eminent colouristic 
talents in his great 'Studio', but who nevertheless did not possess 
one spark of poetry. 

Between 1870 and 1890 four artists are specially prominent : 
Edouard Manet (1833-83), Jules Bastien-Lepage (1848-84), Pierre 
Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98), and Oustave Moreau (1826-98). 
Manet made a skilful combination of what he learned from Velaz- 
quez and from the Japanese, and in his vigorous portraits and 
sketches of Paris life became the most zealous protagonist of the 


impressionist school, which exerted a deep and beneficial influence 
in spite of its aberrations. Bastien- Lepage applied the prin- 
ciples of impressionism to his powerful pictures of peasant-life. 
Puvis de Chavannes adopted the colouring of the primitive Italians 
and represented an ideal humanity in a series of solemn and broadly 
conceived mural paintings (Sortonne, Pantheon, Amiens, Rouen, 
Poitiers, Lyons, Marseilles). Moreau presented mystic legends in 
a style of which the delicate colouring glows like a jewel (Muse"e 
Moreau, Luxembourg). 

A survey of the multiform activity of the Painting of To-Day 
may be obtained in the course of visits to the Hotel de Ville, the 
Sorbonne, the Mairies, the Luxembourg, the annual Salons, and the 
smaller exhibitions. Here we give only a few hints. The academic 
school, which seeks its end mainly by a conscientious study of form, 
is represented by Laurens (historical paintings), Detaille (battle- 
pieces), Cormon (frescoes in the Jardin desPlantes), Bennett, Carolus 
Duran, Humbert, Benjamin Constant, and others. In the sharpest 
contrast to these stand the impressionists Degas, Monet, Pissarro, 
Renoir, Raffaelli, and their friends, whose aim is to reproduce a 
momentary effect (Salle Caillebotte at the Luxembourg, Galerie 
Durand-Ruel). Other representatives of impressionism are Roll, 
Gervex, Rochegrosse, and the brilliant colourist Bernard (Ecole de 
Pharmacie). Cazin, Billotte, Pointelin, Menard, and others devote 
themselves to producing melancholy twilight landscapes. Jules 
Breton and Lhermitte are attractive delineators of rural life. Dagnan- 
Bouveret and the younger masters, Cottet, Simon, and Wery, depict 
the picturesque scenes of Brittany. Symbolism has also found 
numerous disciples among the younger generation. 

To go into the matter of the Graphic Arts would take us too 
far afield. Be it enough to chronicle that recent activity in this 
sphere has been both great and successful , not only in engraving 
{Qaillard, Waltner, Patricot, etc.), which reproduces the ideas of 
others, but still more notably in the original arts of etching in black 
and white or in colours (Bracquemond, F. Rops , Legrand, Lepere, 
Legros, Tissot, Raffaelli) and lithography (Fantin-Latour, Carriere ; 
the posters of Cheret). 

The Sctjlptuee of the 19th cent, runs , on the whole, a course 
parallel with that of painting. Here also the antique style was at 
first all-powerful. Canova, who made many visits to Paris, was the 
master whom all admired and imitated. Few sculptors attained 
anything higher than a frosty correctness. We may name Chaudet 
(d. 1810; 'Paul and Virginia', in the Louvre), Lemot (d. 1827; 
Henri IV. on the Pont Neuf) , Dupaty (d. 1825 ; 'Death of Biblis', 
in the Louvre), the exuberantly fertile Bosio (d. 1845) , and Cortot 
(d. 1843; 'The Messenger of Marathon'). To the academic school 
also belongs the once very popular James Pradier (1792-1852), 
known for his Graces at Versailles, his works on the Arc de l'Etoile 



and the Moliere Fountain, and his Victories at the Dome des In- 
valides; but this master possesses a certain grace and vivacity of 
conception which still exercise their charm. Romanticism proper 
played a very subordinate r61e in sculpture, where the decisive 
part was undoubtedly that taken by realism. Three masters here stand 
in the forefront: Fr. Rude. P. J. David d' Angers, and A. L. Barye. 
Francois Rude (1784-1855) is the strongest nature of the three; 
he invariably interests, even if he does not always satisfy us. Most 
of his creations are tainted with something a little too unquiet, too 
theatrical. Alongside his most expressive statue of Monge at Beaune 
stands the restless Ney of the Place de l'Observatoire ; his admirable 
Cavaignac in Montparnasse Cemetery contrasts with the very 
questionable figure of 'Napoleon awaking to immortality' at Fixin, 
near Dijon. His most famous work is the 'March Out' on the Arc de 
l'Etoile, which breathes the most fiery enthusiasm. The 'Fisher 
Boy' and 'Joan of Arc' in the Louvre also deserve special remark. 
His religious efforts are the least pleasing ('Baptism of Christ' at the 
Madeleine). — Pierre Jean David d' Angers (1783-1856 ; thus named 
from his native town, in contradistinction to the painter J. L. David), 
unlike Rude, always retains a certain air of sober reality. He has 
much in common with Rauch, and like him was fond of representing 
generals in their uniforms and scholars and artists in ideal costume. 
His busts and medallions occur by the hundred at Pere-Lachaise and 
elsewhere, but it is impossible for us to share the enthusiasm with 
which they were regarded by his contemporaries. The fame of the 
great animal sculptor Antoine Louis Barye (1796-1875) has, on the 
other hand, steadily increased. His larger works, such as the 'Lion 
and Serpent' in the Garden of the Tuileries, have become popular 
idols ; and the Joriginal casts of his small bronzes fetch nearly their 
weight in gold. His most successful followers are Fremiet (Jardin 
des Plantes), Cain (Tuileries), and Gardet (Luxembourg, Chantilly, 
etc.). By far the most eminent pupil of Rude is Jean Baptists 
Carpeaux^(1827-75), who died at a comparatively early age. His 
'Triumph of Flora' at the Louvre, his 'Ugolino' at the Tuileries, 
his vivacious busts, and, most of all, his group of 'Dancing' at the 
Opera, which is inspired by a truly Bacchic gust of existence, and 
his 'Quarters of the Globe' on the Fontaine de l'Observatoire assure 
him one of the highest places in the history of modern sculpture. 
(The last can Jbe best studied in the models at the Louvre, which 
cleariy reveal the feverish energy of the hand that made them.) 
With the great public the gentle maidens of his contemporary Chapu 
(1833-91) are still more popular (tomb of Regnault in the Ecole 
des Beaux-Arts). Among the pupils of David may be mentioned 
Carrier- Belleuse, Cavelier, Maindron, and Aime Millet. 

As we walk to-day through the Luxembourg Gallery, the public 
parks, the cemeteries, and the exhibitions we find, it is true, much 
academic conventionality, but there is also abundant evidence of a 


strong effort to rise above convention and to permeate works of art 
with personal feeling, besides a technique brought to a high state 
of perfection. The most conspicuous sculptors are Paul Dubois (b. 
1823), whose marvellously finished forms show the influence of the 
early Italians; Falguiere (1831-1900), whose fiery Provencal nature 
produces such admirable works as the 'Pegasus' of the Square de 
rOpe"ra at the same time as such doubtful productions as the great 
figure in the Pantheon; and Mercie (b. 1845), with his 'Gloria Victis' 
in the Hotel de Ville and his 'Quand Meme' in the Tuileries Garden. 
Among the many who might be signalized along with these we name 
Ernest Barrias ('First Funeral', in the Hotel de Ville), Quillaume 
(monument to Ingres , in the Ecele des Beaux- Arts), Crauk (mon- 
ument to Adm. Ooligny), Boucher ('At the Goal', in the Luxembourg 
Garden), St. Marceaux, and Puech. Dalou has been more inclined to 
adopt the pictorial methods of the 18th century. His latest and much 
criticized works are the Monument of the Republic (Place de la 
Nation) and the Monument to Alphand (Avenue du Bois-de-Bou- 
logne). The extreme of individuality in art is represented by the 
highly gifted Augusts Rodin, whose works, howevei, are often open 
to criticism ('The Kiss', 'Victor Hugo', 'Balzac', 'Mouth of Hell'). 
Desbois and others suggest themselves in the same connection. Per- 
haps the most striking plastic work of modern days is Bartholome's 
'Monument auxMorts', in Pere-Lachaise. Roty, Chaplain, Daniel Du- 
•puis, and others have brilliantly resuscitated the art of the medallist. 

On Aechitecttjre a few words must suffice. Under the First 
Empire the classical spirit was supreme (Madeleine, Exchange), 
under the Restoration it was Telaxed only so far as to allow the 
addition of the basilica (NotTe-Dame-de-Lorette, St. Vincent-de- 
Paul). Under Louis Philippe, however, a great revival of Gothic took 
place, headed by Viollet-le-Duc, Lassus, and others (restorations of 
Notre-Dame, the Sainte Chapelle, and Pierrefonds; Ste. Clotilde), 
and this was followed by a general eclecticism. Among the few 
really original works of the century honourable mention may be 
made of the Ecole des Beaux- Arts, by Duban; the church of St. 
Augustin, by Baltard; the Trocadero, built by Davioud and Bourdais 
in 1878; the church of the Sacre" Ooeur, by Abadie; and the Opera 
House, by Charles Gamier, the interior of which is especially effective. 
Viollet-le-Duc's 'Entretiens sur 1' Architecture' first broached the 
important principle that the exterior of a building must indicate its 
uses and adapt itself to the altered methods of construction. The 
reading-room of the Bibliotheque Nationale, by Labrouste, is an 
admirable example of the adaptation of iron-construction to the needs 
of a large room. 

The Industrial Abts reached the lowest deep of degradation 
under Louis Philippe, but the Count de Laborde's classic report on 
the London Exhibition of 1851 induced a great improvement, which 
at first took the form of a reversion to earlier styles. It was not until 


later that a really modern industrial art sprang up, in conjunction 
with the United States, England, and Belgium, and under the in- 
fluence which the products of Japan began to exert in Paris about 
1867. The visitor to Paris will enjoy tracing this development in 
the works of the pewterer (Desbois, Baffler), the glass-maker (QalU 
of Nancy), and the potter (Delaherche, Dalpeyrat, Bigot), as well as 
in furniture, tapestry, textile fabrics, and ornaments (Lalique). This 
field also is the scene of a varied and promising activity. 



1. Arrival in Paris. 

Railway Stations, see p. 29. — On arrival the traveller should 
hand his small baggage to a porter (facteur), follow him to the 
exit, where an octroi official demands the nature of its contents 
(see p. xii) , and call a cab (voiture de place). The cab then takes 
its place in the first row, which is reserved for engaged vehicles. 
After receiving the driver's number (numero), the traveller, if he 
has any registered luggage, tells him to wait for it ('restez pour 
attendre Its bagages'). Hand-bags and rugs should not be left un- 
guarded in the cab, at any rate not without making the driver notice 
the number of articles, as thefts are not infrequent. — If the tra- 
veller prefers to secure his registered luggage before calling a cab 
he will avoid the slight expense entailed by waiting, but if visiting 
Paris for the first time he will do well to engage one at once (by the 
hour; see below). Then, in the event of not finding accommodation 
at the hotel he has chosen, he can at once proceed to another, incur- 
ring little or no increase of fare by so doing. 

The Salle des Bagages (Douane) is opened 10-15 min. after the 
arrival of the train. The custom-house examination is generally 
lenient (comp. p. xii). After it is over the porter conveys the 
luggage to the cab, receiving 50 c. or more, according to the weight 
and number of the packages. The octroi official has again to be 
assured that the contents include nothing eatable. As a rule, the 
through-passenger from England will not be able to leave the station 
until 20-25 min. after his arrival. If preferred, however, he may tell 
the porter to carry his hand-baggage direct to one of the hotels near 
the railway-stations (see p. 10) and return afterwards for his trunk. 

The fare (course) from the railway- station to the town is H/2 fr. 
for a two-seated cab (at night 2^4 fr.); large articles of luggage, one 
piece 25 c, two pieces 50 c, three and more pieces 75 c; pourboire 
25 e. (comp. Appx., p. 41). If the cab has to wait more than !/ 4 hr. 
(which will probably be the case more often than not) the time-tariff 
comes into force: 2 and 2^2 fr P er hour by day, 2'/2 an< i 2 3 / 4 fr. by 
night. The tariff is printed on the 'numero'; see also Appx., p. 41. 

At the railway-stations, in addition to the ordinary cabs, Luggage 
Gabs (Voitures speciales avec galerie pour bagages) and Railway 

Baedekee. Paris. 15th Edit. 1 

2 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

Omnibuses (Omnibus de famille) are generally in waiting, but it is 
safer to engage them 4, 6, or 12 hours beforehand (see below). The 
order may run as follows : (M. le Chef du) Service des Voitures Spe- 
cials or des Omnibus de famille, Oare du Nord [de I'Est, etc.), Paris. 
Priere de faire prendre — personnes au train de (hour of arrival) ; 
signature. Telegrams of this nature are forwarded free by any station- 
master on the route. 

At the Oare du Nord and the Gare de V£st the Voitures Spiciales are 
stationed behind the omnibuses (see the placards); fares, per drive, in- 
cluding luggage, for 4 pers. 2 1 /* fr. by day (6 or 7 a.m. to 12.30 a.m.), by 
night 3 fr., or when ordered beforehand 3 and 4 fr. Omnibus de famille: 
fares (Gare du Nord), 6 pers. 6 fr., 12 pers. 10 fr., incl. luggage; (Gare de 
TEst) for driving to domicile, 3 pers. 3 fr. by day (7 a.m. to midnight), 
each addit. pers. 1 fr. ; by night 4 fr. and 1 fr. For driving from domicile 
to station , 5 pers. 5 fr. ; 60 kg. (135 lbs.) of luggage are carried free for 
1-3 pers., ICO kg. (225 lbs.) for 4-10 pers ; excess 1 c. per kg. — At the Gare 
Saint-Lazare and the Gare Montpamasse these 'voitures speciales' (for 4 pers.) 
cost per drive 2, per hour 2'/z f r. (at night 2^2 or 2 3 /4 fr.), or if ordered 
beforehand (12 hrs. notice necessary) 3'/2 or &V2 fr. ; luggage 25, 50, or 
75 c. for 1, 2, 3 or more pieces. — At the Gare d'Orlians (4 hrs. notice) 
the fares are: 1-2 pers. 3, 3 pers. 3 3 /4, 4 pers. 4'/2 fr., each, addit. pers. 
V2 fr. more. — At the Gare de Lyon the scale varies from 3 or 4 fr. for 
2 pers. to 10 or 15 fr. for 7 pers. according to the 'zone' (orders must be 
sent 12 hrs. in advance). 

2. Hotels and Pensions. 

Alphabetical List at the end of the Book, after the Index. 

The large hotels of the first class, which are among the finest in 
the world, are, of course, provided with all modern luxuries and 
comforts, such as electric light, passenger elevators or lifts, steam 
or hot-water heating, and baths. The charges correspond to the ac- 
commodation. Our list includes many other hotels of more modest 
pretensions, and even of the second class, where good accommodation 
is found at a more^ moderate rate. It is, of course, impossible to 
enumerate them all. The traveller who arrives in Paris in the evening 
will probably find the best chance of accommodation at one of the 
large hotels in the centre of the town, such as the Hotel Continental, 
Grand Hotel, Terminus, Hotel du Louvre, which have hundreds of 
rooms. These hotels have also the advantage that one pays for what 
one consumes at the time, without being bound down to regular meals. 

The prices given below have been furnished by the landlords or 
managers, and refer to one person for one day. Though they doubt- 
less vary somewhat from time to time, they will at least serve as 
a guide to the class of house one may expect. The double-bedded 
rooms are invariably the best, and the charge made for them is not 
always double that for a single room. If desired, breakfast is served 
in the visitor's own room at an extra charge of 50 c. or more. 
Luncheon (dejeuner; 12 to 2) and dinner (diner; between 6 or 6.30 
and 8 or 8.30) are served in the hotels of the first class at separate 
tables. In the winter-months (Dec. 1st to about the end of March) 
prices are lowered at many houses. 

Information. 2. HOTELS. 3 

The most fashionable hotels are to be found chiefly in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the Place Vendome, 'within the district 
bounded by the Place de l'Opera, on the N., the Tuileries Gardens 
(Rue de Rivoli), on the S., and the Avenue de l'Opera, on the E. 
The hotels in and near the Champs-Elysees are pleasant, but rather 
far from the centre of attractions, though that inconvenience is now 
mitigated by the Metropolitain (p. 28). Outside these fashionable 
quarters there are many other excellent hotels. 

To facilitate a choice we have arranged the hotels mentioned 
below in various groups. Though the largest and most aristocratic 
houses have been named first, it has been found impossible to follow 
any strict order of merit in the arrangement of the list. Thus many 
hotels in the later sections might with equal propriety appear in the 
earlier ones; while there are doubtless many deserving houses left 
entirely unmentioned. 

No hotel can be recommended as first-class that is not satisfactory 
in its sanitary arrangements, which should include an abundant flush of 
water and a supply of proper toilette paper. 

Hotels of the Highest Class. *Hdlel*Bri3tol and *H6tel du Bhin, 
Place Vendome 3 and 4 (Plan, Red, 18; special plan 7/t), two long 
established and aristocratic houses, patronized by royalty; suites 
of rooms (dining-room, drawing-room, 2-4 bedrooms, and bath) 
40-120 fr., dej. or D. 12 ft. or a. la carte; pension for servants 9 fr. 
— *H6tel Ritz, Place Vendome 15 (PI. R, 18 ; II), admirable cuisine 
and cellar, with 100 rooms and 70 bath-rooms, R. from I6V2 (with 
bath-room from 26V2)> B. 2% fr., de'j. & D. a. la carte. — *H6t.Ven- 
dome, Place Vendome 1, similar in style to the Bristol and the Rhin, 
with 70 R. from 10, B. 2, de'j. 5, D. 8, pens. 15 fr. — *ElysSe Palace 
Hotel (PI. R, 12; I), Avenue des Champs-Elyse'es 103, with 300 R. 
from 8, B. 2, dej. 6, D. 7, pens, from 20 fr. — *Hdt. de VAthenee, 
Rue Scribe 15, near the Opera House (PL R, 18; II), a favourite 
Tesort of English and Americans, with 150 R. from 8, B; 2, dej. 4, 
D. 5fr. — *H8t. Continental (PL R, 18; II), Rue de Castiglione 3, 
corner of the Rue de Rivoli, Opposite the Garden of the Tuileries, 
with 600 R. from 5, B. 11/2, dej. 5, D. 7 fr. (incl. wine). — *Grand 
Hotel (PL R, 18; II), Boulevard des Capucines 12, adjoining the 
Opera House, with 1000 R. from 8, B. H/2, dej. 5, D. 8, pens, from 
18 fr. — •Hot. Meurice, Rue de Rivoli 228 (PL R, 18; II), long 
frequented by British and American travellers, with 170 R. from 
6, B. 2, dej. 5, D. 7, pens, from 16 fr. — *Hot. Begina, Place de 
Rivoli 2 and Rue St. Honore' 185, with 250 R. from 6, B. 2, de'j. 4, 
D. 6, pens, from 14 fr. — *H6t. Chatham, Rue Daunou 17, to the S. 

f For explanation of references to Plan, see end of the book, before 
the index of streets. The italicised Roman numerals (//) refer to the 
special or district plans. The streets parallel with the Seine are numbered 
from E. to W., while the numbers of the cross-streets begin at the end 
next the river ; the even numbers are on the right, the odd on the left. 


4 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

of the Place de TOpera, an old favourite of American travellers, 
with 150 R. from 7 to 15, B. 2, dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 20 fr. 

Hotels of the First Class. In the Inner Town : *Hot. Terminus, 
opposite the Gare St. Lazare (PI. B, 18), to the S., somewhat out of 
the way for pleasare-visitors hut excellently managed, with 500 
R. from 5V2. B. IV2, dej. 5, D. 6 (incl. wine), pens, from 16 fr. — 
*6rand H6t. du Louvre, Rue de Rivoli 172 and Place du Palais- 
Royal (PI. R, 20; 77), with 300 R. from 6, B. 11/2, dej. 5, D. 6 
(incl. wine), pens, from 15 fr. 

In or near the Place Vendome (PI. R, 18; 11): Hot. Miraleau, 
Rue de la Paix 8, R. 5-10, B. 2, dej. 5, D. 6, pens, from 18 fr., Hot. 
Westminster, Rue de la Paix 11, R. from 6, B. 2fr., two high- 
class family hotels; Hot. de Hollande , Rue de la Paix 18, R. 15, 
B. 2, dej. 5, D. 7 fr., patronised by English, American, and Russian 
visitors; Hot. des Iles-Britanniques , Rue de la Paix 22, a family 
hotel, with 40 R. from 7 fr., B. 13/ 4 fr. — To the S. of the Place 
"Vendome : Hot. Castiglione, Rue de Oastiglione 12 ; *H6t. de Londres, 
Rue de Castiglione 5, R. from 5, B. 11/2, dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 
15 fr. — Hot. Brighton, Rue de Rivoli 218, with 75 R. from 6, 
B. 11/2, dej. 5, D. 7, pens, from 16 fr. — *77o«. de Lille et d'Albion, 
Rue St. Honore" 223, to the N. of the Rue de Rivoli, patronized 
by the English and Americans, with 168 R. from 5, B. 1 3 U, dej. 5, 
D. 6, pens, from 16 fr, ; Hot. de France et Choiseul, Rue St. Honore 
239. — *Orand-Hdt. Normandy, Rue de l'Echelle 7 and Rue 
St. Honore' 256, with 180 R. from 6, B. II/2, dej. 5, D. 6, pens, 
from 16 fr. ; *H6t. Binda, Rue de l'Echelle 11, near the Avenue 
de TOpera, with 100 R. from 5, B. I1/2, D. (incl. wine) 6, pens, 
from 15 fr.; these two frequented hy Americans and English. 

To the S.E. of the Place de TOpera, excellently situated : *Hot. 
Bellevue, Avenue de TOpera 39, with 90 R. from 5, B. i l /%, de'j. 4, 
D. 6, pens. 14-20 fr. ; *776t. des Deux-Mondes, Avenue de TOpera 
22 (PI. R, 18, 19; 77), with 150 R. from 6, B. I1/2, dej. 4, D. 5, 
pens, from 15 fr. — *H6t. Scribe, Rue Scribe 1 (PI. R, B, 18; 77), 
in the same building as the Jockey Club (p. 43), with 120 R. from 6, 
B. i l /% dej. 4, D. 6 (incl. wine), pens, from 15 fr. 

In or near the Chamfs-Elysees (see also p. 7): *H6t. d'Albe, 
Avenue des Champs-Elysees 101 and Avenue de TAlma 55, British- 
American house, with 130 R. from 8 to 25, B. 2, de'j. 5, D. 7, pens, 
from 18 fr. — More to the S., in the direction of the Seine: *H6t. 
de la Tremoille, Rue de la Tremoille 14 and Rue Boccador 12, near 
the Place de TAlma (PI. R, 12; 7), with 180 R. from 4 to 14, B. 2, 
de'j. 5, D. 7, pens. 11-20 fr. — *H6t. Langham, Rue Boccador 24, 
near the Av. de TAlma, patronized by the Americans and English, 
with 100 R. from 6 to 20, B. 2, de'j. 5, D. 8, pens, from 18 fr. — 
*Hot. Meyerbeer, Rue Montaigne 3, near the Rond-Point (PI. R, 15 ; 
77), with 80 R. from 6, B. li/ 2 , de'j. 4, D. 6, pens, from 15 fr. 

Information. 2. HOTELS. 5 

Near the Place de l'Etoile (PL B, 12; I): Hot. Imperial, Rue 
Christophe-Colomb 4, with 80 K. from 5 to 12 fr., B. 1% de'j. 4, 
D. 5., pens, from 15 fr., frequented by Americans. — *Hotel Beau- 
Site, Rue de Presbourg 4, a fashionable American family hotel, with 
40 R. from 10 to 15, B. 2i/ 2 , dej. 7, D. 10, board 16 fr.; all meals 
served in private rooms. — *H6t. Campbell, Avenue de Fried- 
land 45, a family hotel with 90 R. from 5, B. I1/2, dej. 5, D. 6, pens, 
from 15 fr. — *HH. d'lena, Avenue d'lena 36, patronized by the 
English and Americans, with 200 R. from 4 to 20, B. H/ 2 , de'j. 5, 
D. 7, pens, from 12i/ 2 fr. 

On the Left Bank of the Seine : *Palais d'Orsay, at the Gare 
du Quai-d'Orsay (PL R. 17 ; II; see p. 292), Quai d'Orsay 9, not 
far from the Louvre, with 400 R. from 61/2, B. H/ 2 , dej. 5, D. 6 
(incl. wine), pens, from 15 fr. 

Other Hotels (First and Second Class). The hotels in this section 
are arranged topographically, and their situation and charges will 
give a rough idea of their relative excellence. Oomp., however, the 
remarks at pp. 2 and 3. 

1. Hotels in the W. Part of the Inner Town. 
Between the Place de la Concorde and the Madeleine on the W. and 
the Palais-Royal and Boul. Montmartre on the E. 

To the S. of the Place Vendome, in the Rue de Castiglione 
(PL R, 18 ; 11): No. 4, Cecil; No. 6, Metropole, with 60 R. from 5, 
B. I1/2, de'j. 4, D. 6, board from 10 fr. ; No. 7, Dominici, with 100 
R. from 5, B. l!/ 2 , dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 13 fr., English house. — 
Hotel Tivollier, Rue du Vingt-Neuf Juillet 4, R. 3-6, pens. 7-10 fr. 

In the Rue de Rivoli (VI. R, 18; II), adjoining the Louvre and 
the Garden of the Tuileries, a favourite English quarter : No. 208, 
* Wagram, with 70 R. from 5, B. 1 1/2, de'j. 3i/ 2 , D- 5, pens. 12-14 fr. ; 
No. 202, and Rue St. Honore' 211, *St. James et d' Albany, with 200 
R. from 3 to 15, B. I1/2, de'j. 4, D. 4, pens. 10-15 fr. — In the 
side- streets between the Rue de Rivoli and the Rue St. Honore 
(PL R, 18; II): Hot. de Castille, Rue Cambon 37, with 70 R. from 4, 
B. I1/2, de'j. 4, D. 5, pens, from 12 fr. ; Hot. de la Tamise, Rue 
d' Alger 4, with 32 R. from 3, B. 11/2, de'j. S l / 2 , D. & l / 2 , pens, from 
10 fr.; Hot. d' Oxford et de Cambridge , Rue d' Alger 13, with 70 R. 
from 31/2, B. I1/2, de'j. 3»/ 2 , D. 4 (wine included), pens. 10-14 fr.; 
Hot. de Paris et d'Osborne, Rue St. Roch 9, with 55 R. from 3, 
B. ll/ 2> de'j. 3, D. 3^2 (incl. wine), pens, from 9 fr. ; *Prince Albert, 
Rue St. Hyacinthe 5, R. 31/2-6, B. I1/4, dej. 2 1/2, D. 31/2, pens, from 
8 fr. — For other hotels near the Louvre, see p. 9. 

Near the Rue de la Paix , to the N.W. and N.E. of the Place 
Vendome (PL R, 18; II), between the Avenue de POpe'ra and the 
Boulevard des Capucines : Hot. de Calais, Rue des Oapucines 5, with 
80 R. from 4, B. 2, de'j. 3, D. 4, pens. 9-11 fr. — In the Rue Daunou 
the first cross-street from the N. end of the Rue de la Paix : No. 4, 

6 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

Hdt. de Rastadt; No. 7, Hot. de VEmpire (American clientele), with 
30 R. from 5 to 12, B. 2, de'j. 4, D. 5, pens. 14-17 fr.; No. 6, Hdt. 
d' Orient, with 80 R. from 5 to 8, B. life, de'j. 4, D. 5, pens, from 
12 fr. — More to to the E. : Hot. Louis-le-Orand, Rue Louis-le- 
Grand 2 and Rue des Petits-Champs, with 40 R. from 31/2. B. IV2, 
de'j. 3, D. 4 fr., pens. 9-12 fr., well spoken of; Hot. des Etats-Unis, 
Rue d'Antin 16, with 60 R. from 3, B. I1/4, de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. 
wine), pens. 9-12 fr. ; Hot. d'Antin, Rue d'Antin 18, with 36 R. 
from 31/2, B. 11/,, de'j. 37 2 , D. 4 (inch wine), pens, from 10 fr. 

Near the Boulevard des Italiens , to the E. of the Avenue de 
fOpe'ra (PI. R, 21 ; II): Hot. de Port-Mahon, Rue de Port-Mahon 9 
(Russian clientele), with 40 R. from 3, B. IV4, de'j. 3, D. 372 (incl. 
wine), pens, from 9 fr. — Orand-Hotel de la Neva, Rue Monsigny 9, 
with 50 R. from 3 fr., B. 60 c, dej. 3,D.4(incl. wine), pens, from 11 fr.; 
Hot. de Manchester, Rue de Grammont 1, with 40 R. from 472, B. 172) 
de'j. 372, D. 4 (inch wine), pens. 10-13 fr.; Hot. Favart, Rue de 
Marivaux 5, opposite the Opera Comique, with 45 R. from 4, B. 1, 
de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens. 10-15 fr. 

In the Botjlbvaeds des Capucines and des Italiens and their 
side-streets (PL R, G, 18, 21 ; 11): *Grand-H6tel des Capucines, Boul. 
des Capucines 37, with 70 R. from 5, B. I72, dej. 4, D. 6, pens. 12- 
20 fr. ; Maison Meublie (Cheepotel), with 42 R. from 2, B. IV2 ft., 
Maison Meublee (Andrieux), with 50 R. from 4, B. 172 fr., both in the 
Boul. des Capucines, 25 and 29. — *H6t. de Bade, Boul. des Italiens 
32 and Rue du Helder 6, an old-established house, with 200 R. 
from 5, B. 172> Q e'j. 372i D. 5, pens, from 12 fr. ; *H6t. de Russie, 
at the E. end of the Boul. des Italiens (No. 2), at the comer of the 
Rue Drouot, with 100 R. from 5, B. 17 2 , de'j. 3y 2 , D. 47 2 , pens, 
from 15 fr. — On the N. side of the Boul. des Italiens. In the Rue 
du Helder: No. 8, *H6t. du Tibre, with 55 R. from 6, B. 17 2 , dej. 4, 
D. 5, pens. 13-20 fr. ; No. 9, Hot. du Helder, with 80 R. from 5, B. 1 1/ 2 , 
de'j. 4, D. 5-6, pens, from 12 fr.; No. 11, Hot. Richmond, a family 
hotel, with 60 R. from 3 to 12, B. 172> ae 'j- 4, D. 5 (wine included), 
pens. 12-20 fr.; No. 16, *H6t. de VOpera, with 40 R. from 4 to 12, 
B. I72, de'j. 372, D. 4, pens. 12 fr. — Hdt. Adelphi, Rue Taitbout 4, 
with 66 R. from 5, B. 172i dej. 37 2) D. 5 (inch wine), pens. 10- 
15 fr. — In the Rue Laffitte : No. 20, Hot. Byron, with 50 R. from 37 2 , 
B. 174, de'j. 372, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens, from 77 2 fr.; No. 32, *H6t. 
des Pays-Bas, with 50 R. from 3 to 7, B. 17 4 , de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. 
wine),pens. from 9 fr. ; No. 38, Hot. Laffitte, with 27 R. from 3, B. 
174 fr. — "Hot. Rossini, Rue Rossini 16, with 60 R. from 3 fr. 

To the N.E. of the Place de l'Op^ra (PI. B, 21; II): *6rand- 
Hdtel Suisse, Rue Lafayette 5, with 44 R. from 472, B. 17a, de'j. 37 2 , 
D. 47 2 (incl. wine), pens, from 97 2 fr-; Hotel Victoria, Cite - d'Antin 
10, with 40 R. from 5, B. 17 4 , de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens. 9-16 fr. ; 
Hot. de France, Cite" d'Antin 22, with 40 R. from 3, B. li/ 4 fr. ; Hot. 

Information. 2. HOTELS. • 

St. Georges et de Barcelone, Rue St. Georges 18, with 50 R. from 4, 
B. I1/4, dej. 3V2, D- 4 (incl. wine), pens. 12 fr. — Farther to the N. : 
Hot. de Berne, Rue de Chateaudun 30, with 35 R. from 3V2. B. II/4 fr. ; 
Hot. Qlatz (private ; English and American clientele), Rue de Clichy 45, 
pens. 9-12 fr. 

Near the Madeleine, to the N. of the boulevards (PI. R, G, 18 ; II). 
Rue Caumartin: No. 14, Orande Bretagne, with 70 R. from 4, B. 11/2, 
de'j. 4, D. 5, pens, from 11 fr. ; No. 33, St. Petersbourg, mainly English 
and American customers, with 250 R. from 5, B. l'/g, de'j. 3, D. 4, 
pens, from 10 fr. — Hot. de Size, Rue de Seze 16, with 30 R. from 3, 
B. II/2, dej. 4, D. 5 fr. (incl. wine). — Vignon, Rue Vignon 23, with 
40 R. from 37 2 , B. 1 1/2, de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens. 10-14 fr. — 
Lartisien, Passage de la Madeleine 4, with 30 K. from 27 2 > B. IY4, 
de'j. 3, D. 3^2 (incl. wine), pens, from 8 fr. 

To the S. of the Boulevard de la Madeleine: *H6t. Burgundy, 
Rue Duphot 8, with 79 R. from 3, B. li/ 2 , de'j. B% D- ^1% pens. 
8V2-I3V2 fr.; Hot. de la Concorde, Rue Richepanse 6, with 66 R. 
from 4721 B. I74, de'j. 37 2 , D. 4 (incl. wine), pens, from 10 fr. 

To the S.W. of the Madeleine. In the Cite' du Retiro : No. 5, 
"'■Hot. Perey (entr. Rue Boissy-d'Anglas 35 and Rue du Faubourg-St- 
Honore 30), quietly situated, with 40 R. from 4, B. I72, dej. 3, D. 4, 
pens. 9-12 fr. ; No. 9, *H6t.-Pens. Tete, with 36 R. from 37 2 , B. 17 4 , 
de'j. 272) D. 372 1 pens. 8-10 fr. ; No. 3, Hot. de la Cite du Retiro, 
family house, with 30 R., pens, from 7 fr. — Farther to the S., near 
the Placode laConcorde: *H6t. Vouillemont,'Rue Boissy-d'Anglas 15, 
with 130 R. from 5, B. 17 2 , dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 15 fr. 

To the N."W. of the Madeleine: Hot. Malesherbes, Boul. Males- 
herbes 26, with 64 R. from 4, B. iy 2 , dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 14 fr. — In 
the side-streets of the Boul. Malesherbes: Hot. Bedford, Rue de 
lArcade 17, with 80 R. from 5, B. 17 2 , dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 
127 2 fr.; V Arcade, Rue de 1' Arcade 7, with 40 R. from 37 2 , 
B. 1, de'j. 3, D. 372, pens. from8fr. ; Hot. Buckingham, RuePasquier 
32, with 45 R. from 3y 2 . B - 172. de'j. 3, D. 3y 2 (incl. wine), pens. 
8-10 fr.; Hot. Oceanique, Rue de la Pe'piniere 17, patronized by the 
English, with 30 R. from 5, B. iy 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4, pens, from 12 fr.; 
Orand-Hotel Alexandra, Rue de laBienfaisancel6, near St. Augustin, 
with 55 R. from 4, B. 17 4 , de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens. 9-14 fr.; 
Hot. Sydney, Rue des Mathurins 50, with 50 R. from 372> B. I74, 
de'j. 3, D 372: pens, from 9 fr. 

2. Hotels in the Champs-Elysees and their Environs. 
To the N. of the Rond-Point des Champs-Elyse'es (PI. R, B, 1 5 ; II) : 
Hot. Montaigne, Rue Montaigne 30, Dutch clientele, with 50 R. from 
4, B. I72, de'j. 3, D. 4, pens, from 12 fr. — Near the N. end of the 
Avenue d'Antin: Bradford, Rue St. Philippe-du-Eoule 10 and Rue 
d'Artois 14, with 50 R. from 4, B. 17 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4, pens, from 

8 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

11 fr. — To the S. of the Rond-Point: *H6t. da Palais, Cours- 
la-Reine 28, Anglo-American clientele, with 94 R. from 4, B. l l fa, 
de'j. 4, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr. 

To the "W. of the Rond-Point, in the side-streets of the Avenue 
de l'Alma (PL R. 12: J): Grosvenor, Rue Pierre-Charron 59, with 
40 R. from 5, B. i*-/ 2 , dej. 31/2, D- ^/a ( incl - wine), pens, from lOfr. ; 
Wesi End, Rue Cle"ment-Marot 7, American clientele, with 45 R. 
from 4, B. 17 2 , de'j. 31/2, D- 4, pens, from 10 fr. 

Near the Place de l'Etoile (PL B, 12), to the N.W.: *Royal Hotel, 
Avenue de Friedland 33, with 80 R. from 5, B. IV2, dej. 4, D. 5, pens, 
from 12Y2f r -; The American, Ave. de Friedland 19, R. from 4, 
B. IV2, de'j. 3 J /2i D - 4, pens, from 8 fr. — Splendid Hotel, Avenue 
Carnot lMs, w ith 60 B. from 5, B. 11/2* de'j. 4, D - 5, P eTls - from 10 fr - ! 
Columbia, Avenue Kle'ber 16, with 54 R. from 5, B. 1 1/2, dej. 4, D. 5, 
pens. 15 fr.: Lord Byron, Rue Lord-Byron 16, R. 4-7, B. l'/ 2 ) dej- 
3 J /2' D. 4^2) pens, from 12 fr. — .Hot. dea Champs- Ely sees, Rue 
Balzac 3, with 30 R. from 3, B. H/ 2 , de'j. 21/2, D. 3, pens, from 8 fr.; 
Beaujon, Rae Balzac 8, Anglo-American clientele, with 48 R. from 
31/2, B. II/2, de'j. 21/2, D. 372, pens. 8-12 fr. — Farther to the E.: 
Haussmann, Boul. Hanssmann 192, with 34 R. from 3, B. 1, dej. 
2 ! / 2 , D. 3 (incl. wine), pens. 6-11 fr. 

Near the Place des Etats-Unis (PL R, 12; /): Hot. International, 
Avenue d'le'na 60, with 80 R. from 5, B. l'/ 4 , de'j. 3, D. 4, pens. 10- 
15 fr. ; Hot. Belmont et de Bassano, Rue Bassano 30, American and 
British family hotel, with 45 R. from 6, B. li/ 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4, pens. 
10-15 fr.; Hot. Ferras, Rue Hamelin 32, with 50 R. from 4, B. H/2, 
de'j. 4, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr. 

3. Hotels in the E.' Part of the Inner Town. 

To the E. of the Rue de Kichelieu and the Rae Drouot. 

The hotels in the central boulevards (Montrnarcre, Poissonniere, 
Bonne-Nouvelle) and their side-streets (PI. R, 21,. 24; III") are 
also convenient, though somewhat farther from the tourist-centre. In 
the Boul. Montmartre : No. 3, Grand-Hot. Bore, with 70 R. from 3, 
B. l J /2 fr., restaurant a la carte; No. 10, Hot. Ronceray (Terrasse 
Jouffroy), with 90 R. from 4, B. l l / 2 , de'j. 3, D. 5 (incl. wine), pens, 
from 11 fr. In the Boul. Poissonniere : No. 30, Beau-Sejour, with 
100 R. from 3, B. 1^2 fr-, restaurant a la carte; No. 16, Rougemont, 
with 60 R. from 5, restaurant a la carte (see p. 17). — Much farther 
out, to the E., "Hot. Moderne (PL R, 27; 111), Place de la Re'- 
publique, with 420 rooms from 4, B. li/ 4 , de'j. 372, D- 472, pens, 
from 12 fr. 

To the N. of the Boul. Poissonniere : Hot. de la Cite Bergere et 
Hot. Bernaud, Cite' Bergere 4, with 50 R. from 3, B. 1Y 4 , de'j. 23/ 4 , 
D.372 (incl. wine), pens. 772-12 fr. ; * Grand- Hotel Bergere ty Maison 
Blanche, Rue Bergere 34, with 100 R. from 5, B. I72, dej. 4, D. 5 
(incl. wine), pens, from 1272 fr- In the Rue de Tre'vise : No. 10, 

Information. 2. HOTELS. 9 

*H6t. de Cologne, with 80 R. from 3, B. 1 fr., no other meals served; 
No. 38, *Grand-H6tel de Paris el de Nice, with 150 R. from 3, 
B. 1 1/ 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens. 10-15 fr. ; No. 44, Hot. de la 
Havane (maison meublee), with 60 R. from 3, B. 174 ft- — Grand- 
Hotel de Baviere , Rue du Conservatoire 17 , with 60 R. from 5, 
B. li/ 2 , dej. 372. D..41/2 [incl. wine), pens. 10-14 fr. ; *H6t. de 
Lyon et de New York, Rue du Conservatoire 7 , with 31 R. from 3, 
B. 17 2 , de'j. 37 2 , D. 472 (incl. wine), pens. 8-15 fr. 

To the N. of the Boulevard Bonue-Nouvelle : Hotel du Pavilion, 
Rue de l'Echiquier 36, with 120 R. from 4, B. iy 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4 
(incl. wine), pens, from 12 fr. ; Grand-Hotel Violet, Passage Violet 
8-12, with 110 R. from 3, B. iy 2 , de'j. 31/2, D- 5 (incl. wine), well 
spoken of; *H6t. d'Autriche, Rue d'Hauteville 37, with 60 R. from 5, 
B. I72, de'j. 372: D- 472, pens. 12 fr.; Hot. Indo-Hollandais, Rue 
d'Hauteville 8, with 60 R. from 2% B. 17 2 , dej. 3, D. 37 2 (incl. 
wine), pens, from 10 fr., well spoken of. 

To the S. of the Boulevard Montmartre and near the Bourse : 
Hot. Vivienne, Rue Vivienne 40, with 50 R. from 372, B. 1 fr., 
restaurant a la carte; Hot. de Rouen, RueNotre-Dame-des-Victoires 
13, with 42 R. from 37 2) B. y 4 , dej. 37 2 , D. 4 (incl. wine), pens, from 
8 fr. ; Hot. des Colonies, RuePaul-Leloiig27, off the Rue Montmartre, 
with 50 R. from 372, dej. 27 2 -3, D. 272 4 (incl. wine), pens, from 
972 fr-; Hot. des Palmiers, Rue Grene'ta 39, near the Boul. de Sevasto- 
pol and. the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, R. 2-4 fr. 

Near the Louvre (PI. R, 21; II, III) : *Grand-H6tel du Palais 
Royal, Rue de Valois 4, to the E. of the Palais-Royal, with a 
garden on the roof (lift), with 70 R. from 5, B. iy 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4 
(incl. wine), pens, from 10 fr. ; Central Hotel, Rue du Louvre 40, 
near the Bourse de Commerce (p. 187), with 300 R. from 4, 
B. IY2, dej. 372i D. 4 fr. (incl. wine); Grand-Hotel du Rhone, Rue 
Jean-Jacques-Rousseau 5, with 110 R. from 37<i, B. 1, de'j. 272, 
D. 3 (incl. wine), pens, from 8fr., good. In the Rue Croix-des- 
Petits-Champs: No. 4, Hot. da Globe, with 52 R. from 372, B. 1Y 4 , 
de'j. 3, D. 372 (incl. wine); No. 10, Hot. de I'Uniuers et du Portugal, 
with 72 R. from 3, B. IV4, dej. 3, D. 3 l /i (incl. wine), pens. 8- 
12 fr., well spoken of. *Hdt. Sainte-Marie, Rue de Rivoli 83, with 
55 R. from 3, B. 1 1/4, de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens, from 9 fr. Far- 
ther to the E. : Hot. Britannique, Avenue Victoria 20, patronized 
by the English and Americans, with 30 R. from 4, B. l 1 /^ dej. I72- 
272, D. 3, pens. 8 fr. 

Near the Bibliotheque Nationale (PL R, 21; II, IIT): *Grand- 
Hotel Louvois, Place Louvois, with 75 R. from 4, B. I72, de'j. 3'/2, 
D. 47 2 , (incl. wine), pens. 12-16 fr.; *H6t. de Malte, Rue de 
Richelieu 63, frequented by the Dutch and Scandinavians, with 
75 R. from 4, B. V/ 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4, pens, from 11 fr. 

10 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

4. Hotels on the Left Bank of the Seine. 

These hotels are less frequented by the pleasure-visitor to Paris. 

In the Quartier St. Germain (PI. E, 17, 16, 20, 21; IV; see 
also p. 5): Hotel du Quai-Voltaire, Quai Voltaire 19, near the Pont 
des Saints-Peres, with 46 E. from 3y 2 , B. 1, de'j. 3, D. 3y 2 , pens. 
8-12 fr.; Hot. des Ambassadeurs, Eue de Lille 45, with 35 R. from 
3, B. 1, de'j. 3, D. 4 (incl. wine), pens. 9fr.; Hot. Solferino, Eue 
de Lille 9, with 36 R. from 3% B. iy 4 , de'j. 3, D. 3»/ 2 (incl- wnie), 
pens, from 8 fr., good ; Hot. Jeanne d'Arc, Rue Vaneau 59, with 40 R. 
from 4, B. 1, de'j. 2^2, D. 3 (incl. wine), pens, from 7 fr. ; Hot. de 
Londres, Rue Bonaparte 3, with 32 R. from 2 1 / 2 , B. 1, de'j. 2 l /n, 
D. 3 fr. ; Hot. des Saints-Peres , Rue des Saints -Peres 65, with 
50 R. from &i/ 2 , R . 1% dej. 3y 2 , D. 4 (incl. wine), pens, from 
lO 1 ^ fr. , Hot. du Bon-Lafontaine, Rue de Grenelle 16, with 60 R. 
from 21/2, B. I1/4, de'j. 3i/ 2 , D- 4 (incl. wine), pens, from 10 fr., 
these two frequented by the French clergy. In the Rue Jacob : 
No. 44, Hot. Jacob, with 55 R. from 3, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 21/2 fr- (incl. 
wine); No. 29, Hot. d'Isly, unpretending, with 53 R. from l'/ 2 , 
B. 1, de'j. 21/2, D. 3'/ 2 fr. (incl. wine); No. 58, Maison Meublee 
Teissedre, with 62 R. from 272, B. 1 fr., well spoken of. — Hot. de 
Seine, Rue de Seine 52, with 34 R. from 31/2, B. iy 4 , dej. 2y 4 , 
D. 2 3 / 4 (incl. wine). 

In the Quartier Latin (PI. E, 19; V). Boulevard St. Michel: 
No. 3, Grand -Hotel d'Harcourt, with 57 E. from 2, B. ll/ 4 fr.; 
No. 21, Cluny-Square, with 32 E. from 3l/ 2 , B. 1 fr. ; No. 31, Grand 
Hotel de Suez, R. 3-4, B. 1, de'j. li/ 2 , D. 2 fr. (incl. wine); No. 41, 
Hot. Dacia, with 40, R. from 3, B. 3/ 4 , de'j. 2, D. 2>/ 2 (incl. wine), 
pens. 7-8 fr. — 'Hot. des Etrangers , Rue Racine 2, E. 2 J / 2 -5, 
B. 1, dej. 2Y2 (incl. wine), pens. 7 fr. ; Hot. St. Pierre, Eue de 
l'Ecole-de-Me'decine 4, with 40 R. from iy 2 , B. 3/ 4] de'j. or D. 2'/ 2 
(incl. wine), pens, from 7!/ 2 fr. , good; Hdt. du Midi, Rue du 
Sommerard 22, R. 3'/ 2 fr., B. 60 c, dej. 2, D. 2y 2 fr. (incl. wine); 
Hot. de Constantine, Rue Cujas 18, with 60 R. from 30 to 40 fr. per 
month, Hot. St. Michel, Rue Cujas 19, with 75 R. from 2 fr., these 
two good. 

Near the Luxembourg: Hotel Comeille, Eue Corneille 5, ad- 
joining the Ode'on, with 90 R. from 4 fr., B. 1, de'j. 2, D. 2i/ 2 fr. 
(incl. wine); Hot. Malherbe, Rue de Vaugirard 11, with 54 R. from 
272) B. 3 / 4 , de'j. or D. 2 fr. (incl. wine); H6t. du Luxembourg 
(meuble"), Rue de Vaugirard 54, E. from 3V2, B. 3 / 4 fr.; Hot. du 
Senat, Eue de Tournon 7, well spoken of. 

5. Hotels near the Railway Stations. 

Garb du Noed (PJ. B, 23, 24). Opposite the exit : H6t. Terminus- 

du-Nord, with 200 B. from 37 2 , B. l 1 ^^:., restaurant a la carte. In 

the Eue St. Quentin: No. 37, Hot. Cailleux, with 45 E. from 3, B. 1, 

dej. 3!/ 2 , D. 4 fr. (incl. wine) ; No. 31, H6t. de la Oare-du-Nord,with 

Information. 2. PENSIONS. 11 

23 R. from 2, B. I1/4 fr.; No. 40, New Hotel, with 40 R. from 3, 
B. 1, dej. 372, D. 4 fr. (incl. wine). 

Garb de l'Est (PI. B. 24). Rue de Strasbourg : No. 5, Hot. de 
la Ville-de-New- York, with 32 R. from 3, B. 1, de"j. 3, D. 5 fr. (incl. 
wine); No. 11, Grand Hdtel du Chemin-de-Fer, with 40 R. from 2^2) 
B. 1 fr. — Boulevard de Strasbourg: No. 72. Hot. de Paris, with 50 R. 
from 3, B. V2-IV4, de'j. 2% D. 3 fr. (incl. wine); No 74, Hot. de 
VEurope, with 45 R. from 3V2, B- 1 1 /* de"j. or D. 2ty 2 fr. ; No. 87, Hot. 
de Champagne § de Mulhouse (meuble), with 37 R. from 3, B. 1 fr. ; 
No. 93, Hot. des Voyageurs (meuble), with 60 R. from 2fr. — Hdt. de 
France (meuble"), Cite Jarry 3 (entr. Boul. de Strasbourg 67), with 
36 R. from 2, B. 3 / 4 -lV4 fr. ; Hot. Caffarel (meuble), Rue Albouy 46, 
with 70 R. from 2, B. 3/ 4 -l fr. 

Garb St. Lazare ( Chemin de Fer de V Ouest, Rive Droite; PI. B, 18). 
Hot. Terminus (see p. 4); Londres et New York, Place du Havre 15, 
with 100 R. from 4, B. li/ 2 , d.6j. 3, D. 4 fr.; GrandHot. Anglo- Americain, 
Rue St. Lazare 113; farther on, Grand Hotel de Rome, Rue de Rome 
15 ; Belleville (meuble), Rue Pasquier ; Cosmopolite Hot. (meuble), Rue 
de 1' Arcade 62. 

Gabs MoNTFAKNASSE(C7iemm de fer de V Ouest, Rive Gauche; PI. 
G, 16). H6t. de la Marine et des Colonies, Boul. Montparnasse 59, 
with 80 R. from 4, B. H/ 4 , de"j. 2'/ 2 , D. 3 (incl. wine), pens. 10 fr. 

Gare de Lyon (P. G, 28). Terminus du Chemin de Fer de Lyon, 
Boul.Diderot 19, with 45 R. from 4, B. 1 % de"j. 4, D. 5 fr. (incl. wine). 

Gares d'Orleans. The Hotel at the Gare du Quai-d'Orsay (PI. R, 
17; II) is mentioned at p. 5, and is not far from those on the left 
bank given at the beginning of section 4 (see p. 10). — The hotels 
near the Gare du Quai-d'Austerlitz (PI. G, 25) are all small (in the 
Boul. de l'Hopital, opposite the exit). 

Pensions. These are fairly numerous, especially near the 
Champs-Elyse'es. A bedroom, with full board, may be obtained 
from 6 to 15 fr. per day. 

Near the Place de l'Etoile (PI. B, 12-15) : Pens. Taylor, Ave. de 
Friedland 28 (101/2-15 V2 fr-) ; Hot. Balzac, Rue Balzac 4 (9-12 fr.) ; 
Gaigneau, Boul. Pereire 175 (170 fr. monthly) ; Villa St. Georges 
(L. Sinet), Rue Demours 6 (6-15 fr.); Pens. Lafayette (G. Gue'bin), 
Rue de la Pompe 38 (7-12 fr.) ; Mme. Morand, Rue Washington 13 
(5-6 fr.); Mme. Blackader, Rue du Dome 4 (from 6 fr.). — Near the 
Champs-Elyse'es : Mme. Le Flaguais, Rue Boissiere 30 (from 10 fr.) ; 
Bellot- Carol, Rue Boccador 4 (8-12 fr.); Mme. Condat, Eue Cle'- 
ment-Marot 18 (7-10 fr.); Villa Marceau, Avenue Marceau 37 
(8 fr.) ; Hawkes, Av. du Trocade"ro 7 (7-12 fr.); Mile. Geoffroy, Rue 
Galile'e 41 (8-14 fr.); Mrs. Alexander, Rue du Dome 4 (from 6 fr.); 
Mile, de Montreuil, Av. Yictor-Hugo 114 (6-10 fr.); Pens. Lamar- 
Une (H. King), Av. Victor-Hugo 176 (7 fr.); Mme. de Naudin, Rue 
Gustave-Couibet 22 (5-7 fr.); Mme. Lizot, Rue du Colise'e ll^s 

12 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

(8-12 fr.). — At Passy (PI. R, 8, 5, 4) : Villa Nicolo, Rue Nicolo 42 
(6V2-8 fr.); Mme. Piscot, Rue de Lafontaine 53 (for ladies only; 
10 fr.); Mmes, Lehmann , Rue Scheffer 7 (6-8 fr.). — To the W. 
of the Place de l'Etoile: Mme. Ducreux, Rue Lesueur 10 (7-10 fr.); 
Tison, Rue Lalo 8, near the Boul. Lannes (8-10 fr.); Villa Stella 
(Mme. Ohailley), Rue Chalgrin 16 (8-12 fr.). 

In the Batignolles quarter (PI. B, 11, 14): Brenzinger, Boul. Pereire 
69 (from 150 fr. monthly); Cordowinus, Rue Oardinet 52 (6-10 fr.); 
Richard's Family Hotel, Rue Darcet 22, near the Place de Clichy 
(PI. B, 17), R. 3-6, pens, from 8 fr. 

In the centre of the city: Hot. Le Gal, Cite' Bergere 12, near the 
Boul. Poissonniere (from 6 fr.); The Marlboro', Rue Taitbout 24 
(8-1272 fr.); Schwarz, Rue Constance 14 (71/ 2 -8 fr.). 

Iu the He de la Cite (PL R, 20 ; V) and on the left bank of the 
Seine : Barbier, Rue de Harlay 20, near de Palais de Justice (7-8 fr.); 
Van Pelt, Boul. Latour-Maubourg 4 (10-16 fr.) ; Mme. Paulier, Rue 
de Seine 72 (from 7 fr.); La'ille, Rue des Ecoles 41 (7-10 fr.) ; Mme. 
Delarue, Rue d'Assas 7 (35-50 t'r. weekly) ; Blondeau, Rue Gay- 
Lussac 8 (from 180 fr. monthly); Debacq, Rue des Feuillantines 5 
(5-6 fr.) ; Clement, Boul. Raspail 140 (7-8 fr.) ; Pernotte, Rue Notre- 
Dame-des-Champs 117 (61/4-81/2 fr.)- 

Residence Universitaire or University Hall, Boul. St. Michel 95 
and 109 (105-250 fr. monthly), see p. 53. — Lady students are 
received by Mrs. Edward Ferris (Amer.), 97 Boulevard Arago (p. 53), 
and at the Franco-English Guild, 6 Rue de la Sorbonne, from 150 fr. 
per month (see p. 53). 

Furnished Apartments are easily obtained in all the principal quar- 
ters of Paris. A yellow ticket on the door indicates furnished, a white 
unfurnished rooms. In winter a furnished room costs 50-100 fr. per month, 
a small suite of rooms 150-200 fr., according to situation; in summer prices 
are much lower. In the Latin Quarter a single room may be obtained for 
30-50 fr. a month. 

3. Restaurants. 

Alphabetical list at the end of the Book, after the Index. 

Paris is indisputably the cradle of high culinary art. As the 
ordinary tables d'hote convey but a slender idea of the perfection to 
which the art is carried, the 'chefs d'ceuvre' must be sought for in 
the first-class restaurants, where, however, the prices are correspond- 
ingly high. The following list endeavours to mention most of the 
better restaurants in the quarters chiefly frequented by strangers. 
Even in the more modest establishments, however, which our space 
forbids us to enumerate, the visitor will often be struck by the 
dainty and appetizing way in which meals are served. 

The carte des vins of the more fashionable restaurants exhibits 
a large variety of wines at comparatively high prices. The table- 
wine (vin ordinaire), red or white, supplied at other restaurants, and 
generally somewhat diluted, is of an agreeable flavour. At the 
smaller restaurants it is often advisable to mix the vin ordinaire 




with soda-water {Eau de Seltz ; siphon or demi-siphon) or mineral 
water (see p. 49). 

In restaurants a la carte the waiter, on demand ('Garfon, I' addition 
s'il vow plait!'), brings a written bill, and expects a pourboire of 
8-10 c. for each franc of the amount. If several visits are paid to 
the same house the effect of a good pourboire is very apparent. 

The following list comprises the names of the commonest dishes. 
The triumphs of Parisian culinary skill, so far as the 'cuisine bour- 
geoise' is concerned, consist in the different modes of dressing fish 
and 'filet de bceuf, and in the preparation of 'fricandeaus', 'mayon- 
naises', and sauces. 

1. Potages CSoups). 

Potage au vermicelle, vermicelli soup. 

Pate d'ltalie, soup with Italian paste. 

Potage Julienne, containing finely- 
cut vegetables. 

Potage Paysanne, vegetable broth. 

Croute au pot, broth with pieces of 

Bisque, made from crayfish. 

Potage Saint Germain, green pea soup. 

Purie aux . croutons , pea -soup with 
toast- dice. 

Potage Parmentier, potato-soup. 

Oseille, soup flavoured with sorrel. 

Soupe au choux, soup with bread and 

Soupe & Toignon, soup with onion, 
bread, and grated cheese. 

2. Hoks d'oidvre. 
Anchois, anchovies. 
Hareng Saur, pickled herring. 
Thon, tunny-fish. 
Kadis, radishes. 
Foie gras, goose's liver. 
Hnitres, oysters. 
Saucisson, sliced sausage. 

3. BrenF (beef). 

Boeuf au naturel, or bouilli, fresh 
boiled beef. 

Boeuf a la mode, with a brown sauce. 

Bi/teck, beefsteak (bien cuit, well- 
done; saignant, under-done). 

EnlrecSte, resembles a thin rumpsteak. 

Chateaubriand, fillet steak. 

Filet aux truffes, fillet of beef with 

Rosbif, roast beef. 

Aloyau, sirloin of beef. 

4. Mouton (mutton). 
Oigot de mouton or de pri-iali, leg 

of mutton. 
Ragout de mouton or Navarin aux 

pommes, mutton with potatoes and 

brown onion-sauce. 
Selle d'agneau, saddle of lamb. 
Rognons de mouton, sheep's kidneys. 

5. Veau (veal). 
Fricandeau de veau, slices of larded 


Blanquette de veau, fricassee of veal. 

Foie de veau, calf's-liver. 

Veau Marengo, stewed veal with brown 

Escalopes de veau, fried cutlets. 

Rognons de veau, veal kidneys (a la 
brochette, roasted on a skewer). 

Veau r6ti, roast veal. 

Tete de veau, calf s-head ; & Vhttile or 
& la vinaigrette, with oil and vine- 
gar; en tortue, with a brown sauce. 

Ris de veau, sweetbreads. 

Cervelle de veau au beurre noir, 
calf's-brains with browned butter. 

6. Pokc (pork). 
Pieds de pore, pig's trotters. 
Pore rtli, roast pork. 

7. Volaille (poultry). 

Chapon, capon. 

Poulet, chicken, prepared in various 
ways. Un quart de poulet, enough 
for two persons at the large restau- 
rants. (I'aile on la cuissef the wing 
or the leg? the former being rather 

Croquette devolaille,croqiieUe of fowl. 

Canard aux navets, duck with young 

Canard sauvage, viild duck. 

Caneton d, la presse, duckling cooked 
on a chafing-dish in presence of the 
guest, with the juice of the car- 
case squeezed out by a silver press. 

Oie, goose. 

Dindon, dinde, turkey; dindonneau, 
young turkey ; farci, stuffed. 

Pigeon, pigeon. 

8. Gibiek (game). 
Perdrix, partridge {aux choux, with 

cabbage and sausage-meat). 
Perdreaux, young partridges. 
Caille, quail. 
Filet de chevreuil, roast venison. 




Lievre, hare; civet de liivre, jugged 

Sanglier, wild boar. 
Lupin de garenne, wild rabbit. 

9. Entbees. 
Hdchis Portugais, minced meat with 

poached eggs. 
Escargots de Bourgogne, snails. 
Grenouilles, legs of frogs. 
Vol-au-Venl, light pastry with meat, 

fowl, oysters, etc. 

XO. Poisson (fish). 

Saumon, salmon ; fume", smoked. 

Sole, sole (frite, fried ; au vin blanc, 
with wine sauce ; au gratin, baked 
with bread-crumbs). 

Limande, dab. 

Brocket, pike. 

Carpe, carp. 

Anguille, eel. 

Raie , skate (au beurre noir , with 
browsed butter). 

Goujon, gudgeon. 

Merlan, whiting. 

Eperlan, smelt. 

Rouget, red mullet. 

Maquereau, mackerel. 

Truite, trout ; truite saumonie , sal- 

Matelote d'anguilles, stewed eels. 

Morue, cod (hollandaise, with pota- 
toes and white sauce). 

Moules, mussels. 

Ecrevisses, crayfish. 

Homard, lobster. 

Langouite, sea-crayfish, resembling a 

Crevettes, shrimps. 

11. Salades (salads). 
Laitue, cabbage-lettuce. 
Romaine, long-lettuce. 
Chicorie, Eicarole, endive. 
Cresson, water-cress. 
Pissenlit, dandelion salad. 
Concombre, cucumber. 
Comichons, gherkins. 
Pommes de terre a I'huile, potato salad 
(faire la talade, make the salad). 

12. Legumes (vegetables). 

Asperges, asparagus. 

Arlichauts, artichokes. 

Petits pois, green peas(a« 6eu)Te,with 
butter-sauce ; purie de pois, mash- 
ed peas). 

Haricots verts , French beans ; hari- 
cots blancs, flageolets, or toissons, 
white beans. 

Choux, cabbages; chouxfleurs, cauli- 
flowers ; choux de Bruxelles, Brus- 
The bread of Paris is excellent and 

sels sprouts; choucroute, sauerkraut 
(garnie, with bacon and sausages). 

Aubergine, mad-apple, egg-plant. 

Cipes, Champignons, mushrooms. 

Pommes, pommes de terre, potatoes. 

Pommes a la maitre d'hdtel, potatoes 
with butter and parsley. 

Parte de pommes, mashed potatoes. 

Epinards, spinach. 

Oseille, sorrel. 

Navels, turnips. 

Betteraves, beetroot. 

Oignons, onions. 

Tomates, tomatoes. 

13. Entremets (sweet dishes). 
Omelettes of various kinds (aunaturel, 

au Sucre, soufflie , aux confitures, 

aux fines herbet, au rhum, etc.). 
Beignets, fritters. 

Charlotte de pommes, stewed apples. 
Creme a la vanille, vanilla-cream. 
Gdteau, cake; gateau de riz, a kind 

of rice pudding. 
Qlaces, Parfaits, Bombes, and generally 

Timbales are all names for ices. 

14. Dessekt. 

Pomme, apple; Poire, pear; Fraises, 
strawberries; Peche, peach; Men- 
diant, almonds, raisins, etc. 

The usual varieties of cheese are: 

Fromage (a la creme) Suisse or Ger- 
vais, Coeur, cream-cheese. 

Fromage de Gruyere, Gruyere cheese. 

Fromage de Roquefort, made of a mix- 
ture of sheep's milk and goat's milk. 

Brie, Camembert, Neufchdtel, Pont 
VEveque, kinds of cheese made in 

15. Wines. 

The following are a few of the finer 
wines : — Red Bordeaux or Claret : 
St. Emilion and St. Julien (tyfe-ifr.), 
Ch&teau Larose, Ch. Latour, and 
Ch. Laffilte (7-10 fr.). White Bor- 
deaux: Graves (lY2-3fr.), Sauterne 
(3-4 fr.), Ch&teau Yquem (8-12 fr.). 
— Red Burgundy : Beaune (2'/»-4 fr.), 
Pommard, Volnay, Nuits, Carton (5- 
9 fr.), Romante, Conti, and Chamber- 
tin (6-10 fr.). White Burgundy : 
Chablis (11/2-3 fr.), ifeursault (4-6 fr.), 
ilontrachet (5-10 t'r.), and Hermitage 
(6-12 fr.). 

Compared with other wines, Cham- 
pagne is less extensively drunk in 
France than in England. 

Tin frappt, wine in ice. 

Carafe frappie, carafe of iced water. 

has been famed since the 14th century. 

Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 15 

a. Bestaurants of the Highest Class. 

In the most fashionable restaurants meals are served only a la 
carte, and evening dress is usual. The portions are generally so 
ample that one portion suffices for two persons , or two portions 
for three. The visitor should, therefore, avoid dining alone. It is 
even allowable in the case of the more expensive dishes to order 
one portion for three persons. The waiter is always ready to give 
information on this point. As a rule, only the principal 'plats' arc 
priced in the bill of fare. The 'hors d'auvre 1 placed on the table at 
the beginning of a meal, while the soup is heing prepared, generally 
add 1-2 fr. per head to the hill, if not expressly declined. The 
exquisite fruit offered for dessert is also a costly luxury, as much as 
3-5 fr. being sometimes charged for a single peach or pear. Various 
'specialties' and rarities are also very expensive. — The restaurants 
mentioned immediately below enjoy the highest reputation for their 
cuisine and cellar. The bill for a small dinner for three persons, con- 
sisting of soup, fish, roast, salad, sweet, and dessert, with a couple 
of bottles of fair wine, will probably amount to at least 40-50 fr. 

In the Centbe or the City : *Paillard , Rue de la Chaussee- 
d'Antin 2 and Bonl. des Italiens 38 (PI. R, 21 ; II; see p. 206) ; 
*Hotel Ritz (p. 3), Place Vendome 15; *Voisin, Rue St. Honore' 261 
and Rue Cambon 16 (PI. R, 18; II), a long-established house, 
noted for its wine; *Cafe de Paris, Avenue de l'Opera 41, W. side 
(PI. R, 18; II); *Caf£ Anglais, Boul. des Italiens 13, S. side (PI. 
R, 21 ;IZ); *Durand, Place de la Madeleine 2, E. side (Pl.R, 18; 
//; suppers a specialty); "Larue, Place de la Madeleine 3, W. side 
(PL R, 18; II); *Cafe de la Paix, Boul. des Capucines 12, N. side 
(PI. R, 18; II); *Cafe Riche, Boul. des Italiens 16, N. side (PL 
R, 21; II). The *Restaurant Prunier, Rue Duphot 9, to the S. 
of the Madeleine (PI. R, 18; II), is famous for its oysters (closed 
in summer). 

Farther to the E., "Maire, Boul. St. Denis 14 and Boul. de Stras- 
bourg 1 (Pl.R, 24; III). 

The restaurants in the Champs-Elysees and the Bois de Bou- 
logne are chiefly frequented in summer. — Champs -Elysees: 
""Pavilion de VElysee (Restaurant Maire; PI. R, 15, //; p. 74); 
*Laurent, adjacent; *Restaurant du Rond-Point (Chevillard), Rond- 
Point des Champs-Elyse'es 4 (PL R, 15; II). — Bois de Boulogne: 
*Pavillon d'Armenonville (PL B, 6), between the Porte Maillot and 
the main entrance of the Jardin d'Acclimatation, pleasantly situated ; 
*Cafe de Madrid, by the Porte de Madrid (p. 232). 

b. Other Restaurants. 

The following list contains many restaurants nearly or quite as 
good as those above mentioned, along with others of a less preten- 
tious charactei. The Restaurants a la Carte are generally more 

16 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

expensive than the Restaurants a Prix Fixe, the prices of which are 
generally posted up outside and are inclusive of table-wine. The 
viands at the latter are usually good and the portions adequate, and 
the choice, though more restricted than at the a la carte houses, 
affords a greater variety than table d'hote meals. Being run on 
economical lines, they can supply luncheons or dinners for IY4-3 ft. 
or more, of very fair quality though perhaps not always so well 
served as in a hotel. Such houses are marked in our list with the 
prices. — In some instances tickets for the meal are bought at the 
door on entering. 

The Bouillons Duval and Bouillons Boulant are restaurants a 
la carte of a cheaper kind, managed in a peculiar way. The food 
is generally good but the portions are rather small, and the cost 
of a meal can scarcely be less than 2-2i/ 2 fr. The guests are waited 
on by women, soberly garbed. These houses are very popular with 
the middle and even upper classes, and may without hesitation be 
visited by ladies. Each guest on entering is furnished with a card 
(fiche), on which the account is afterwards marked. A fee (see p. 13) 
is left on the table for attendance ; the bill is then paid, either at 
the desk or through the waitress, and receipted, and is finally given 
up to the 'controleur' at the door. 

Among the Brasseries and Tavernes in our list some are elegant 
establishments a la carte, while others (charges indicated) have fixed 
prices. The tobacco-smoke in the latter is sometimes objectionable. 

Dijeuner is generally served from 11.30 or 12 to i or at latest 1.30 p.m. ; 
Dinner (Diner) from 6 to 8 p.m. (in the more fashionable restaurants still 
later). At other hours little can he had except cold viands. 

1. Restaurants in or near the Boulevards. 

We begin at the Place de la Concor*de and follow the Boule- 
vards from W. to E. — In the Rub Royalb (PI. R, 18; II) : W. side. 
No. 3, Maxim, an elegantly fitted up restaurant, with an American 
bar, frequented mainly at night (for gentlemen only); No. 21, 
* Weber (English beer); No. 25, Taverne Royale (Munich beer; 
Hungarian band); No. 41, Cafe de Paris. — Place de la Madeleine, 
"W. side: No. 9, Lucas (le Grand), first-class; E. side: No. 10, 
Bouillon Duval. — *Lucas {lePetit; Taverne Anglaise), Rue Boissy- 
d'Anglas 28 (entr. in the adjoining passage). 

Botjlevakd des Capucines (PI. R, 18; II): S. side, No. 39, 
Bouillon Duval; No. 35, Bouillon Boulant; No. 3, Restaurant Julien. 
N. side, No. 14, Grand Cafe (band); No. 4, Cafe Americain. — 
Avenue de l'Opera: No. 26, Taverne de l'Opera (Munich beer); 
No. 31, Brasserie Vniverselle (Munich beer), good and moderate; 
same No., Bouillon Duval. — Rue St. Augustin, to the E. of the 
Avenue de l'Opera, opposite No. 35, Drouant, popular. — To the 
N. of the Boul. des Oapucines : Sylvain (Tavernier), Rue Halevy 
12 and Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin 9. — Restaurant Italien, Passage 
de l'Opera 23 (Italian cuisine). 

Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 17 

Boulevard des Italians (PI. R, 21 ; II) : No. 14, N. side, Ta- 
verne Pousset (Munich beer); No. 29, S. side, Bouillon Duval; 
No. 27, *Dtner Francois (de'j. 31/2. D- &V2 fr-); N °- 9 , Restaurant 
Vniversel (de'j. 2, D. 3fr.); No. 1, Cafe Cardinal. — To the S. of 
the Boul. des Italiens : Auvray-Edouard (Taverne de Londres), Place 
Bo'ieldieu 1 , adjoining the Opera Comique ; *Noel-Peters, Passage 
des Princes 24-30, near the Rue de Richelieu. In the Rue de 
Richelieu: No. 104, Restaurant Richelieu, with summer and winter 
gardens (dej. 2^2; D. 3 fr.) ; No. 101, Cafe-Restaurant du Orand U 
(once frequented by Gambetta ; a great resort of deputies) ; No. 47, 
Restaurant des Dames Seules, inexpensive. 

Boulevard Montmartre (PI. R, 21; ///): \ No. 21, S. side, 
Bouillon Duval; No. 12, N. side, Diner de Paris, an old-established 
house (de'j . 2i/ 2 ) D - % l k fr 5 No - *0> N - side > in tne Passage Jouffroy, 
Restaurant de la Terrasse Jouffroy (dej. 3, D. 5 fr.); in the^Passage 
Jouffroy, Restaurant du Rocher (de'j. V-fa D. 2^4 fr.); No. 8, Restau- 
rant de Vichy (dej. 3 fr., incl. coffee, D. 3V2 |fr-) > No. 6, Brasserie 
Muller el Blaisot (Munich beer) ; No. 2, Table-d'Hote Blond (I1/2 or 
2 fr.); No. 1, Bouillon Boulant. — No. 18, Brasserie Zimmtr (see 
p. 22) ; No. 20, Restaurant Viennois (band in the evening). — In 
the Rue duFaubourg-Montmartre: No. 16, Grande Taverne (Munich 
beer; band in the evening); No. 48 and Rue Lafayette 52, Bouillon 
Duval; Rue Lafayette 63, Bouillon Duval. — To the S. of the Boul. 
Montmaitre: Restaurant de la Bourse (dej. l 1 /^ D. 2 & 3 fr.), Restau- 
rant des Finances (dej . l 3 / 4 , D. 3 fr.), Rue Vivienne 47 and 45 ; 
*Champeaux (Calelain), Place de la Bourse 13, opposite the Ex- 
change, first-class, with garden. Near it, Bouillon Duval, Rue du 
Quatre-Septembre 1, at the corner of the Rue des Filles-St-Thomas. 
— Rue Montmartre : No. 170, Ville de Paris (de'j. 13/ 4 , D. 3 fr.); 
No. 166, Taverne Artois (de'j. 2i/ 2 , D. 3 fr.). 

Boulevard Poissonniere (PI. R, 21 ; III). N. side : No. 32, 
Taverne Brebant (D. 5 fr.) ; No. 24, Gazal (de'j. 2, D. 3 fr.) ; No. 16, 
*Rougemont, at the corner of the Rue Rougemont, first-class; No. 2, 
*Duflos, along-established house. S. side: No. 11, Bouillon Duval; 
No. 9, Restaurant de France, of old standing. 

Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle (PI. R, 29; III). N. side: No. 36, 
*Marguery, adjoiningthe Theatre du Gymnase, first-class, frequented 
by merchants; No. 26, Restaurant Bonne-Nouvelle (Reneaux; dej. 
13/ 4 , D. 2 fr.). S. side : No. 35, Brasserie Muller et Blaisot (Munich 
beer); No. 31, Ducastaing (3 fr. ; Munich beer), good. 

2. Restaurants near the Jardin des Tuileries and the Louvre. 

In the Ruede Rivoli(P1. R, 18, 20 ; II), beginning at the W. end : 
No. 3, *Bestaurant de V Hotel Continental (p. 3), corner of the Rue de 
Castiglione, handsomely fitted up, with cafe" (dej. 5, D. 7fr., incl. 
wine); No. 172, corner of the Place du Palais-Royal, *Restaurant 

Baedekeb, Paris. 15th Edit. 2 

18 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

du Gr. Hotel du Louvre (p. 4 ; de'j. 5, D. 6 fr., incl. wine) ; No. 194, 
at the comer of the small Place de Rivoli, Bouillon Duval. 

In the Place du Palais-Royal (entr. Rue St. Honore 202, 1st 
floor), Restaurant Leon, a large but unpretending 'prix fixe' house, 
with reading and writing room (dej. l*/ 2 > D- 2, with a glass of cham- 
pagne 3 fr.). Beneaux, adjoining, similar charges. — Grand Bouillon 
Bastide, Rue St. Honore, nearly opposite the Magasins du Louvre; 
Cafe-Restaurant des Negociants (dej. 3, D. 3^2 fr-)) R ue du Louvre 
42 (PL R, 20 ; III), near the Bourse de Commerce, good. 

Palais-Royal (p. 89; PL R, 21, //). In the first half of the 
19th century the restaurants here were the most fashionable in Paris. 
Their importance has, however, long since disappeared, though 
their proximity to the Louvre still attracts a number of strangers. 
— Galerie Montpensier (W. side, pleasantest on summer afternoons, 
because in the shade) : No. 12, Cafe Corazza-Douiz (Delabre), first- 
class ; No. 23, Restaurant de Paris (L. Catelain ; dej. 2, D. 2^2 fr.) ; 
No. 40, Vidrequin, unpretending but fair (de'j. 1 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 25 c, 
D. l!/ 2 or 2 fr.). — Galerie Beaujolais (N. side, near the Theatre 
du Palais-Royal) ; No. 17, Grand -Vefour (dej. 3, D. 5 fr.). — Galerie 
de Valois, E. side (from N. to S.): No. 105, Table-d'Hote Philippe, 
good (de'j. 1 fr. 60, D. 2 fr. 10 c); No. 106, Vefour Jeune (de'j. 3, 
D. 4 fr. ; also a la carte); No. 142, Tavernier Aine (Arviset; de'j. 2, 
D. 21/2 fr-); No. 173, Brasserie Valois (de'j. 3, D. 4 fr.), good. — 
Galerie d'Orleans (S. side) : Cafe d' Orleans. 

To the E. of the Palais-Royal (PI. R, 21 ; //, III) : *Au Boeuf 
a la Mode, Rue de Valois 8, at the E. exit of the Galerie d'Orle'ans ; 
Bouillon Duval, Rue Montesquieu 6 (the chief house of this com- 
pany, and the only one with male waiters). 

3. Restaurants in the Champs-Elysees and the Bois de Boulogne. 

The establishments of the highest class are mentioned at p. 15. 

In or near the Champs-Elysees: *Ledoyen (PI. R, 15; II), first- 
class, below the Petit-Palais (to the left as we ascend) ; Restaurant 
des Ambassadeurs, opposite, first-class; Taverne du Cirque, at the 
Rond- Point, Avenue Matignon 1; "Restaurant d'Albe, Avenue des 
Champs-Elyse'es 101, at the corner of the Avenue de TAlma (dej. 
4-5, D. 6-7 fr.) ; Restaurant du Palace Hotel (p. 3), farther up. — 
Cafe-Restaurant du\Rocher, Place de l'Alma, at the beginning of the 
Avenue de l'Alma (dej. 2i/ 2 , D. 3fr.); Cafe - Restaurant du Coq, 
Place du Trocade'ro 2. 

In or near the Bois de Boulogne. Avenue de la Grande-Armee 
No. 74, Restaurant d e la Terrasse, near the end, on the right; No. 81 
Brasserie Excelsior ; No. 85, on the left, Brasserie de I'Esperance (dej. 
3, D. 3i/ 2 fr.) ; No. 79, Cafe-Restaurant Joli-Sejour (dej. 21/2, D. 3 fr.) ; 
Restaurant Gillet, Avenue de Neuilly 25, near the Porte Maillot 
with cafe" (prices displayed); Cafe Dehouve , Avenue de Neuilly 93 

Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 19 

(dej. 2^2, D. 3 fr. ; also a la carte); Chalet du Touring Club, near 
the Porte Maillot (de'j. 3V2) D. 4 fr.); Cafe- Restaurant of the Jardin 
d'Acclimatation (p. 233); Cafe de la Cascade, near the Cascade 
(p. 232), first-class; Cafe des Pavilions- Chinois, near the Porte Dau- 
phine (p. 231); Cafe- Restaurant de Vile, in the lower lake (p. 231) ; 
Chalets du Cycle, behind the Longchamp race-course (p. 232), near 
the Pont de Suresnes, a favourite resort of cyclists ; Pavilion Royal 
(Boulant), a cafe-restaurant (ices), near the last. 

4. Restaurants to the E. and N.E. of the Louvre, as far as the Bastille and 

the Boulevard St. Martin. 

The following restaurants are convenient for visitors to the Hotel 
de Ville, the Muse'e Carnavalet, the Conservatoire des Arts et Me- 
tiers, etc. 

To the E. of the Louvre , towards the Place de la Bastille: 
Bouillons Duval, Rue du Pont-Neuf 10, Rue de Rivoli 47, and Rue 
St. Antoine 3 ; Brasserie Dreher, Rue St. Denis 1 (Place du Chatelet) ; 
Taverne Zimmer, at the Chatelet Theatre ; Restaurant de Paris, Boul. 
de Se'bastopol 30 (dej. 1 fr. 80-2 fr. 25 c, D. 2-27 2 fr.); Taverne 
Qruber, Boul. Beaumarchaisl, near the Place de la Bastille (D. 3fr., 
with coffee). 

To the N.E. of the LouvEB, towards the Place de la Re"pub- 
lique: Bouillons Duval, Rue de Turbigo 3 (near the Halles Cen- 
trales), Rue de Turbigo 45 (near the Rue St. Martin), and Place de la 
Republiquel?; Bonvalet, Boul. du Temple 29-31 (de'j. 2%, D.3i/ 2 fr.; 
also a la carte). Near the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers : Restau- 
rant du Plat-d'Etain, Rue St. Martin, a long- established house, 
frequented by provincial merchants. — Boulevard St. Denis: Nos. 11 
and 26, Bouillons Duval. — Boulevard St. Martin : No. 15, Restau- 
rant du Cercle (dej. I 3 /*, D. 2!/ 2 fr.) ; No. 55, Restaurant de la Porte- 
St-Martin (de'j. 1 fr. 15-1 fr. 50 c, D. lV4"2fr.). — Lecomte, en- 
trance Rue de Bondy 48, on the N. side of the Boul. St. Martin 
(de'j. 2y 2 , D- 3 ft., with coffee ; also a la carte). Aux Merveilles des 
Mers, at the corner of the Avenue and Place de la Re'publique. 

5. Restaurants near the Gares St. Lazare, du Nord, de l'Est, and de Lyon, 

and near the Butte Montmartre. 

Gabe St. Lazabe (PI. B, 18 ; see p. 208) : Railway Refreshment 
Rooms, adjoining the Cour du Havre ; *Restaurant du Terminus, at 
the hotel (p. 4; de'j. 5, D. 6fr.); Restaurant de Rome, Rue du Havre 
17, Blottier, at the corner of the Rue St. Lazare and the Rue d' Amster- 
dam, these two first-class; Cafe Scossa, Rue de Rome 14 (de'j. 2%, 
D. 3 fr.) ; Restaurant de FEurope, Rue Pasquier (de'j. 1 fr. 90, D. 2 ft. 
25 c); Restaurant Moderne, Rue du Havre 11 (de'j. 2, D. 2y 2 fr.); 
Restaurant du Havre, Rue St. Lazare 109 and Place du Havre (de'j. 
13/ 4 , D. 2 fr.) ; Bouillons Duval, Place du Havre 12 and 14, and at 
the corner of the Rues de Rome and de la Pepiniere ; Au Regent, Rue 


20 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

St. Lazare 100 (dej. 1 fr. 60 c, D. 2 fr.). — Brasserie Mollard (Munich 
beer), Rue St. Lazare 115, opposite the Terminus Hotel (p. 4). 

Gare du Nord (PI. B, 24; see p. 204): Lequen, Boulevard de 
Denain 9 ; Barbotte, Rue de Dunkerque 25, opposite the station, well 
spoken of; Bouillon Duval, at the corner of the Boulevard Magenta 
and the Rue Lafayette. 

Garb de l'Est (PI. B, 24; see p. 204): Restaurant Schaeffer, at 
the Hotel Francais, Rue de Strasbourg 13, good; Bouillon Duval, 
Rue de Strasbourg 6. 

Gare de Lyon (PL G, 28) : * Railway Refreshment Rooms, at the 
end of the Boul. Diderot, 1st floor (see p. 176; D. 5fr.). 

Near the Butte Montmartrb : Bouillon Boulant , Rue de 
Douai 22, to the S. of the Boul. de Clichy (p. 211); Restaurant de 
f Hippo-Palace, at the comer of the Rue Caulaincourt and the Boul. 
de Clichy, near the cemetery (de'j. 272i D. 2 3 /4fr.). 

6. Restaurants on the Left Bank. 

In the Quartier St. Germain (PI. R, 17, II, IV; see p. 282): 
^Restaurant de I'Hottl du Palais-d'Orsay (p. 5 ; 1st floor), first-class ; 
Restaurant Blot, Rue de Lille 33, near the Rue du Bac, good. — In 
the Boulevard St. Germain : No. 229, Cafe-Restaurant des Ministlres, 
adjoining the Ministry of WaT; No. 262, opposite the last, Cafe- 
Restaurant de la Legion-d'Honneur (dej. 2^, D. 3 fr.); No. 170, 
Bouillon Duval; No. 90, Bouillon St. Germain (dej. 1 fr. 15 c. -2, 
D. 174-2 fr.). — Restaurant Ste. Clotilde, Square Ste. Clotilde, 
unpretending (dej. 1 fr. 60 or 2 fr. 10 c, D. l 3 /4-27 4 fr.). — Bouil- 
lons Duval, Rue de Sevres 67 and Rue de Buci 18. 

Near the Garb Montparnasse (p. 326; PI. G, R, 16): Cafe-Re- 
staurant Lavenue, Rue du Depart 1, to the left of the station, first- 
class. In the Rue de Rennes: No. 171, Cafe-Restaurant de Versailles, 
opposite the station (dej. 272, D. 3fr.); No. 161, Restaurant Leon 
(dej. 1 fr. 30 c, D. 3 fr.); No. 146, Restaurant de Bretagne (dej. 27 2 , 
D. 3 fr.); No. 159,' Restaurant du Mans. 

In or near the Quartier Latin (p. 263; PI. R, 19, T'): Taverne 
du Palais, Place St. Michel 5 (dej. 2y 2 , D. 3 fr.) ; *Laperouse, Quai 
des Grands-Augustins 51 , near the Pont-Neuf. — Boulevard St. 
Michel: No. 25, E. side, Cafe-Restaurant Soufllet; opposite, Cafe- 
Restaurant Vachette; No. 61, Restaurant Morel (dej. 1 fr. 15 c. , D. 
2 fr.) ; No. 26, W. side, Bouillon Duval; No. 34, Bouillon Boulant. 
— Near the Luxembourg: *Foyot, Rue de Vaugirard 22bia and Rue 
de Tournon 33, first-class, much frequented after the performances 
in the Theatre de l'Odeon; Cafe-Restaurant Voltaire, Place de 
l'Ode'on 1 (dej. 3, D. 4fr.). — Taverne de Lorraine, Rue du Sommer- 
ard 33, adjoining the Muse'e de Cluny (patronized by students; a la 
carte only). 

In the vicinity of the Jardin des Plantes (PI. G andR, 22-25; 
V; see p. 317): *Restaurant de la Tour-d? Argent, Quai de la Tour- 

Information. 4. CAFfiS. 21 

nelle 15 and Boulevard St. Germain, first-class; Cafe de VArc-en- 
Ciel, Boulevard de l'Hopital 2, opposite the station (a la carte and 
a prix fixe ; D. 3 fr.). 

4. Cafes. Brasseries. Pastry Cooks. 

Cafe's form one of the great features of Parisian life. An hour 
or two may he pleasantly spent in sitting at one of the small tables 
with which the pavements in front of the cafe's on the Boulevards 
are covered on fine evenings, and watching the passing throng. Most 
of the Parisian men spend their evenings at the cafe's, where they 
partake of coffee, liqueurs, and beer, meet their friends, read the 
newspapers, ot play at billiards (50 c.-l fr. 20 c. per hr.) or cards. 
The cafe's on the Grands Boulevards, however, with the exception 
of the Grand Cafe in the Boul. des Capucines, generally have no 
billiard-tables. Letters may also be conveniently written at a cafe, 
the waiter furnishing writing-materials on application ('de quoi 
ecfire, s'il vous plait' ; fee). Most of the cafes are well furnished 
with French newspapers, but foreign journals are scarce. As a rule 
the cafe's are open until 1 a.m., some even longer. 

The best cafe's may with propriety be visited by ladies, though 
Parisiennes of the upper class rarely patronize them. Some of those 
on the N. side of the Boulevard Montmartre should, however, be 
avoided, as the society there is far from select. — Cafes- Concerts, 
see p. 38. 

When coffee is ordered at a cafe in the early forenoon the waiter 
usually brings a large cup, which, with roll and butter, costs 'A-l'/a fr- 
(waiter's fee 10 c). In the afternoon the same order produces a small cup 
or glass (un mazagran) of cafi noir, which cost3 40-75 c. (waiter 10 c). Milk 
(crime) is generally offered at the same time. A bottle of cognac i9 frequently 
brought with the coffee unordered, and a charge made according to the 
quantity drank. At the more fashionable cafes a petit verre of cognac, 
kirsch, rhum, curacao, or chartreuse costs 30-60 c, fine champagne 60 c. -1 fr. 
— The prices of the 'consommations' are generally marked, on the saucers 
on which they are served. 

Tea costs 3 /t-i fr., more with roll and butter (the" complel). Dejeuner may 
be obtained at nearly all the cafes for 2'/2-3 fr., and cold meat for supper. 

Beer may also be procured at most of the cafesj '«» bock' costing 
30-40 c. ; the measure, however, is smaller than at the 'brasseries'. English 
beer costs 1-1V2 fr. a bottle. 

Liqueurs (40-75c), diluted with water, are largely consumed as i apiritifs' 
or 'appetizers' before meals. Among these are absinthe, vermouth, menthe 
(white or green), bitters or amers, anisette, and quinquina. — Strops, or 
fruit-syrups, diluted with water, are to be had in various flavours; e.g. 
sirop de groseille, de framboise, de grenadine, orgeat (prepared from al- 
monds), etc. Lemon-squash ('un citron presse'), sorbet f water-ice), aud 
ices (half 75 c, whole l'/i-l 1 /* fr.) are also frequently ordered 

"We here mention a very small selection of the thousand cafes 
that Paris contains. 

Grands Boulevards (see also 'Brasseries'). — Place de la Made- 
leine 2, corner of the Rue Royale, Cafe Durand, also a restaurant, 
like many others of those mentioned below. — Boulevard des Capu- 
cines. N. side: No. 14. Orand Cafe; No. 12, Cafe de la Paix 

22 4. BRASSERIES. Preliminary 

(foreign newspapers); No. 4, Cafe Americain, not suitable for ladies 
after 11 p.m. — S. side: No. 3, Julien; No. 1, Olacier Napolitain, 
noted for ices. — Boulevard des Italiens. N. side : No. 16, Cafe 
Biche (restaurant, see p. 15). S. side: No. 1, Cafe Cardinal; No. 27, 
Galisaya (American Bar). — Boulevard Montmartre, S. side : No. 9, 
Cafe dee Varietes , patronized by actors and journalists; No. 5, 
de Suede. N. side: No. 16, Mazarin. — Boulevard Poissonniere, 
No. 14, Cafe du Pont-de-Fer. — Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle. N. 
side : No. 30, Cafe de la Terrasse. — Boulevard St. Denis 9 and 12, 
corners of the Boul. de Sevastopol and the Boul. de Strasbourg, 
Cafe de France and Cafe Francais. — Place de la Republique : No. 23, 
Orand Cafe de Paris ; No. 10, Orand Cafe Americain. — Boulevard 
du Temple, No. 31, Cafe du Jardin-Turc (Bonvalet). 

Avenue de l'Opeba: No. 41, Cafe de Paris (restaurant, see 
p. 15; for suppers after the theatre). 

Palais Royal. In the garden (N. side) : Pavilion de laRotonde. — 
Rue St. Honore", opposite the Avenue de l'Opera: No. 161, Cafe" de 
la Regence , a rendezvous of chess - players , of European fame ; 
No. 159, Cafe de I'Vnivers. — Place du Palais-Royal: Cafe de Rohan. 

Left Bank. Cafe Voltaire, Place de l'Odeon 1. — The numerous 
cafes in the Boul. St. Michel are chiefly frequented by students and 
'etudiantes' : No. 25, Soufflet, No. 27, Vachette, at the corners of the 
Rue des Ecoles ; No. 20, Musee de Cluny; No. 35, Cafe de la Source; 
No. 47, Cafe d'Harcourt; No. 63, Taverne du Pantheon, a handsome 
establishment at the corner of the Rue Soufflot ; No. 65, Cafe Mahieu, 
at the opposite corner. 


English, Bavarian, Strassburg, Vienna, and other beer may be 
obtained at most of the cafes (see above) and also at the numerous 
Brasseries or Tavernes. Some of the brasseries are handsomely fitted 
up in the old French or Flemish style, with stained-glass windows. 
Bavarian (Munich or Culmbach) beer, dark (brune) or light (blonde), 
is supplied at nearly all these establishments. A small glass (un 
quart) costs 30-35 c, a large glass un demi 50-60 c. Those bras- 
series that provide warm meals are also named among the restau- 
rants (p. 15). 

In or near the Boulevards : Boulevard des Italiens, see p. 17. 

— Boulevard Montmartre: No. 18, *Zimmerj No. 13, Ducastaing, 
both of these handsomely fitted up ; No. 8, Mutter et Blaisot; No. 16, 
Orande Taverne — Avenue de l'Ope'ra, see p. 16. — Boulevard des 
Capucines 43, Taverne Tourtel. — Rue Royale, see p. 16. — Rue 
St. Lazare: No. 119, Jacqueminot- Graff, a tasteful establishment 
in the Alsatian style. — Rue du Faubourg-Montmartre 61 (corner 
of Rue de Chateaudun), Taverne Montmartre, tastefully decorated. 

— Rue Montmartre 149, near the boulevard, Taverne du Coq-d'Or, 
another handsome establishment. — Boulevard Poissonniere : No. 32, 

Information. 4. PASTRY-COOKS. 23 

Taverne Brebant; No. 25, Brasserie Gutenberg; No. 13, Oruber (Strass- 
burg beer). — Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle : No. 31, Ducastaing (see 
also p. 17). — Boulevard St. Denis: No. 15bi9, Taverne Oruber; 
No. 17, Taverne du Nigre. — Boulevard de Sevastopol : No. 137, near 
the Boulevard St. Denis, Taverne Flamande (Pilsen beer); No. 135, 
Tournier. — Boulevard de Strasbourg 2, La Capitate. — Rue duPont- 
Neuf: No. 17, Brasserie du Pont-Neuf; No. 21, Taverne Henri 
Quatre. — Rue de Rivoli : No. 130, Brasserie du Lion Rouge; No. 124, 
Palette d'Or, with pictorial decorations. — Rue St. Denis 1, Place 
du Chatelet, Qrande Brasserie Dreher. — Boulevard Beaumarchais 1, 
Oruber (restaurant, see p. 19). — Rue des Pyramides 3, near the 
Tuileries Garden, Brasserie des Pyramides. 

The Wine Shops (Dibits de Vint) , which are very numerous , are 
frequented almost exclusively by the lower classes. The wine i9 usually 
drunk at the counter ('zinc'). Outside some of these shops (e.g. Rue 
St. Honore 33, at the corner of the Rue des Bourdonnais, p. 62) finely- 
worked iron grilles may be noticed, dating mostly from not later than the 
18th century, to which riders used to attach their horses. — The Bars 
are somewhat in the English style. 

Automatic Bak: Express Bar, Boul. des Italiens 15 and Boul. St. 
Denis 26. 

Pastry Cooks. 

The Pdtissiers rely mainly upon the sale of their goods for con- 
sumption elsewhere; the customers who frequent them in the after- 
noons to enjoy their 'gouter' (cakes and pastry) are chiefly ladies 
and children. The most celebrated Patisseries are the following: 
Julien, Rue de la Bourse 3 ; Favart, Boulevard des Italiens 9 ; Fras- 
cati, Boul. Montmartre 21 ; Charvin, Passage de Cboiseul, near the 
Banque de France (p. 90); Bagueneau, Rue St. Honore, opposite 
the Magasins du Louvre; Patisserie du Grand- Hotel, Place de 
l'Ope'ra; *Chiboust, Rue St.Honore" 163, Place du Theatre-Francais; 
Bourbonneux, Place du Havre 14; Gage, Avenue Victor-Hugo 4, 
near the Etoile ; A la Dame Blanche, Boul. St. Germain 196 (ices). — 
The Boulangeries - Patisseries are less pretending: Laduree, Rue 
Royale 16; Cateloup, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 25; Wanner, Rue de la 
Ohaussee-d'Antin 3, etc. 

Mention also may be made of the Pei'tes Patisseries, or stalls for the 
sale of cakes, buns, etc.; e. g. Boulevard St. Denis 13 (A Coupe-tovjours''), 
and at the beginning of the Rue de la Lune, Boul. Bonne-Nouvelle. 

Afternoon Tea in the English style : Royalty, Rue Royale 6 ; 
Afternoon Tea (Miss Davis), Boulevard Haussmann40; Colombin, 
Rue Cambon 8; Smith's Tea Rooms, Rue de Rivoli 248; Kardomah, 
Rue de Rivoli 184; The Tea Cosy (Miss Nowers), Rue St. Placide 18, 
near the Bon Marche"; Champs-Elyse'es 26 ; Rue St. Honore 248 ; 
Rue des Mathurins 40. Also, the Hotel Ritz (p. 3), fashionable. 

The Cremeries, Latteries, or Vacheries are unpretending dairy-shops 
which supply breakfast. A cup of coffee or chocolate costs 25-30 c, cake 
5-10 c. ; au lait, with two eggs, bread, and napkin 1 fr. Those at 
No. 4, Boul. des Italiens and 146, Rue de Rivoli, may be mentioned. 

24 5. HAIRDRESSERS. Preliminary 

5. Baths. Hairdressers. Lavatories, etc. 

Baths. — Warm Baths ('bain ordinaire l /a-i fr., towels extra) : 
Bains de la Samaritaine, on the Seine, below the Pont-Neuf, right 
bank; des Tuileries, near the Pont-Royal, Quai Voltaire; de Diane, 
Rue Volney 5; Bains Vivienne, Rue Vivienne 15; Sainte-Anne, Rue 
Ste. Anne 63 and Passage Ohoiseul ; de la Chaussee-d'Antin, Rue de 
la Chaussee-d'Antin 46; Chantereine, Eue de la Victoire 46; Bains du 
Passage de I' Opera, Boul. des Italiens 10, in the Passage (80 c-5 fr.) ; 
Piscine Montmartre, Rue Montmartre 163, near the boulevard ; Bain 
St. Denis, Faubourg St. Denis 50; Grands Bains Tivoli, Boul. des 
Batignolles 32 (swimming-baths at these three); Racine, Rue Ra- 
cine 5; du Colisee, Rue du Colistfe 14, near the Champs-Elysees. 

TuaKisH, Vafoub,, and other baths: Hammam, Rue des Ma- 
thurins 18, corner of the Rue Auber (entrance for ladies, Boul. 
Haussmann 47; Turkish bath 5 fr.); Balneum, Rue Cadet 16 b 's 
(2fr.); Hammam- Monge, Rue Cardinal-Lemoine 63, on the left 
bank (bath 172-2 V2 f r 0- — Piscine Rochechouart, Rue de Roche- 
chouart 65, swimming-bath (1 ^4 fr. ; reserved for ladies on Frid.). — 
Bains Guerbois, Rue du Bourg-l'Abbe 7. — Bains de Fumigations 
Bockechouart, Rue de Rochechouart 67; Bains du Docteur Allard, 
Rue Blanche 23 ; Bains de Boue (mud-baths), Rue de Rivoli 222 ; 
Bains Electriques (Potin), Rue du Rendez-Vous 6. — Bains d'Air 
Comprime (compressed-air baths), Rue des Pyramides 17. 

Cold Baths in the Seine, open from May 1st to Sept. 30th: 
Grande Ecole de Natation, Quai d'Orsay, near the Pont de la Con- 
corde, one of the best of its kind ; Bains du Pont-Royal (entered 
from the Quai Voltaire) ; du Louvre , near the Pont des Arts ; 
du Pont Neuf, Quai de la Me'gisserie ; du Pont Solferino (for ladies), 
Quai des Tuileries; des Fleurs, Quai de la Me'gisserie. The charge 
for admission to these cold baths is 20-60 c. ; towels extra. 

Hairdressers. — Hairdressers (coiffeurs) are to be found in nearly 
every street, often in the entresol. The ordinary charge for hair- 
cutting (taille de cheveux) is 30-50 c. ; shaving (barbe) 20-30 c. 
Shampooing, 'frictions' (dry shampoo), and other extras are gener- 
ally dear. Offers of perfumery, etc., should be refused, as the prices 
are higher than at the shops. Many establishments have ladies' 
rooms also (charge from 1 or IV2 fr.). We select a few for mention: 
Boul. Montmartre 21, 19, and 11; Boul. des Italiens, 12, 23, and 
29; Rue Le Peletier 4; Rue Marengo 2 (Adolphe, near the Louvre); 
Rue de Rohan 2 (Henri); Rue du Helder 3, etc.; Boul. des Capu- 
cines, at the Grand-Hotel; Rue de la Paix 17; Place de la Made- 
leine 10, etc.; Boul. St. Germain 180; Boul. St. Michel 36. — 
'Coiffeurs' for ladies : Auguste (Petit), Rue de la Paix 7 ; Dubois, 
RueDaunou20; Autard, Rue de Castiglione 6 (2-5 fr.) ; Gabriel, 
Rue St. Honore 229 ; Cotreau, Rue Royale 18, in the court. These 
specialists are generally expensive, especially if they attend customers 
at home (up to 20 fr.). 

Information. 6. CABS. 25 

Lavatories, etc. — The Chalets de Necessite or de Commodity 
which are liberally distributed throughout Paris, are generally well- 
kept (5-15 c). Some are provided with washing requisites. — At 
the Palais Royal: Rue St. Honore 155, near the omnibus-station; 
in the interior, in the Peristyle Joinville 28, near the theatre. 
Jardin des Tuileries, at either end of the Alhfe des Orangers, on the 
Rue de Rivoli side. Boulevards : Passage de l'Opera, Galerie du 
BaTometre 9; Passage des Princes 14bis; Passage Jouffroy 43, near 
the Boul. Montmartre; Boul. Bonne-Nouvelle 40 (Gymnase Theatre). 
Champs-Elysees, at the bottom, on the right, Avenue Gabriel ; also 
farther up, on the right. Luxembourg Gardens, between the main 
Allee and the Boul. St. Michel, and to the right, behind the Muse'e. 
Pare Monceau, in the rotunda, Boul. de Courcelles. Also at all the 
Railway Stations. — The nearest policeman will give information. 

6. Conveyances. 

Paris has led the way in modern methods of transport. In 1662, 
if not earlier, under Louis XVI., coaches, called 'fiacres', plied for 
hire , the name being derived from the Auberge de St. Fiacre, 
situated in the street of the same name. An attempt to organize a 
regular service of omnibuses also was made at that period, but 
sucess in this direction was not achieved until 1827-28. London 
followed suit in 1829. Since the year 1900 new electric and other 
tramways have been opened in large numbers, besides, of course, 
the Metropolitain (p. 28). 

1. Cabs. The number of cabs in Paris (Voitures de Place or 
Fiacres) is about 15,000. The most numerous are the open cabs 
(voitures decouvertes ; closed in winter), or victorias, with seats for 
two, or three, including the vacant seat on the box, or the small 
folding front seat (strapontin) with which most of the victorias are 
furnished. These third seats can be occupied only with the consent 
of the driver (which is practically a matter of course). Only vehicles 
with four inside seats are provided with a railing on the top for 
luggage (voitures a galerie; comp. p. 1), but the drivers of the others 
never refuse to carry a reasonable amount of luggage on the box. 

The fare by day (6, in winter 7, a.m. to 12.30 p.m.) for a single 
drive (course) within the fortifications, no matter what the distance 
(tariff and regulations, see Appendix, p. 41), is 1^2 fr- an, i 25 c. 
pourboire (50 c. if the 'strapontin' is used). Short drives are there- 
fore rather expensive, but for longer distances it is worth while to 
take a cab in preference to the dilatory omnibus. The charge by 
the hour (2 fr.) is also very moderate, and is on that account not 
popular with the drivers. Although they are legarlly bound to con- 
form to it they are always ready with some evasive pretext. 

The carriage - lamps are coloured differently according to the 
Depot to which the cab belongs (see Appx., p. 41). It is important 

26 6. OMNIBUSES AND TRAMWAYS. Preliminary 

to note these, especially when driving home at night, as cabmen, 
when returning to the depot, cannot he required to go far out of 
their own quarter. 

It should be noted that the rale of the road in France, as on the con- 
tinent generally, is the exact opposite of that which prevails in England. 

On calling a cab, the hirer should obtain the driver's number (voire 
numiro!), which is a ticket containing the tariff of fares and the number, 
and keep it in case any dispute should take place, or any article be left 
in the cab. Complaints may be made to the nearest policeman, or at one 
of the offices which are to be found at every cab-stand. — Taxameter Cabs 
(Voitures a Oompteur, with a dial inside showing the time, distance, and fare 
of the drive) have recently been reintroduced; see Appx., p. 42. 

Cabs whose drivers wear while hats are usually the most comfortable 
and the quickest. India-rubber tires are indicated by small bells on the 
horse's neck. 

Carriages. Those who are desirous of exploring Paris expedi- 
tiously and comfortably are recommended to hire a Voiture de Grande 
Remise (without a number) by the day (30 fr.), or by the week. Ap- 
plication should be made at the offices of the Oompagnie Gene'rale 
desVoitures, Place du Theatre-Francais 1 and Boul. des Oapucines 22, 
or at those of the Oompagnie Urbaine, Rue Taithout 59. Cabs of this 
description are also to be found on the stands near the Opera, the 
Madeleine, etc. ; bargaining necessary (drive, about 3 fr.). 

Carriage-Hirers. Bellanger, Rue da Mont-Thabor 38 ; Comoy <£' Perrin, 
Faubourg St. Honore 252; Maison Daga, Rue de Laborde 8. 

Motor-Cabs (Automobiles). These come under the same category 
as the 'voitures de grande remise', and are often stationed in the 
same place. They may always be obtained at the central depot, 
Rue Halevy, to the right of the Opera, and generally in front of the 
Grand-Hotel (p. 3). The fare should be agreed upon beforehand 
(about 20 fr. for l /2 day). There is no tariff. 

2. Omnibuses and Tramways. Omnibuses and tramways cross 
the city in every direction from 7 or 7.30 a.m. till 20 min. after 
midnight; at many points a vehicle passes every five minutes. There 
are also tramway-lines to Versailles, St. Cloud, and other places 
in the suburbs. To pick out the required line from the long list 
(see Appx., pp. 28-38 J is a tedious process, and the visitor may he 
content to acquaint himself with those that pass in the neighbour- 
hood of his hotel, relying for the rest on information to be obtained 
at the nearest omnibus or tramWay-bureau. 

The ordinary omnibuses belong to the Oompagnie Ginirale des Omnibus, 
whose monopoly expires in 1910. — The tramways are divided into the 
Tramways de la Oompagnie des Omnibus, the Tramways Nord, now called 
Tramways de Paris el du Dipartement de la Seine, the Tramways Sud or 
Tramways de la Oompagnie Ginirale Parisienne de Tramways, Tramways de 
VOuesl Parisien, Tramways de la Rive Gauche de Paris, and a few others 
(see Appx , p 30). Electric and mechanically-propelled vehicles are rapidly 
superseding horse-cars, and many new electric lines, both in and beyond 
Paris, are in construction or contemplation. The Funiculaire (cable-tramway) 
of Belleville (p. 234) and that to the Sacrg-Coeur (p. 209) should also be 

The termini of the lines are placarded on the sides of both omni- 
buses and tramway-cars, and another board is hung behind, showing 

Information. 6. OMNIBUSES AND TRAMWAYS. 27 

the destination towards which the vehicle is proceeding. The prin- 
cipal places passed en route are also indicated, and the letter of the 
line is marked on different parts of the vehicle. The vehicles are 
also distinguished by their own colour and that of their lamps. 

Passengers may either hail and stop the omnibus (or horse-car) 
in the street as in England, or wait for it at one of the numerous 
omnibus-offices. In the latter case, if there are other intending 
passengers, it is usual to ask for a numbered ticket (numero; no 
charge) for the line required. As soon as the omnibus appears, 
places are assigned to the ticket-holders in order, the conductor 
calling out the numbers ; when the omnibus is 'complef (notified 
at the back of the vehicle) it drives off, and the disappointed ticket- 
holders have to wait for the next. On Sundays and in rainy weather 
the offices are frequently besieged by crowds of intending passengers, 
and a dreary wait ensues. Electric tramways are supposed to stop 
only at the recognized stations, which are usually indicated by 
placards on the lamp-posts. 

The fares on all the lines within Paris are the same, 30 c. inside 
or on the platform, and 15 c. outside (imperiale). The fares for 
places beyond the fortifications are from 10 to 50 c. higher (inside ; 
outside, or on the platform of those vehicles which have no imperiale, 
5 to 25 c.) according to the distance. — The fares of the electric 
tramways are 15 or 10 c. within Paris and 5 c. each 'section' beyond. 

One of the most admirable features in the arrangements of the 
Parisian omnibus-lines is the system of Correspondances, or per- 
mission to change from one line to another. Thus , if no omnibus 
go in the direct route to the passenger's destination from the part of 
Paris in which he is, he may demand from the conductor, on paying 
his fare, a correspondance for the line which will convey him thither. 
He will then receive a ticket (no charge), and on arriving at the 
point where the two lines cross, the conductor will call out the 
name of the line to which he has to change. Here he proceeds to 
the omnibus-bureau, receives a number, which, without additional 
payment, entitles him to a seat in the first available omnibus going 
in the desired direction, and finally gives up his ticket to the con- 
ductor of the latter immediately on entering. If he does not answer 
to his number when called, he loses his right to correspondance. 
Outside-passengers are not entitled to correspondance unless they 
pay full fare (30 c). The bureau de correspondance is not invariably 
the same as the office at which the passenger alights, but is some- 
times a little way off. 

Mail Coaches in the English style ply in summer as follows: to Ver- 
sailles, 'Daily Messenger' coach at 10 a.m. from Eue St. Honord 166 (return 
fare 15 fr., box-seat 5 fr. extra) ; Cook's coach from Place de l'Opera 1 (same 
time and fares); 'Magnet' Coach from Avenue de l'Opera 49, daily at 10.45 
a.m. (same fares). 

Chars - & ■ banc or ' Tapissitres'' ply through the boulevards and other 
streets during the days of the races to convey passengers to the race- 

28 6. RIVER STEAMBOATS. Preliminary 

3. Metropolitain. This new electric railway began in 1898, 
■which runs mostly underground, now takes precedence of all other 
modes of locomotion in the interior of the city. It traverses the 
centre of the city from E. to W. and also describes a semicircle round 
the Northern Boulevards, and is to be continued eventually on the 
left bank of the Seine (see below). The sections now (July 1904) 
open for traffic extend from the Cours de Vincennes (PI. R, 34) to 
the Porle Maillot (PI. B, 9; p. 230), with branches from the Place 
de VEtoile (PI. B, 12) to the Quai de Passy (PI. R, 8; /) and the Porte 
Dauphine (PI. R, 6 ; p. 230) ; then from the Etoile to the Place de 
la Nation (PI. R, 31), by the N. boulevards. This latter section is 
called the Ligne Circulaire Nord, ■ or N. circle, and its length, from 
the Porte Dauphine to the Place de la Nation, is nearly 8 M. The 
stations are below the level of the streets, like those of the 'Tube' 
railway in London, but not so deep (no lift), and the atmosphere is 
similarly oppressive to susceptible people. Trains run every 3-4 
minutes. — Routes and list of stations, see Appendix, p. 36. 

The Ligne Circulaire Sud (14 M. in length), on the left bank, will extend 
from the Quai de Passy (PI. E, 8) to the Place d'ltalie (PI. G, 23) and 
the Pont d'Austerlitz (PI. G, 25), crossing the Seine at the Pont de Passy 
(PI. E, 8) by a viaduct. Another viaduct will be constructed at the Pont 
d'Austerlitz, and a third at the Pont de Bercy (PI. G, 28; line from Vin- 
cennes to the Place d'ltalie). These viaducts will not be completed for 
two years at least, but the remainder of the route will probably be finished 
in 1904. — Other projected lines, see Appx., p. 38. 

4. River Steamboats. The Bateaux- Omnibus , or small screw 
steamers, which ply on the Seine (subject to interruption by the state 
of the river, fog, ice, etc.), are recommended to the notice of the 
traveller in fine weather, as they move quickly and afford a good 
view of the quays and banks of the river. 

There are three different services: (1) From Charenton to Auteuil, 
by the left bank of the river within Paris ; (2) From the Pont d'Auster- 
litz to Auteuil, by the right bank; (3) From the Pont-Royal to 
Suresnes, also by the right bank. The steamboats for Suresnes may 
be recognized by their larger size. In these the fares for the whole 
or any part of the distance are the same. The station are marked 
on our large Plan of Paris; the signs • and © indicate respectively 
the Charenton -Auteuil and the Pont d'Austerlitz -Auteuil lines, 
which have recently been changed; O indicates the Pont Royal- 
Suresnes line. Comp. the Appendix, p. 40. Each station has two 
piers; one, up-stream, for the steamers going up, and one, down- 
stream, for steamers coming down. — On Sun. and holidays there is 
a special service between St. Cloud and Suresnes (fare 25 c). 

Metal tickets (jetons) are taken on board and given up on dis- 
embarking. Fares: from Charenton to Auteuil 10 c, on Sun. and 
holidays 20 c. ; Pont d'Austerlitz to Auteuil 10 and 20 c. ; Pont-Royal 
to Suresnes 20 and 40 c. 

The boats ply from 6 or 7a.m. to 6 or 9 p.m., according to the seasons , 
at intervals regulated by the needs of the service. 

Information. 7. RAILWAY STATIONS. 29 

5. Chemin de Fer de Petite Ceinture. — This line, known 
shortly as 'La Ceinture 1 , forms a complete circle round Paris (with a 
branch to the Champ-de-Mars; through-trains), within the line of 
the fortifications, and connects with the different railways in the 
suburbs. For details, see the Appendix, p. 38. 

Trains run in both directions every 10 minutes, and take 1 hr. 40min. 
to perform the circuit. The chief station of arrival and departure is the 
Gare St. Lazare (see below), but trains also run from the Gare du Nord 
(see below). There is no third class. The fares are 40 or 20 c. to the 
first or second station from the point of departure (return GO or 30 c), 
and 55 or 30 c. beyond that distance (return 90 or 50 c). 

Travellers may avail themselves of this railway, as an alternative to 
the Me'tropolitain, to visit points of interest in the suburbs, such as the 
Bois de Boulogne, Pere La chaise, and the Buttes-Chaumont, or to make 
the complete circuit of the city. On every side of the town, however, 
except the S.W., the line runs between walls or through deep cuttings 
and tunnels. The seats on the outside ('imperiale') are scarcely to be 
recommended; they are very draughty and exposed to dust and smoke. 

The Chemin de Fer de Grande Ceinture, which forms a wide circle 
round Paris, connecting the Chemins de Fer de l'Est, de VincenDes, de 
Lyon, and d'Orleans, is of little interest for the tourist. 

7. Railway Stations. Railway Offices and Agents. 

The five railways radiating from Paris start from ten different 
stations. For remarks on the French railway system, see p. xii. 

The 'Indicateur des Chemins de Fer', the Indicateur Paul Dupont, 
and the Livrets Chaix (p. xiii) give complete information regarding all 
trains. — Hotels and Restaurants near the termini, see pp. 10, 19. 

I. Chemins de Fer du Nord. Gare dtj Nord, Place de Roubaix 
(PI. B, 24; comp. p. 204), for the Lignes de Banlieue to St. Denis, 
Enghien, etc. ; and for the Lignes du Nord to England via Calais 
or Boulogne, Belgium, Germany via Liege, etc. The booking-offices 
for the trains of the Banlieue, except for the stations beyond St. 
Denis on the Chantilly line, are in front; for the other trains, in the 
arcade to the left. — Oare de la Ceinture et des Trains-Tramways, 
to the right of the main station. 

II. Chemins de Fer de l'Est. Two Stations. 

(1). Gare de l'Est, or de Strasbourg, Place de Strasbourg (PI. B, 
24 ; p. 204), for the lines to Nancy, etc., to Germany vid Metz, to 
Switzerland vid Belfort, and to Italy vid the St. Gotthard Tunnel, etc. 

(2). Gare de Vincennbs, Place de la Bastille (PI. R, 25; V), 
for the line to Vincennes. 

III. Chemins de Fer de l'Ouest. Three Stations. 

(1). Gare St. Lazare (buffet; comp. p. 208), between the 
Rue St. Lazare, the Rue d' Amsterdam, and the Rue de Rome (PI. B, 
18). To the left are the Ligne de Petite Ceinture (see above); the 
Ligne du Champ-de-Mars; the Lignes de Banlieue, serving St. Cloud, 
Versailles (right bank), St. Germain, Argenteuil, and Ermont. To 
the right are the Lignes de Normandie (England vid Dieppe or Le 

30 7. RAILWAY OFFICES. Preliminary 

(2). Garb Montpasnasse, or be l'Etat, Boulevard Montparnasse 
44 (PI. G, 16; p. 326), for the Ligne de Versailles (left bank), the 
Lignes de Bretagne, and the Chemins de Fer de l'Etat. 

(3). Gare des Invalides (PI. R, 14; 7/), in the Esplanade des 
Jnvalides, for the Ligne de Courcelles and Champ-de-Mars and the 
Ligne des Moulineaux and St. Cloud (see p. 331), but used also for 
the Lignes de Bretagne. 

IV. Chemins de Fer d' Orleans. Three Stations. 

(1). Gare du Quai-d'Orsay, or Nouvelle Oare d'Orleans (Pl.R, 
17, II; p. 292), for the lines to Orleans, Tours, Bordeaux, the 
Pyrenees, Spain, etc. 

(2). Garb du Quai-d'Austerlitz, or Ancienne Oare d'Orleans 
(PI. G, 25; V), connected with the preceding by a loop-line. 

(3). Gare du Luxembourg, at the corner of the Boulevard St. 
Michel and the Rue Gay-Lussac (PI. R. 19; V), near the Jardin du 
Luxembourg (p. 315), for the lines to Sceaux and Limours. Luggage 
cannot be registered at this station but must be taken to the Station 
de Paris-Denfert (PI. G, 20). The line is to be prolonged to unite 
at the Place St. Michel with that from the Gare du Quai-d'Orsay. 

V. Chemins de Fer de Paris a Lyon et a la Mediterranee. 
Gare de Lyon , Boulevard Diderot 20 (PL G, 25, 28). Trains 

to Fontainebleau, Dijon, Chdlon-sur-Sa6ne, Macon, Lyons, Marseilles, 
Switzerland vid Pontarlier and Macon, Italy via) the Mont Ctnis 
Tunnel or via Nice, the Mediterranean, etc. 

Railway Offices. Passengers may book their luggage, order railway- 
omnibuses (ccmp. p. 1), and in some cases even take their tickets, at the 
Railway Parcels Offices in different parts of the city. They must generally, 
however, reach the office 1 hr. before the departure of the train. — There 
are also Enquiry Offices (circular tickets, etc.) at the Gare St. Lazare and 
the Gare du Nord, and, for the Chemins de Fer de l'Etat, at Rue de 
Chateaudun 42. 

The office of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (sleeping car- 
riages) is No. 3, Place de TOpera. The South Eastern and Chatham Railway 
has an office at Boulevard des Italiens 30; the London and South-Western 
Railway at Rue St. Honore 253. 

Steamboat Offices. The Paris offices of some of the principal steamship 
companies are as follows : Allan Line, Rue Scribe 5 and Rue Cambon 47. — 
American, Rue Scribe 9. — Anchor, Rue du Helder 12. — Chargeurs Rtunis, 
Boul. des Italiens 11; Compagnie Ginirale Transatlantique , Rue Auber 6 and 
Boul. des Capucines 12. — Cunard, Rue Scribe 2bis — Dominion, Rue des 
Marais 95. — Fraissinet, Rue de Rougemont 9. — Hamburg-American Line, 
Rue Scribe 7. — Messageries Maritimes, Rue Vignon 1. — Peninsular <t Oriental 
Co., Boul. des Italiens 30. — Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Avenue de TOpe'ra 38. 
— North- German Lloyd, Rue Scribe 2. — White Star, Rue Scribe 9. 

Railway Agents. Cook. Place de l'Ope'ra 1 ; Raymond & Whitcomb, Place 
de l'Ope'ra 3 (Sleeping-Car Co's offices); Voyages Economiques, Rue du Fau- 
bourg-Montmartre 17 and Rue Auber 10; Lubin, Boulevard Hsussmann 36; 
Duchemin, Rue de Grammont 20;. Voyages Pratiques, Rue de Rome 9; Des- 
roches, Faub. Montmartre 21 ; Voyages Modernes, Rue de l'Echelle 1; Grands 
Voyages, Rue du Helder 1, corner of the Boul. des Italiens. 

Goods Agents. Pitt <t Scott, Rue Scribe 5 and Rue Cambon 47 (also 
storage of luggage, etc.) ; American Express Co. (for America). Rue Halevy 6 
and Rue des Petites-Ecuries 47; Thos. Meadows d Co., Rue Scribe 4. 

Information. S. POST OFFICE. 31 

8. Post and Telegraph Offices. Telephones. 

Post Office. The Posie Centrale, or General Post Office, is in 
the Rue du Louvre (PI. R , 21 ; III) ; comp. p. 187. The public 
offices are in the gallery next the street ; the Poste Restante Office 
in another gallery, to the right. There are also in the different quarters 
of the town over a hundred branch-offices, distinguished at night 
by blue lamps, besides auxiliary offices in shops, with blue placards. 

The ordinary offices are open daily from 7 a.m. from March 1st 
to Nov. 1st (8 a.m. in winter) till 9 p.m. (12 noon on Sun. and 
holidays). Late letters with an extra 5 c. stamp will be despatched 
by the evening-mails if they are posted in the special late boxes 
before the hours (different for different offices) indicated besides 
these boxes. Certain cafe's and brasseries also undertake to dispatch 
late letters for a fee of 5 c. up to 7 p.m., and the Agence Fournier per- 
forms the same service up to 7.10 from the office of the 'Petit 
Parisien', Boul. Montmartre 20, and up to 7.45 from their own office, 
Rue de la Bourse 1. — Mail-days for foreign parts are advertised at 
the post-office. Letters to be registered must be handed in before 
4.30 or 5.30, according to the office. 

The Poste Restante Office (see above) is open daily till 9 p.m. 
Travellers may also direct poste restante letters to be addressed to 
any of the district-offices. In applying for letters , the written or 
printed name, and, in the case of registered letters, the passport 
of the addressee should always be presented. It is, however, 
preferable to desire letters to be addressed to the hotel or boarding- 
house where the visitor intends residing. 

Letter-boxes (Boites aux Lettres) are also to be found, in most 
tobacconists' shops (conspicuous in the evening by their red lamps), 
where stamps (timbres-poste) may also be purchased, at the columns 
on the boulevards, at public buildings, at the railway-stations, etc. 

Postage of letters, etc. Ordinary Letters within France, including 
Corsica, Algeria, and Tun's, 15c. per 15 grammes prepaid; for countries 
of the Postal Union 25 c. (The silver franc and the bronze sou each weigh 
5 grammes.) — Post Cards 10 c. each, wilh card for reply attached, 20 c. — 
Letter-Cards, 15 c; for abroad 25 c. 

Printed Papers (imprimis sous tande; the width of the wrapper not to 
exceed '/3 of lhat of the packet.) : 1 c. per 5 grammes up to the weight of 
20 gr. ; 5 c. between 20 and 50 gr. ; above 00 gr. 5 c. for each 50 gr. or 
fraction of 50 gr. ; to foreign countries 5 c. per 50 gr. — Commercial Papers 
(papiers d'affaires), 5 c. per 50 gr. up to 3 kg. ; for abroad, 25 c. per 25U gr. 
or less, and 5 c. per 50 gr. afterwards. Packets must not exceed 17'/2 in. 
in length. 

Registered Post. The registration fee for lettres (lettres recommandies) 
is 25 c. ; for printed papers, etc. 10 c. — Enclosures of special value 
should be sent by leltre charg&e: the value must be written in full (not in 
figures) on the envelope, which must be sealed in at least two places. 
In addition to the postage and the registration fee, these are charged 10 c. 
for every BOO fr. declared (maximum 10,000 fr.), within France; for Great 
Britain (maximum 30C0 fr.), 20 c. per 300 fr. declared value. The stamps 
on foreign 'lettres charge'es' must be at a distance from each other. 

Post Office Orders (mandais de poste) to France or Switzerland cost 
5 c. per 5 fr. up to 20 fr. ; 20-50 fr. 25 c. ; 50-1C0 fr. 50 c. ; 100-30 J fr. 75 c. ; 

32 8. TELEGRAPH. Preliminary 

300-500 fr. 1 fr. For most countries in the Postal Union: 25 c. for every 
25 fr. or fraction of 25 fr., the maximum heing 500 or 1000 fr. ; for Great 
Britain, 20c. per 10 fr., maximum 252 fr. (= 101.) 

Parcels, though known as 'Co lis Postaux', are not transmitted 
by the French post-office, but by the railway and steamship com- 
panies, which are subsidized for the purpose, or (in Paris) by a pri- 
vate firm. These parcels must not contain gold, silver, jewelry, explo- 
sives or dangerous substances, or anything in the nature of a letter. 

Within Paris (three deliveries daily, two on Sun. and holidays). Parcels 
must not exceed 10 kilogrammes (22 lbs.) in weight. The charges are 25 c. 
per parcel up to 5 kg., 40c. above that weight, or 65 and 70c. 'contre 
remboursement' (i.e. for goods sent for 'payment on delivery'). Parcels 
should be handed in at one of the 400 depots (tobacconists' shops and branch 
post-offices). The central depot is at Hue du Louvre '23. 

Provincial and Colonial Parcels. Small parcels not exceeding 10 kg. 
(22 lbs.) in weight may be forwarded wilhin France and to the French 
colonies at a charge of 60 c. for parcels up to 3 kg. (6 3 /» lbs.), 80 c. up to 
5 kg., and IV4 fr. for heavier parcels, delivered at a railway-station or 
post-office; 25 c. extra delivered at a private address. They may be insured 
for 500 fr. on payment of 10 c. 

Foreign Parcels. There is also a parcel-post between France and some 
of the other countries of the Postal Union, parcels up to 11 lbs. being con- 
veyed at a uniform rate: viz. to Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, 1 fr. 10 c; 
Spain , Italy , 1 fr. 35 c. ; Great Britain, Austria, Netherlands, 1 fr. 60 c. 
These parcels must be sealed. 

Telegraph. Telegrams are received for transmission from 7 or 
8 a.m. up to 9 p.m. at any post-office, and at later hours at the 
following: lill 11 p.m., Avenue des Champs-Elysees 33 ; Gare du 
Nord; the Luxembourg; Place de la Republique 10; Rue des 
Halles 9 ; Rue Blomet 93 ; R. Singer 9 ; R. de la Bastille 2 ; R. Ballu 30 ; 
Boul. St. Martin 41 ; R. Monge 104 ; Boul. de l'Hopital 26. Till 
Midnight, Avenue de l'Ope'ra2; Grand Hotel; Rue Boissy-d'Anglas 3 ; 
Rue d'Amsterdam 19. All Night, at the Bourse (entrance at the back, 
Rue Notre-Dame-des-Victoires) and Rue de Grenelle 103. 

Telegrams within France and to Corsica, Monaco, Algeria, and Tunis 
are charged at the rate of 5 c. per word (minimum charge 50 c), names 
of streets, towns, departments, etc., being counted as one word each ; to 
Great Britain, 20 c. per word (minimum 5 words) ; to New York, 1 fr. 25, 
Chicago 1 fr. 55 c. per word. Single words must not exceed 15 letters 
(code-words 10); five figures count as one word. A receipt is given on 
demand (10 c). — Western Union Telegraph Co., Rue Scribe 3. 

The rates per word for other countries are as follows: for Luxem- 
bourg, Switzerland, and Belgium 12'/2 c. ; Germany 15 c. ; Netherlands 16 c. ; 
Austria-Hungary , Portugal , Italy , and Spain 20 c. ; Denmark , 24>/2 c. ; 
Sweden, 28c; Koumania, Servia, etc., 28i/ic. ; Norway 36 c; Russia in 
Europe and Caucasus 40 c ; Asiatic Russia 1 fr. 90-3 fr. 25 c. ; Turkey 53 c. ; 
Greece 5372-57 c. 

Telegrams marked urgent (UUgrammes urgents), taking precedence of 
ordinary telegrams, are charged thrice the ordinary rates. 

Telegraph Money Orders (mandats telegraphiques) for not more 
than 5000 fr. are issued between French offices, and for not more 
than 500 fr. between France and a few foreign countries (maximum 
for GTeat Britain 250 fr.), at the same rates as for post office orders 
(see above), in addition to the cost of the telegram and a supple- 
mentary fee of 50 c. 

Information. 9. THEATRES. 33 

There is also a system of Pneumatic Tubes (Telegraphic pneu- 
matique) for the transmission of messages 'within Paris : carte) 
telegrammes ['petits bleus' ; number of words unlimited) 30 c, reply- 
paid 60 c. ; for letters not weighing more than 7 grammes, 30 c. 
The cards may be obtained at the telegraph-offices, to which special 
letter-boxes for the pneumatic post are also attached. 

Telephone. Messages can be telephoned from most of the post 
and telegraph offices. Service Vrbain (within Paris), 15 c. per 3 min. 
Service Suburbain: a, with a telephonic exchange in the department 
of the Seine, 25 c. per 3 min. ; b, with an exchange in the depart- 
ments of Seine et Oise and Seine et Mame ; for charges, see the 
list on the door of the cabin. Service Interurbain, consult the 'An- 
nuaire des Telephones' at any post -office. Service International, 
with England (London and about 20 of the chief provincial towns), 
Germany, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, and Switzerland (England, 
10 fr. ; Berlin, 6 fr. ; Brussels, 3fr.; Turin, S l / 2 ft.; Bern, 4fr.; 
other foreign towns, see list in the waiting-rooms.). The chief tele- 
phone-offices are in the Rue du Louvre and at the Bourse. 

Requests to use the telephone should be addressed to the employe' on 
duty in the waiting-room. 

'Urgent' messages may be exchanged with Germany at treble rates, the 
maximum rate, however, being 15 fr. 

The charge for informing a person of the office and hour at which 
a telephonic communication will be made to him (avis (Fappel UUphoni- 
aue) is 25 c. for Paris and 15 miles round , 30 c. for the department of 
Seine et Oise beyond 15 M., and 40 c. for any other locality. 

9. Theatres. Circuses. Music Halls. Balls. 

Paris possesses about 20 large theatres, in the proper sense of 
the word, and the traveller doing the 'sights' of Paris should not 
omit to visit some at least of the principal houses. Performances 
generally begin between 8 and 8.30 p.m., and last till nearly mid- 
night; details are given in the newspapers and the posters on the 
advertisement-pillars devoted to theatres, concerts, balls, etc. At 
most theatres matinees are given in winter on Sundays and holi- 
days, and sometimes on Thursdays. Many of the principal theatres 
are closed in summer. 

An intimate acquaintance with colloquial French, such as can be ac- 
quired only by prolonged residence in the country, is absolutely necessary 
for the thorough appreciation of the acting •, visitors are therefore strongly 
recommended to purchase the play (la piece; 1-2 fr.) to be performed, and 
peruse it beforehand. Dramatic compositions of every kind are sold at. 
the Librairie Tresse & Slock, Theatre Francais 8-11, by Ollendorff, Rue de la 
Chaussee-dAntin 50, at the Magasin Thtalral, Boulevard St. Martin 12, etc. 
The plays may also be procured in most instances at the theatres themselves. 
Play-bills (le programme, le programme dilailli), or theatrical newspapers 
with the programme of the evening (f'Entre-Acte, V Orchestre, and others), 
are sold in and outside the theatres. 

The best seats are the fauteuils d'orchestre, or seats next to the 
orchestra, behind which are the stalles d' 'orchestre, and farther 
Baedeker, Pa y i ilH h TYj 3 

34 9. THEATRES. Preliminary 

back, the parterre, corresponding to the pit. The fauteuils d'amphi- 
thedtre in the Opera House may also he recommended, hut in 
most other theatres the amphitheatre is indifferent both for seeing 
and hearing. The fauteuils de balcon, or de la premiere galerie, 
corresponding to the English dress-circle, are good seats, especially 
for ladies. The centre seats in the two following galleries (premieres 
and deuxilmes de face) come next in point of comfort. The avant- 
sclnes or loges d'avant-scenes are the stage-boxes, which may be 
du rez-de-chaussee (on a level with the stage), de balcon, etc. 
Baignoires is the name generally given to the other boxes on the 
groundfloor of the theatre. Ladies are not admitted to the 'parterre', 
and not always to the orchestra stalls, where they are usually expected 
to remove their hats. The arrangement and naming of the seats 
differ in the different theatres , but in all of them the side-seats 
and the two upper galleries should be avoided, especially at the 
Opera. There are usually three or four tiers above the groundfloor, 
which may be known as 'balcon', 'galeries', and 'loges'. The charges 
for admission often vary. Seats, numbered and reserved, may he 
booked in advance at the office of the theatre (bureau de location, 
generally open from 10 or 11 to 6), where a plan of the interior is 
shown. Seats booked in this manner cost in many theatres l /i-2 fr. 
more than au bureau, i.e. at the doors, but this extra expense 
is often advisable, especially in the case of a popular piece. Box- 
places, however, must be purchased the same evening at the doors, 
unless a whole box (4-8 seats) is taken. Places may also be secured 
beforehand at any of the theatrical agencies in the Boulevards, the 
Grand-Hotel, Avenue de l'Opera, etc., but the booking-fee demanded 
there is much higher. Visitors are cautioned against purchasing 
their tickets from vendors in the street. 

Tickets taken at the door are not numbered and do not give the 
purchaser a right to any particular seat in the part of the house to which 
they apply. The attendant (ouvreuse) will direct the visitor to one of the 
unengaged places ; but if any unfair play be suspected, visitors may demand 
la feuille de location, or list of seats booked for the night, and choose any 
seats which do not appear on that list. 

Overcoats, cloaks, etc., may be left at the 'Vestiaire' or cloak room 
(fee 25, or if with a lady 50 c). Gentlemen take their hats into the theatre, 
and may wear them during the intervals of the performances. The 
'ouvreuse' usually brings a footstool (petit banc) for ladies, for which she 
expects a gratuity of 10-25 c. 

The Claque, or paid applauders, form an annoying, although time- 
honoured and characteristic feature in most of the theatres. They occupy 
the centre seats in the pit in the large theatres, or one of the upper 
tiers in the others, and are easily recognised by the obtrusive and 
simultaneous vigour of their exertions. There are even 'entrepreneurs de 
succes dramatiques\ who furnish theatres with claques at stated terms, 
the Opera being said to pay as much as 24,000 fr. a year. Strange as it 
may seem to the visitor , all attempts to abolish this nuisance have 
hitherto failed. 

A list of the most important Parisian theatres is here annexed, 
with the prices of the seats 'au bureau' (see above). The first four 
enjoy state-subsidies. 

Information, 9. THEATRES. 35 

The Opera, or Academie Nationale de Musique (PI .B, R, 18 ; II), 
seep. 79. The admirable performances of the Parisian opera take 
place on Mon., Wed., and Frid., in winter on Sat. also. Mon. and 
Frid. are the fashionable evenings. The ballet and the mise en 
seine are unsurpassed. Evening-dress is de rigueur in the best seats. 
Ladies (without hats) are admitted to the orchestra and balcony 
stalls. — The first recorded performances of opera in France go back 
to the 16th century. French works were first produced in 1669, by 
Pierre Perrin, and in 1672 by J. B. Lulli. From 1683 to 1787 the 
opera-house was at the Palais-Royal, then at the Porte St. Martin, 
and from 1821 to 1874 in the Rue Le Peletier. 

Avant-scenes and premieres loges de face 17; fauteuils de balcon, baig" 
noires d'avant-scene, and premieres loges de cote 15; fauteuils d'orchestre> 
deuxiemes loges de face, and baignoires 14; deuxiemes loges de cote 105 
troisiemes loges de face 8 ; stalles de parterre 7; avant-scenes des troisiemes 5? 
fauteuils de quatrieme amphitheatre 3; loges des quatriemes de face 35 
quatriemes de cote' and cinquiemes 2 fr. 

The Theatre Francais (PI. R, 21 ; II; see p. 88), or Comedie 
Francaise, Place du Theatre - Francais , near the Palais-Royal, is 
the great home of classic art, and the acting, whether in tragedy or 
comedy, is unrivalled. Ladies (without hats) are admitted to the 
stalls. — The 'Comedie Francaise' owes its origin to the amalgam- 
ation in 1680 (by command of Louis XIV.) of the two companies 
of players directed by Moliere at the time of Ms death (1673). The 
play represented at the inaugural performance was Racine's Phedre. 
The 'The'atre Frangais' dates from the French Revolution, when the 
company was divided into two camps, and was the name taken by 
the secessionists, who were headed by the great tragedian Talma. 
The theatre owes its present organisation to a decree issued by 
Napoleon at Moscow in 1812. 

Avant-scenes des premieres loges 10; loges du rez-de-chausee, premieres 
(first gallery), avant-scenes des deuxiemes, and baignoires de face 8; fau- 
teuils de balcon 8-10 ; fauteuils d'orchestre 8 : loges de face de deuxieme 
rang 6; loges de'eouvertes de deuxieme rang 0; loges de face de troisieme 
rang 072; loges de'eouvertes de troisieme rang 3; parterre 2Vs; troisieme 
galerie et fauteuils de la quatrieme 2 fr. 

The Opera Comique, Place Boiieldieu (PI. R, 21 ; II; see p. 82), 
was intended for the performance of the lighter operas, but has 
latterly been devoted to the more ambitious operas and to lyrical 
dramas. Evening-dress as at the Opera. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chausse'e and de balcon, loges and faut. de 
balcon (1st row), 10; baignoires and fauteuils de balcon, 2nd and 3rd rows 8; 
avant-scenes and loges de face des deuxiemes 6; fauteuils de troisieme 
galerie 4 ; stalles de parterre 3'/2; avant-scenes, loges and stalles de la troi- 
sieme galerie 3 fr. 

The Odeon, Place de l'Od^on (PI. R, 19 ; IV; seep. 316), near the 
Palais du Luxembourg (p. 316), ranks next to the The'atre Francais 
for the performance of classical dramas. Ladies are admitted to all 
seats except the parterre. Evening-dress usual in the best seats. 

Avant-scenes des premieres and du rez-de-chausse'e 12; baignoires 
d'avant-scene 10; premieres loges de face 8; fauteuils d'orchestre 6; fau- 


36 9. THEATRES. Preliminary 

teuils de la premiere galerie 6 and 5; stalles de la deuxieme galerie 3'/j; 
deux, loges do face 3; parterre 2'/s fr. 

The Vaudeville (PI. R, 18-21; II), at the corner of the Rue 
de la Chaussee-d'Antin and the Boulevard des Capucines ; for dra- 
mas and comedies. Prettily decorated. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chausse'e and de balcon (4 seats) 15 fr. each seat; 
premieres loges (6, 5, and 4 seats) 12; baignoires (6, 5, and 4 seats) 10 ; 
fauteuils de balcon, premier rang 12; other rows and fauteuils d'orchestre 
10; fauteuils de foyer 7, 6, and 5; loges de foyer and deuxieme galerie 
de face 6; troisiemes 4, and 2 fr. — The prices 'en location' (p. 34) are 
the same. 

The Gymnase (PI. R, 24 ; III), Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle 38, 
chiefly for comedies, is one of the best theatres in Paris. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and de balcon 15; baignoires, fauteuils 
d'orchestre, loges, and fauteuils de balcon 10; fauteuils de foyer 6; loges 
de foyer 5 and 4; loges de deuxieme galerie 3 and 2'/s; stalles de deuxieme 
galerie 3; troisieme galerie 2 and 1 fr., etc. — The prices 'en location' 
(p. 34) are the same. 

Theatre Sarah Bernhardt (PI. R, 25 ; V), Place du Chatelet, 
under the management of the celebrated actress. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee, 15 fr. ; baignoires, loges, and fauteuils 
de balcon premier rang 12; fauteuils de deuxieme rang and d'orchestre 10; 
loges de premiere galerie 7; fauteuils de premiere galerie 6; avant-scenes 
de deuxieme gal. 4 ; stalles de parterre 3'/2 ; fauteuils de deuxieme galerie 
2Vz ; amphitheatre 1 fr. — The prices 'en location' (p. 34) are the same. 

Theatre de la Porte St. Martin (PI. R, 24; IIP), Boulevard St. 
Martin 18. Dramas, etc. M. Coquelin aine - sometimes acts here. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee, 15; du premier e'tage, baignoires and 
loges de premier balcon 12 ; fauteuils de premier balcon 12 and 10; fauteuils 
d'orchestre 10 and 7; deuxieme balcon 6 and 5 ; galerie 3'/2; stalles d'am- 
phithe'atre IV'4 fr. 

Theatre Antoine (PI. R, 24; III), Boul. de Strasbourg 14, for 
modern comedies. Excellent performances, though not invariably 
suited to British tastes. M. Antoine is the actor-manager. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and de balcon 8 fr. ; loges 7 fr. ; 
baignoires 6 fr. ; fauteuils d'orchestre and fauteuils de balcon (first row) 
5fr.; fauteuils de balcon (other rows) 4fr.; stalles d'orchestre 2'/2; loges 
des foyer and fauteuils de foyer (first row) 3 fr. ; avant-scenes de foyer 
2'/j fr., etc. — The prices 'en location' (p. 34) are the same. 

The Varietes (PI. R, 21 ; III), Boulevard Montmartre 7, excel- 
lent for vaudevilles, farces, operettas, and similar lively pieces of 
essentially Parisian character. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and des premieres (5 seats) 12; baig- 
noires (6, 5, and 4 seats) and loges de premiere galerie (6 and 4 seats) 10; 
fauteuils de balcon 12 and 10; faut. d'orchestre 10; faut. de foyer 6 and 5; 
deuxieme galerie 4 and 3 fr. — The price 'en location' (p. 31) are the same. 

Theatre de la Gaite (PI. R, 24; ///,- see p. 191), Square des 
Arts- et-Me tiers. It has several times changed its specialty. Mme. 
R6jane acted here in 1904. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and de premiere galerie and baig- 
noires 8; fauteuils and loges de premiere galerie 7; fauteuils d'orchestre 
5; avant-scenes, loges, and fauteuils de deuxieme galerie 5; stalles d'or- 
chestre 3 ; stalles de deuxieme galerie 3 ; de troisieme galerie 2 l /t and 2 fr. 

Information, 9. THEATRES. 37 

Theatre des Nouveautes (PI. R, 21 ; II), Boulevard des Italiens 
28; for operettas, vaudevilles, etc. 

Avant-scenes da rez-de-chausse'e and des premieres, whole boxes 50 fr. ; 
baignoires, premieres loges and fauteuils d'orchestre 8; faut. de balcon 8 
and 7; fauteuils de galerie 5 and 4; stalles d'orchestre and deuxiemes 
loges 6 and 4 fr., etc. 

Theatre du Palais-Royal (PI. R , 21 ; II), at the N.W. corner 
of the Palais-Royal, Rue Montpensier 38, where vaudevilles and 
farces of hroad but very laughable character are performed. 

Avant-scenes and fauteuils de balcon premier rang 8; premieres 
loges, baignoires, fauteuils de balcon deuxieme rang 7; fauteuils de galerie 
de face, and avant-scenes premiere galerie 5; premiere galerie de cots' 1; 
stalles de la deuxieme galerie 2'/s fr. 

BoufTes Parisians (PI. R, 21 ; II), a small theatre in the Rue 
Monsigny 4 and the Passage Choiseul ; operettas. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chausse'e (5 seals) 10; baignoires and loges de 
balcon (5 and 4 seats) 8; avant-scenes de deuxieme galerie (4 seats) 8; 
fauteuils d'orchestre and de balcon 8; stalles de deuxieme galerie 2; stalles 
de troisieme galerie 1 fr. 

Theatre de la Benaissance (PI. R, 24; III), Boulevard 
St. Martin 20. Comedies and dramas. At present occupied by 
Mme. Jane Hading. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and balcon 0; baignoires 12; loges de 
balcon and fauteuils de balcon (1st row) 12; other rows and fauteuils 
d'orchestre 10; avant-scenes and loges de premiere galerie 5; deuxieme 
galerie 2*/2 fr. 

Theatre des Folies Dramatiques (PL R, 27; III), Rue de 
Bondy 40, near the Place de la Republique; comedies, etc. 

Fauteuils de balcon 8; faut. d'orchestre 7, 4, and 3 ; stalles 2; premiere 
galerie 2, etc. — The prices 'en location' (p. 34) are the same. 

Theatre du Chatelet, Place du Chatelet(Pl. R,24; V; seep. 168). 
a very roomy edifice, for spectacular pieces and ballet. 

Loges de balcon (8 seats) 7'/a fr- ; fauteuils de balcon 9; fauteuils 
d'orchestre 8 and 6 ^ faut. de galerie 6, 5, and 4 ; parterre 3 ; premier am- 
phitheatre 3; deuxieme amphitheatre 2 l /2fr. 

Ambigu-Comique (PI. R, 24; III), Boulevard St. Martin 2; 
dramas, melodramas, and 'patriotic' pieces. 

Premieres avant-scenes 9; premieres loges 8; fauteuils d'orchestre 7, 
C, and 5 ; fauteuils de foyer 4 and 3 f r. 

Among the best of the other theatres are the following : — 
Theatre Cluny, Boul. St. Germain 71, near the Muse'e de Clcuiy, 
the 'Gymnase' of the left bank (seats 1-6 fr.). — Athenee, Square 
de rOpera (PI. R, 18; II; I1/2-I2V2 fr.)- — ™atre Dejazet, Place 
de la Republique (1-8 fr.); La Bodiniere ('theatre d'aTt inter- 
national'), Rue St. Lazare 18 (Pl.B, 18; II; 2-5 fr.); La Itobiniere, 
Rue Lafayette 3, realistic pieces, etc. (2-10 fr.); Comedic Mondaine 
(Pl.B, 20), Rue des Martyrs 75(1 fr.); Nouveau-Thealre,~Rae Blanche 
15; Les Mathurins, Rua des Mathurina 36 (PI. B, 18; II), etc. 

Among the so-called Petits Theatres (not suited for ladies) are the 
following. TM&lre Victor Hugo (PI. B, 20), Boul. Roehechouart 30 (adm. 1-5 fr.) ; 
Thi&tre des Capucines, Boul. dea Capucines 39: the Qranrl-Quignol , Rue 

38 9. MUSIC HALLS. Preliminary 

Cliaptal 20biS; Pigalle, Boul. de Clichy 48; Rabelais, Bool, de Clichy 43; 
Bouffes du Nord, Faubourg St. Denis 209 ; Thiatre Lyrique (PI. B, 17), Avenue 
de Clichy 50. — The following are Sobdeban Tiieatbe8. Thiatre des Batignolles, 
Boul. des Batignolles 78 ; Th. de Belleville, Rue <ie Beljeville 46; des Gobelins, 
A v. des Gobelins 73; de Grenelle, Rue Croix-Nivert 55; de Montmartre, Eue 
d'Orsel 43; de Montpamas&e, Rue de la Gaite' 31. 

Equestrian Performances , accompanied by acrobatic feats, 
pantomime, etc., are exhibited at the following circuses: — 

Nouveau Cirque, Rue St. Honore" 251 (PI. R, 18 ; II), with an 
arena which may be flooded at a moment's notice for aquatic spec- 
tacles. Adm. 5, 3, and (promenade only) 2 fr. 

Cirque d'Hiver (Pi. R, 27; III), Bou!. du Temple. Performances 
from Oct. to April. Adm. '/ 2 -2-fr- Saturday is the favourite night. 

Cirque Medrano, or Boum-Boum (PI. B, 20), Boul. Roche- 
chouart 63 (p. 211). Admission 1/2 t0 ^ fr- i Sun. and holidays, 3 /4-5 fr. 

Music Halls. The Folies-Bergere, Rue Richer 53 (PI. B,21 ; III), 
is a very popular place of entertainment. Visitors either take seats 
or promenade in the gallery, while the performances are going on 
on the stage. Smoking allowed. The society is very mixed. Promen- 
ade 3, fauteuils 4-7 fr. — The Theatre Marigny, Avenue Marigny, 
Champs-Elysees (Pl.R, 15; //); the Olympia (PI. R, 18; II), Boule- 
vard des Capucines 28 (promenade 3, fauteuils 6, deuxieme galerie 
2fr.); the Alhambra (the former Theatre du Chateau-d'Eau), Rue 
de Malte 50, near the Av. de la Rupublique ; and the Casino de Paris 
(2-5 fr.), Rue de Clichy 16 (PI. B, 18; see p. 208), are establish- 
ments of the same kind. Some of the cafe's-concerts provide similar 

Cafes-Concerts. The music and singing at these establish- 
ments are never of a high class, while the audience is of a very 
mixed character. The entertainments, however, are often amusing, 
and sometimes consist of vaudevilles, operettas, and farces. Smok- 
ing allowed. The alluring display of the words '■entree libre' outside 
the cafes-ehantants is a ruse to attract the public, as each visitor is 
obliged to order refreshments (a 'consommatiori), which are gen- 
erally of inferior quality, at a price of 3 /4-5 fr. , according to the 
seat and the reputation of the place. Where admission is charged 
the 'consommation' is not compulsory. — The following may be 
mentioned. In summer: Cafe-Concert des Ambassadeurs, in the 
Champs-Elysees, the first on the right; the Alcazar d'Ete, the second 
on the right ; and the Jardin de Paris (covered in wet weather ; 
adm. 5 fr., Sun. and holidays at 2.30 p.m. 1 fr.), on the left. In 
winter (a few open also in summer): the Scala (PI. R, 24 ; HI), 
Boul. de Strasbourg 13, with a handsome saloon, unroofed in summer 
(adm. 1-6 fr.); the Eldorado, No. 4, nearly opposite; Parisiana, 
Boul. Poissonniere 27 (adm. 2-6 fr.) ; Concert Parisien , Rue de 
l'Echiquier, opposite the Rue Mazagran, and Rue du Faubourg- 

Information. RALLS. 39 

St-Denis 37 (t/ 2 -3 f r.) ; Petit Casino, Boul. Montmartre 12 (li/ 2 
and 1 fr., with a 'consommation') ; Ba-ta-clan, Boul. Voltaire 50 
(8/ 4 -4 fr.); La Cigale (PI. B, 20), Boul. Rochechouart 120, opposite 
the Cirque Medrano ( 3 / 4 -5fr.); Concerts Rouges, Rue de Tournon 6; 
La Fourmi (PI. B, 23), Boul. Barbes 10; La Cote d'Azur, Boul. de 
Clichy 75; Concert Europeen, Rue Biot5; Concert de I'Epoque, 
Boul. Beaumarchais 10 ; Moulin, Rouge (PI. B, 17 ; remodelled in 
1903), Boul. de Clichy 90, adjoining the Metropolitain station 
('revues', realistic quadrilles, etc.); lheatre-Concert de la Orande 
Roue (seep. 40), summer-garden and winter-theatre; the Gaite 
Rochechouart (PL B, 23), Boul. Rochechouart 15; La Pepiniere, 
Rue de la Pepiniere 9, near the Gare St. Lazare (80 c.-Q, l /< i fr.), 
frequented by the servant-class. 

Cabaret3 Artistiques. The establishments that have attained a certain 
celebrity under this name are a kind of cross between the cafe-concert 
and the cafe-brasserie. They are the descendants of the famous but now 
defunct Cabaret du Chat-Noir, founded in 1882 by Rodolphe Salis, which 
was frequented by many celebrated literary men and artists. The enter- 
tainments, which consist of songs, mystic illusions, shadow-plays, etc., 
are often clever, but presuppose a considerable knowledge of colloquial 
French. These cabarets are scarcely suitable for ladies. Most of them 
are situated at Montmartre ('La Butte'): Le Trileau de Tabarin ('Boite a 
Fursy'; political songs), Rue Pigalle 58 ; Cabarets des Arts, Eugene Buffet 
('revue'), Cabaret des QuaV z-Arts , 38, 75, and 62 Boul. de Clichy; Cabaret 
Aristide-Bruant, where the visitor's arrival is apt to be hailed with jokes 
in doubtful taste, Boul. Rochechouart 84; Les Noclambules (frequented by 
students), Rue Champollion 7. Last of all, the 'cabarets illusionistes': Cabarets 
de I'Enfer and du del, Cabaret du Niant, Boul. de Clichy 53 and 34, etc. 

Balls. The public masked balls given during the Carnival (see 
announcements in newspapers and placards) are somewhat eccentric 
in character, and have lost much of their former glory. The most 
important were those in the Opera House, which however, have been 
discontinued since 1903. Other masked balls ('Redoutes') are held 
in the Olympia (p. 38), the Casino de Paris (p. 38), etc. Prices vary. 

Bals Publics. These 'balls', which take place all the year 
round, may be regarded as one of the specialties of Paris, though 
they are less numerous than formerly. Many of these entertain- 
ments, however, have for some years past been to a great extent 'got 
up' for the benefit of strangers, numbers of the supposed visitors 
being hired as decoys by the lessee of the saloon. It need hardly 
be said that ladies cannot attend these balls. The chief of these 
places of amusement on the right bank is the Moulin de la Oalette, 
Rue Lepic 79 (Thurs., Sat., & Sun.). Next in popularity come the 
Bal Bullier, Avenue de l'Observatoire 33 (PI, O, 19; p. 326), in 
the Quartier Latin, noted as a resort of students (adm. 1 or 2fr., 
chief days Thurs., Sat., and Sun.; concerts also given), and the 
Salle Wagram (1 fr. ; Tues. and Thurs.), Avenue de Wagram 39 bis, 
near the Arc de Triomphe. 

On Mardi Graa (Shrove Tuesday) and on the Thursday of Mi-Careme 
'confetti'-throwing is largely indulged in by the youth of both sexes. — 
At the Fete du ftuatorze Juillet (the anniversary of the taking of the 

40 10. CONCERTS. Preliminary 

Bastille, see p. 174) 'balls' are held in many of the streets for three con- 
secutive nights (12th to 14th), and a grand display of fireworks is given, 
which is perhaps hest seen from Montmartre (p. 209). 

The Mtjsee Grevin, Boul. Montmartre 10, founded by the 
celebrated draughtsman Gre'vin, is a collection of wax figures, re- 
sembling Madame Tussaud's in London; open 11 a.m. to 11 p.m. It 
also contains a theatre, where comedies, operettas, etc., are performed 
(2 fr. ; matine'es 1 Jr.). In the basement are representations of Marie 
Antoinette's cell at the Conciergerie (p. 257) and of scenes from the 
Revolution. Here also is a room for cinematograph exhibitions. 
Concert 3-6 and 8-10.45. — Establishments of a similar kind are the 
Musee de la Porte St. Denis, Boul. St. Denis 8 (50 c ), and the 
Nouveau Musee, Boul. Montmartre 14 (50 c). 

At the Theatre Robeet Houdin, Boul. des Italiens 8, exhibi- 
tions of conjuring are given in the afternoon (adm. 2-5 fr.) and 
cinematograph entertainments in Ihe evening (50 c). 

Theatres de Gctgnol (Punch & Judy shows) in the Champs-Elysees, 
on both sides of the Avenue Marigny, at the Tuileries Garden, at the Luxem- 
bourg, and in the Pare de Montsouris. 

Panobamas, formerly numerous, are now represented by two at Mont- 
martre (religious subjects; see p. 211). — Photoratna Lumtere, Rue de 
Clichy 18 (panoramic views of the world), open 2.30-6 and 8.30-11 p.m. 

Phonographs : Salon des Phonographes (Pathe), Boulevard des Italiens 26 
and Eue de Richelieu 98; Columbia, Boulevard des Italiens 34. At the 
Thi&trophone, at the Theatre des Nouvautes, Boul. des Italiens, pieces played 
at the Opera, the Theatre Francais, etc. are heard through the telephone. 

Giant Wheel (Grande Roue de Paris; see p. 39), Avenue de Suffren 74; 
1 p.m. to midnight in summer, 1 till 6 p.m. in winter; 1 fr., Sun. 50 c. — 
Looping the Loop, Rue de Clichy IS; daily 2 p.m. to midnight; adm. 1 f r. 
(Frid. 2 fr.), adm. to motor-car 1 fr. — Captive Balloon (Aerodrome), Porte 
Maillot; adm. 50 c., ascent 5 fr. 

10. Concerts. Art Exhibitions. Sport. Clubs. 

Concerts. The celebrated concerts of the Conservatoire de Musique 
(p. 83), Rue du Faubourg-Poissonniere, take place from November 
to April. Only the highest order of classical music is performed. 

As all the seats are taken by subscription, admission for strangers is 
possible only when tickets are returned by subscribers (apply 9-11 a.m. 
at tUe office, Rue du Conservatoire 2, on the Tues. or Sat. preceding the 
concert). — Premieres loges and stalles de galerie 15 fr. ; stalles d'orohestre 
12 fr.; loges da rez-de-chausstfe 10 fr. ; deuxiemes loges 9 fr.; troisiemes 
loges 5 fr. ; amphitheatre, 1st and 2nd rows 5, other rows 4 fr. 

The Concerts Lamoureux, for classical and Wagner music, take 
place on Sunday afternoons in winter in the Nouveau-Theatre (see 
p. 37), Rue Blanche 15. Adm. 2-8 fr. Orchestra of 250 performers. 

Similar to the last are the Concerts Colonne, which are also held 
on Sun. afternoons in winter in the Theatre du Chatelet (adm. 
1-12 fr.). Orchestra of 250. 

Concerts Louis Pi4er at the Theatre Marigny (p. 38), on Sun. 
afternoons in winter. 

Information. 10. SPORT. 41 

Concerts of Chamber Music are given occasionally at the concert-rooms 
of Erard, Rue du Mail 13; Pleyel, Rue Rochechouart 22; jSolian, Av. de 
FOpera 32, and other places. See tills and newspaper advertisements. 

Open-air concerts in summer at the Jardin a" Acclimataticn 
(p. 232). Military Bands also play (4-5 p.m. May 1st- June 15th, 
or 5-6 p.m. June 16th-Aug. 31st) in the gardens of the Tuileries 
(Sun., Tues., and Thurs.), the Palais -Royal (Sun., Wed., and 
Frid.), and the Luxembourg (Sun., Tues., and Frid.), and in several 
other parks and squares; the favourite is that of the Garde Re"publi- 
caine (programmes in the daily papers). 

The best Church Music is heard at the Madeleine (p. 77), St. Roch 
(p. 87), La Triniti (p. 208), Mire-Dame (p. 259), and St. Sulpice (p. 290). 

Art Exhibitions. A number of exhibitions of art take place 
annually in Paris towards the end of winter and in spring. The 
Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts holds its exhibition in the Grand- 
Palais (p. 74) in the Champ-Elyse'es from April loth to June 30th ; 
that of the Societe des Artistes Frangais, in the same building, lasts 
from May 1st to June 30th. Both are open 8 a.m. -6 p.m. and charge 
1 fr. for admission (V2 fr- on Sun. afternoon). On 'varnishing day' 
('jour de vernissage" 1 ) the charge is 10 fr. These two are known as the 
'Salons'. Exhibitions are also organized by the Cercle Artistique et 
Litteraire (p. 43) and by the Union Artistique (p. 43). The Exposition 
des Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs is held at Boul. Pereire 175 (Feb.- 
March), and the Societe de VEcole Francaise has its exhibition in 
the Cours-la-Reine. Smaller exhibitions in the Oaterie Georges 
Petit, Rue de Seze 8 ('Exposition des Femmes Artistes', in Jan. ; 
1 fr.); the Galeries de la Bodiniere (p. 37), Rue St. Lazare 18; the 
Oalerie des Artistes Modernes, Rue Caumartin 19 ; the Oalerie Durand- 
Ruel, Rue Laffitte 16; the Oalerie Le Bare de Boutteville , Rue Le 
Peletier 11; the ArtNouveau (Bing), Rue Ohauchat 19 and. Rue de 
Provence 22; the Oalerie Haussmann, Boul. Haussmann 67; and the 
Salon de la Plume (permanent exhibition), Rue Bonaparte 31. 

Horse Races (Courses) take place from February to November. 
Flat races at Longchamp (p. 232), Enghien (p. 378), Chantilly 
(p. 387), Maisons-Laffltte (p. 382), and St. Cloud (p. 338; trotting- 
matches); steeplechases at Auteuil (p. 229), Vincennes (p. 251), 
St. Germain-Acheres (p. 370), and other places. Full details in the 
newspapers. In 1903 over Q 1 /^ million pounds exchanged hands in 
bets through the agency of the official k Pari-MutueV; of the sums 
thus circulated l / u is levied for a fund to encourage horse-breeding, 
20/o for the relief of the poor ('Assistance Publique'), 72% for 
additional works to supply drinking-water in poor parishes, and 4°/ u 
for expenses. Admission: 'pelouse', 1 fr. ; tribune (covered stand) 
5 fr. ; pesage (grand stand) 20 fr., ladies 10 fr. 

Longchamp. Frequent meetings, the first (early in April) being a fashion- 
able fixture. The 'Grand-Prix' (10,000!.), the chief French race, is decided 
about the middle of June — Auteuil. Races in Feb,, March, June, July, 

42 10. SPORT. Preliminary 

Nov., and December. The 'Grand Prix d'Auteuil' (60002.) is run on (he 
Sunday before the Grand Prix de Paris. — Ghanlilly. Eaces in spring 
and autumn. The 'Prix du Jockey-Club' (50C0/.), the French Derby, takes 
place in spring. 

Saddle Horaes may be hired of Duphot, Rue Daphot 12; Lejeune <k C'al- 
mette, Kue d'Enghien 42; Peltier, Rue Chalgrin 3 ; Lalanne, Rue Troyon 12; 
Ilensman, Avenue Bugeaud 55 (the last three near the Bois). The charge 
for a ride of 3 hrs. is 1015 fr. — Horses and carriages are sold at the 
Tattersal, Rue Beaujon 24. 

Boating is a favourite summer-recreation, the chief starting- 
points being Asnicres(p. 331), Argenteuil (p. 380), Chatoufp. 362), 
and Bougival (p. 365) on the Seine, and Joinville-le-Pont [p. 406) 
and Nogent (p. 406) on the Marne. Regattas are frequently held, 
the eight-oared race at Suresnes, in May, and the international and 
championship contests at Asnieres being the principal fixtures. 

Cycling is a popular amusement in France, where it is even more 
largely patronized as a sport than in England. The highroads between 
Paris and the coast are good, though often destitute of shade ; while 
the Bois de Boulogne and the environs of Paris afford excellent 
opportunities to the cyclist. Cyclists entering France with their 
machines must deposit a sum equal to the duty on the latter (22 fr. 
per 10 kg. or 22 lbs.), which is returned to them on quitting the 
country. Members of well-known cycling associations, such as the 
CyclUW Touring Club (47 Victoria St., London, S.W.) or_the Touring 
Club de France (35 Av. de la Grande- Arme'e, Paris) are spared this 
formality on conditions explained in the handbooks of these clubs. 

An annual tax of 6 fr. is imposed on every cycle in France (12 fr. 
.on motor-cycles), but strangers remaining in the country not more 
than three months receive a dispensation from this tax ('permis de 
circulation' ; 60 c.) on application at the custom-house at the port of 
entry. Every cycle must be furnished with a lamp (to be lighted at 
dusk) and a bell or horn (audible at a distance of 50 metres). 

Cyclists will find it advantageous to join the Touring Club de France 
(see above), the annual subscription to which is 6 fr. (5s.), including a copy 
of the monthly Gazette. The club publishes an Annuaire (1 fr.), with a 
list of cyclists' hotels, repairers, representatives, etc., and also a series of 
Itineraries (5 c. each). 

The rule of the road in France is the reverse of that in England: 
keep to the right in meeting, to the left in overtaking another vehicle. — 
Maps, see p. 49. 

Cycle Shops. Climent-Humber, Rue du Quatre-Septe nbre 19 ; American 
Cycles, Place de la Made'eine 6; Hurlu, Peugeot, Cycles Rochet, Avenue de 
la Grande-Arme'e Nos. 29, 22, and 62. Some of the best English makers 
also have shops in the Avenue de la Grande-Arme'e. — Cycles may be 
hired (1 fr. per hr., 5 fr. per day) at the cycle-shops and cycle-tracks. 

Cycle Tracks. Piste Vilocipidique Municipale, at Vincennes (p. 249) ; Velo- 
drome Buffalo, Rue Parmen'ier 36 (Neuilly-sur-Seine); Velodrome de la Seine, 
Eue de Courcelles 173, at Levallois (p. 331); Yilodrome de Courbevoie, Boul. 
Bineau 20; Vilodrome du Pare des Princes (PI. G, 1), near the station at 
Auteuil; Velodrome de VEst,a.i Charenton (PI. G, 35); Casino -Vilodrome 
d" Aulnay-lis-Bondy, Place du Marche. Races are frequently held at these, 
especially on Sunday (adm. 1-7 fr.). 

Motor-Cars enjoy an enormous vogue in France, principally owing 
to the absence of police restrictions and to the excellent roads. The 

Information. 10. CLUBS. 43 

Automobile Club de France (see below) ranks among the first French 
clubs. The Parisian calls the machine 'Auto', 'Teuf teuf ', or 'Teuf . 
Sealers: International Automobile Office, Rue de Seze 4; Perrot-Duval, 
Boul. Pereire 239; QUlet-Forest, Av. de la Grande-Arm£e 75. — Accessories: 
C. Billy, Rue d'Artois 13; Finet, Rue du Temple 15T. — Costumes for motorists : 
0. Strdm el Fits, Rue de la Chausaee-d'Antin 16. 

Skating (Patinage). Opportunities for open-air skating are few, 
the frosts, as a rule, not holding long enough. The ponds in the 
Bois de Boulogne are the favourite resorts. There is a Skating Club, 
for which one of the ponds is reserved (see p. 232). — Skating on 
artificial ice is practised from October to the end of April at the 
Palais de Olace in the Champs-Elyse'es (PI. R, 15, II; adm. 9 a.m. to 
noon and 9 p.m. to midnight 3 fr., 2-7 p.m. 5 fr.). 

Golf. There are golf-courses at La Boulie, near Versailles 
(p. 361), and at Maisons-Laffitte (p. 382). Apply to the secretaries. 

Polo. Polo Club (many English and American members), at 
Bagatelle, in the Bois de Boulogne (p. 232). 

Fencing. This art is extensively practised in the best French 
society. The principal 'Salles d'Armes' (where lessons may be had) 
are those of Kirchhoffer (Salle. Jean -Louis), Place St. Michel 6; 
Merignac Pere, Rue Joubert 32 ; Merignac Fits, Rue Monsieur-le-Prince 
48; Ayat, Faub. St. Honore' 129; Mondoloni, Rue de Beaune 12; 
Rouleau, Rue St. Honore 350; Eue, Rue St. Marc 14; etc. 

Boxing. The French 'bose', or 'savate', is practised with the feet 
as well as with the hands : Casteres, Rue Nouvelle 3 (Rue de Clichy) ; 
Bayle, Av. deWagram 25; Leclerc Freres, Rue de Richelieu 15, etc. 

Pelote Basque is played at 2 p.m. on Thurs. & Sun. in summer, in 
the enclosure of the St. James's Club, Rue de Longchamps 54, Neuilly 
(adm. 1-10 fr.), and attracts a fashionable crowd. 

Other amusements are Football , played especially in the Bois de Bou- 
logne, near the lakes; Cross- Country Runs, in the woods in the direction 
of St. Cloud, Ville d'Avray, and Meudon; Bowls, with clubs in the Bois 
de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes; Lawn-Tennis (Tennis Club de Paris, 
Boul. Exelmans 71); Cricket; Gun Clubs (pigeon-shooting), in the Bois de 
Boulogne, at Billancourt (p. 336), etc. 

Clubs (Cercles). The following are the principal clubs of Paris, 
to most of which strangers aTe admitted on the introduction of a 
member: Jockey Club, Rue Scribe, lt»S; L'Union, Boul. de la Made- 
leine 11 ; Cercle de la Rue Royale, Place de la Concorde 4; Cercle 
Agricole, Boul. St. Germain 284; Le Sporting, Rue Caumartin 2; 
Union Arthtique ('l'Epatant') , Rue Boissy-dAnglas 5 ; Cercle At - 
tistique et Litteraire , Rue Volney 7 ; Cercle des Chemins de Fer, Rue 
de la Miehodiere 22 ; Yacht Club, Place de POp^ra 6, now amal- 
gamated with the Automobile Club, Place de la Concorde 6 ; Cercle 
Militaire (or 'Cercle National des Armies de Terre et de Mer'), 
Avenue and Place de POp^ra; Orand Cercle Republicain, Rue de 
Grammont 30; Cercle des Capucines, Boul. des Capucines 6; Cercle 
National, Avenue de rOpe"ra 6 ; Cercle de VEscrime, Rue Taitbout 9 ; 
Cercle Central, RueVivienne 36 ; Cercle de la Librairie, Rue Vivienne 

44 11. SHOPS. Preliminary 

117; Club Alpin, Rue du Bac 30; Touring Club, Avenue de la 
Grande-Arme'e 35; Racing-Club de France (athletics), Pelouse de la 
Oroix-Catelan (p. 231). 

English Olubs. British Club, Boul. des Capucines 24 (visitors 
25 fr. per month); Travellers, Hotel Pavia, Avenue des Champs- 
Elyse"es; Union, Boul. des Italiens 6; British Lady Artists, Place de 
la Concorde; Standard Athletic Club, Fauhurg St. Honore 54. 

11. Shops and Bazaars. 

Shops. The most attractive are those in the Grands Boulevards, 
the Rue de la Paix, Avenue de l'Opera, Rue Royale, Rue du Quatre 
Septembre, and Rue de Rivoli., hut there are large and much- fre- 
quented emporiums in other parts of the city. 

A few of the best and most respectable of the innumerable 
and tempting 'magasins' of Paris are here enumerated. The prices 
tend to be somewhat high. The 'prix-fixe' system now obtains almost 
universally, and, in the larger and more reputable establishments 
especially, strangers run little risk of being fleeced. 

The Grands Magasins be Nouvbaut^s, large establishments 
for the sale of all kinds of materials for ladies' dress, trimmings, 
laces, etc., form a very important feature of modern Paris, and 
owing to the abundant choice of goods they offer are gradually 
superseding the smaller shops. Perhaps the most important of these 
establishments is the Bon Marchi, Rue du Bac 135 and 137, and 
Rue de Sevres 18-24 (PI. R, 16; IV), rather distant from the centre 
of the town, with which may be mentioned the Grands Magasins 
du Louvre, in the Place du Palais-Royal (p. 90) and the Rues de 
Rivoli, de Marengo, and St. Honore". Of a similar character aTe : Le 
Printemps, at the corner of the Boul. Hanssmann and the Rue du 
Havre ; the Petit St. Thomas, Rue du Bac 27-35 ; A la Place Clichy, 
in the place of that name ; the Ville de St. Denis, Rue du Faubourg - 
St-Denis 91-95; Pygmalion, corner of the Rues St. Denis and de 
Rivoli, and Boul. de Sevastopol 9-13; the Samaritaine, Rue du 
Pont-Neuf and Rue de Rivoli, moderate. 

Similar to these Grands Magasins de Nouveautes are the Ba- 
zaars , at some of which all kinds of household requisites and 
luxuries may be obtained, while others devote themselves to cheap 
goods of every kind. Perhaps the most attractive of the former is 
the large Bazar de VHdtel-de- Ville, Rue de Rivoli 50-54, beside 
theH6tel de Ville. Of a similar character are the Nouvelles Galeries, 
Avenue de Clichy 43. Among the others may be mentioned the Bazar 
Magenta, Boul. Magenta 86, the Bazar des Holies el des Posies, Rue 
du Louvre 15, and the Bazar du Chateau-d'Eau, Rue du Faubourg- 
du-Temple 2, Place de la Re'publique. 

Antiquities and Curiosities: Laurent-Perdreau , Rue Meyer- 
beer 2, first floor; Stettiner, Rue St. Georges 7; Lowengard, Boul. 

Information. 11. SHOPS. 45 

des Capucines 1; Ala Croix de ma Mere, Quai Malaquais 19, ami 
other shops on the same and following quays; A la Memoire de 
Jeanne d'Arc, Boul. St. Germain 185; Jamarin, Rue de Clichy 35; 
Seligmann, Place Vendome 23 (Rue de la Paix) ; various shops in the 
Rue Lafayette (Nos. 9 to 26) and (more especially) in the Rue Drouot. 
Rue Laffltte, Rue Le Peletier, Boul. Haussmann, etc. — Ancient 
Armour: Gorget, Rue de Chateaudun 39; Qutperle, Boul. Magenta 12. 

— Chinese and Japanese Goods: Dai-Nippon, Boul. des Capucines 3. 

— Embroideries, ancient and modem: Perretty Viberl, RueduQuatre- 
Septembre 33. — Reproductions of objects from the Treasure of Bosco 
Reale (p. 147): Haek fy Hourdequin, Rue de Turbigo 42. — Ivories: 
Rosenwald, Rue de Bretagne 55. — The depot of the Manufactures 
et Ateliers d'Art de I'Etat, where the choicest products of the Mint 
(p. 284), the Chalcography department of the Louvre (p. 166), and 
the Sevres Manufactory (p. 327) are on sale, is at the comer of the 
Boul. des Italiens and the Rue Favart. 

'Articles de Voyage': Bazar du Voyage and Moynat, Avenue 
de FOp^ra 3 ; Am Depart, 29, and others, in the same street ; Goyard, 
Rue St. Honore 223; Meunur, Faub. Poissonniere 34; Touron, Rue 
de la Paix 24; and at the Bazaars (p. 44). English goods at Old 
England, Boul. des Capucines 12. 

Bootmakers (bottier, cordonnier ; boots and shoes, chaussures ) : 
Poivret, Rue des Petits-Champs 32; Pinet, Boul. de la Madeleine 
1 and Rue de Paradis 44; Bacquart, Passage Jouffroy 35. — For 
ladies : A la Merveilleuse, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 24 ; Ala Gavotte, same 
street 26; Ferry, Rue des Pyramides 9. — Ready-made boots and 
shoes (mostly marked prices) may be procured in almost every street : 
Au Prince Eugine, Rue de TuTbigo 29 ; Baoul, Boul. des Italiens 22; 
Rue de Rennes 64, etc. — English boots and shoes at Boulevard 
Montmartre 3, 15, and 21; Boul. des Capucines 8. 

Bronzes (bronzes d'art): Barbedienne, Boul. Poissonniere 30 
Baudry, Faub. St. Denis 86; Thiebaut, Avenue del'Opera32; Siot 
Decauville, Boul. des Italiens 24 ; Ardavani, Boul. des Italiens 27 
Boudet, Boul. des Capucines 43; Caiaso & Cie., Boul. de la Made 
leine 1; Goldscheider, Av. de f Opera 28; Liberty, same street 38 
Colin, Boul. Montmartre 5; Susse Frlres, Rue Vivienne 31. — 
Church ornaments in the vicinity of St. Sulpiee (p. 290). — Brass- 
work (artistic): Lasner, Rue St. Simon 8; Robert, Rue Bertrand 25. 

Chemists and Druggists : Pharmacie Normale, Rue Drouot 19; 
Pharmacie Centrale des Boulevards, Rue Montmartre 178 ; Ferrl, Rue 
de Richelieu 102; Homeopathique , Boul. Haussmann 21; Tanret, 
Rue d' Alger 14; Noel (open all night), Place Ste. Opportune 10; 
Principale, Rue Re'aumur 49; Virenque, Place de la Madeleine 8 ; 
T. P. Hogg, Rue de Castiglione 2 ; Roberts fy Co. (Shorthose), Rue 
de la Paix 5 ; W. D. Hogg, Avenue des Champs-Elysees 62 ; Nathan, 
Rue Scribe 3 (the last four are English); Swann, Rue de Castig- 
lione 12 (American). 

46 11. SHOPS. Preliminary 

Chocolate, Tea, etc.: Compagnie Coloniale, Av. de l'Optfra 19; 
F. Marquis, Passage des Panoramas 57-59, Rue Vivienne 44, and 
Boul. des Capucines 39 ; L. Marquis (Siraudin), see Confectioners ; 
Lombart, Boul. de la Madeleine 9; Masson, Boul. Malesherbes 7 
and Rue de Rivoli 91 (Rue du Louvre); Pihan, Rue du Faubourg- 
St- Honore" 4; Guerin-Boutron, Boul. Poissonniere 29 ; Potin, see 
Delicacies. See also Confectioners. 

Cigabs. The manufacture and sale of tobacco ('caporal ordi- 
naire' and 'superieur') and cigars is a monopoly of government. 
The shops, called debits de la regie, are distinguished by their red 
lamps. The prices are the same everywhere. English and American 
tobacco may be obtained at various shops in the Rue de Rivoli, the 
boulevards, and other streets frequented by strangers. 

Good imported cigars (25 c. each, and upwards) may be purchased at 
the principal depot, Quai d'Orsay 63, at the Place de la Bourse 15, at Rue 
St. Honore 1 157 ( l A la Civette'), or at the Grand-Hotel. The prices (marked 
on the open boxes) of Ihe home-made cigars usually smoked range from 
5 to 35 c. There are also special brands manufactured for the restaurants, 
cafes, etc. (25-50 c, each). Cigarettes are sold in packets of twenty at 50-80 c. 
Oriental cigarettes are to be had at Boul. des Capucines 12 and Place de 
la Bourse 15. The ordinary smoking- tobacco is sold in packets of 40 
grammes at 50 and 80 c. Besides the Gaporal, it includes Maryland and 
Levant (of a lighter description). 

Passers-by may avail themselves of the light burning in every tobacco 
shop without making any purchase. 

Confectioners (sweetmeats; see also Chocolate): Boissier, Boul. 
des Capucines 7; Gouache, Boul. des Italiens 18; Siraudin (L. Mar- 
quis), Place de l'Opera 3 and Boul. des Capucines 17; Rebattet, Rue 
du Faubourg- St-Honore. 12; Bonnet, Rue Vivienne 51, Place de la 
Bourse ; Seugnot, Rue du Bac 28 ; Rumpelmayer, Rue de Rivoli 226 ; 
Fuller (American confectionery), Rue Daunou 4. — See also Pastry 
cooks (p. 23). — Preserved Fruits (fruits confits) are sold in these 
shops and in most large groceries. Price about 5 fr. peT kilogramme 

(2V 5 n».)- 

Delicacies (preserved meats , etc. ; comestibles') : Corcellet, 
Avenue de l'Opera 18 ; Potel $ Chabot, Boul. des Italiens 25 and Rue 
Vivienne 28; F. Potin, Boul. de Sevastopol 97-103, Boul. Males- 
herbes 45-47 (near the church of St. Augustin), and Faubourg-St- 
Antoine 99 (also 'English- American grocer') ; Epicerie de V Hotel 
Terminus (p. 4); Aux Bords du Rhin, Rue Richer 47; Jacob, Rue 
du Bac 30; Faguais, Avenue des Champs-Elyse'es 42, Winterborn, 
same avenue 73 (these two 'English- American' grocers). — Salted 
Provisions: Maison du Jambon d'York (Olida), Rue Drouot 11. 

Dressmakers, Milliners, etc. The most fashionable shops are 
to be found in the neighbourhood of the Opera: Rue de la Paix 
( Worth, No. 7), Rue Taitbout (Laferriire, No. 28), Rue Louis-le- 
Grand, Rue du Quatre-Septembre , Rue Auber, and the adjoining 
Boulevards. At these a simple walking-dress is said to cost not less 
than 400 fr., while an evening-costume may amount to 1500 fr. 
Hats and bonnets range from 60 to 120 fr. according to style. It is 

Information. 11. SHOPS. 47 

generally possible to reduce the prices by a little bargaining. The 
Orands Magasins (p. 44) have lower charges and employ skilful 
modistes ; while ready-made clothing can also be obtained there, as 
well as in the shops mentioned under Tailors. — Butterick (dress- 
patterns), Avenue de l'Opera 27. 

Engravings (estampes, gravures), Photographs, etc. : Pierre- 
fort, Rue Bonaparte 12 ; Braun, Avenue de l'Opera 43 and Rue Louis- 
le-Grand 18 (photographs of paintings; comp. p. 116); Qiraudon, 
Rue Bonaparte 15 (reproductions of antiques, etc., in the Louvre); 
A I'Epreuve, Rue Bergere 30 (reproductions of Rembrandt's etchings 
from the Dutuit Collection, p. 71); Ooupil $ Cie., Boul. des Capu- 
cines 24; E. Hautecoeur , Avenue de rOptfra 35 (views of Paris); 
F. Helaine, Rue de Rivoli 264 ; Martinet, Boul. des Oapucines l2 ; 
several others in the Rue de Rivoli (particularly Nos. 180, 214 and 
220); Societe Photographique, RueVivienne 10. — Salons de I'Arta, 
Boul. Haussmann 73 (coloured electrotypes). 

Fancy Articles, see 'Articles de Voyage', Toy Shops, Bronzes, 
Leather; also Bazaars (p. 44). 

Fans (eventails): Faucon, Avenue de l'Opera 38 ; Kees, Boul. des 
Capucines 9; Duvelleroy , Boul. des Capucines 35 and Passage des 
Panoramas 17; Le Zephyr, Rue des Petites-E curies 24; Buissot, same 
street 46 ; Bodien, Rue Oarnbon 48. Antique fans also at most of these. 

Flowers, see p. 51. 

Furniture (artistio) : Jansen, Rue Royale 6 ; Viardot, Rue Ame- 
lot 36 ; Magasins du Bois Sculpte, Boul. Sebastopol 105 — English 
furniture : Maple , Square de l'Ope"ra and Rue Boudreau 5. See 
also Faubourg St. Antoine (p. 246), the centre of the cabinet-makers' 
industry. — Upholstery : Liberty, Avenue de l'Opera 28. — Aubus- 
son carpets : Sallandrouze, Rue des Jeuneurs ; Braquenie, Rue Vi- 
vienne 16. Oriental caTpents: Dalseine, Rue St. Marc 18 ; A la Place 
Clichy (p. 44). 

Furriers : Revillon Freres , Rue de Rivoli 77-81 ; Compagnie 
Russe, Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin26 ; Grunwaldt, Rue de laPaix 6 ; 
Bufin, Avenue de l'Opera 30; A la Ville de Bombay, Boul. des 
Capucines 35; Bougenaux-Lolley, Rue St. Honore*249; Valenciennes, 
Rue Vivienne 17; Pfei/fer-Brunet, Rue de l'Ancienne-Come'die 17; 
Bordage, Faub. St. Honore 1 ; Ferraud, Rue de S&vres 45. 

Glass (porcelain, etc.): Boutigny, Passage des Princes (Boul. 
des Italiens) and Peristyle Montpensier, to the W. of the Galerie 
d'Orle"ans (Palais -Royal) ; A la Paix, Avenue de rOpe"ra34; Au 
Vase de Sevres, Boul. Montmartre 15 and Champs-Elyse'es 95 ; Grand 
Depdt, Rue Drouot 21 ; and at several shops in the Rue de Paradis 
(PI. B, 24 ; III). — Venetian Glass (Salviati), Avenue de l'Ope"ra 16. 
— Tempered Glass, Boul. Haussmann 62. — Art Pottery (fayence): 
Deck, Rue Haltfvy 10; Cossa, Boul. Voltaire 39 ; Bouzou, Rue Ober- 
kampf 10; A. Chaumeil, Rue de MeMicis 9. See also Antiquities, 
p. 45. — Golfe Juan Pottery (with metalic lustre), Avenue de, 

48 11. SHOPS. Preliminary 

l'Ope'ra 36 and Rue de-Rivoli 34. — Earthenware: Produits Cera- 
miques Muller, Rue Halevy 3. — Terracotta : Manufactures de Signa, 
Rue de la Chausse'e-d'Antin 12; Hanne, Rue d'Hauteville 66; Tan- 
agra Figurines, Quai du Louvre 2. — Glass Paintings : Societe de 
Peinture sur Verre, Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs 96 ; Rosey, Boul. 
Poissonniere 22. 

Glovers (kid glove, giant de chevreau or de peau; see also 
Hosiers) : Gants Jouvin, Rue de la Paix 25 ; A la Petite Jeannette, 
Boul. des Italiens 3 ; Au Carnaval de Venise, Boul. de la Made- 
leine 3;- Jourdain et Brown, Rue Hale'vy 14; Perrin, Avenue de 
l'Ope'ra 45 ; Persin, Passage Jouffroy 24 ; Guignie, Rue Ste-Anne 34 ; 
Rondet ty Vallier , Rue d'Enghien 24 ; Old England , see Tailors 
(p. 50); Aux Armes de France, Galerie de Nemours 8, Palais-Royal. 
Neckties and umbrellas also at most of these. 

Goldsmiths and Jewellers, very numerous and tempting, 
especially in the Rue de la Paix, the Rue Royale, and the Avenue 
de l'Opera. All genuine gold and silver articles bear the stamp of 
the mint. — Gold and Silver plate : Cardeilhac, Rue de Rivoli 91 ; 
Christofle fy Cie. (silver), Boul. des Italiens 33 ; Fouquet-Lapar, Rue 
de Choiseul 25; Soufflot, Rue de Turbigo 89. 

Hardwarb. A la Menag'ere (all kinds of household articles), 
Boul. Bonne -Nouvelle 20; Hamon, Rue de Olery 54; Kirby, 
Beard, fy Co., Rue Auber 5 ; Touron, Rue de la Paix. 

Hattees (chapeliers; see also Hosiers, Tailors): Delion, Boule- 
vard des Capucines 24 and Passage Jouffroy 21-25 ; A. Berteil, Rue 
du Quatre-Septembre 10, Rue de Richelieu 79, Boulevard St. Ger- 
main 134, and Place St. Augustin; Gibus, Rue du Quatre-Sep- 
tembre 11; Pinaud fy Amour, Rene Pineau, Rue de Richelieu 89 
and 94; Spiri, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 28; Leon, Rue Daunou 21; 
Bravard, Boul. St. Michel 47. 

Hosiers and Shirtmakers (generally dear). Doucet, Rue de 
la Paix 21; Roddy (also tailor), Boul. des Italiens 2; Chemiserie 
Speciale, Boul. de Sebastopol 102; Maison des 100,000 Chemises, 
Rue Lafayette 69 and Rue de Rennes 55; the Grands Magasins 
(p. 44), etc, 

Lace: Camerino (Venetian), Av. de l'Opera 32 ; Comp. des Indes, 
Rue de Richelieu 80; Grands Magasins (s. 44). 

Lamps : Robert, Rue Tronchet 10 ; Naud, Rue du Faub.-St-De- 
nis 14; Rosier Fils, Rue Lafayette 19; Villette et Fits, Boul. Richard- 
Lenoir 107; VeiUtuses Jeunet, Rue St. Merri 11; Potron (electric 
lamps), Av. de la Re'publique 40, etc 

Leather Wares (maroquinerie; cuir d'art): Maquet, Rue de la 
Paix 10; Brentano, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 37 ; Lancet, Boul. Mont- 
martre 19; Aumattre, Rue de Bretagne 55 ; Cuirs de Cordoue (Cor- 
dova-leather furniture), Rue de Richelieu 66. See also 'Articles 
de Voyage'. 

Lingerie, etc: Bataille-Levy, Rue Gluck4; Gagne-Petit, Av. de 

Information. 11. SHOPS. 49 

l'Ope'ra 21 ; Grande Maison de Blanc , Boul. des Capuoines 6 ; Au 
Croissant d' Argent, Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore 142. 

Maps. Barrtre (Andriveau-Goujon), RueduBac4; Baudoin, 
military bookseller, Rue Dauphine 30 (1st floor); Delorme, Rue 
St. Lazare 80; Challamel, Rue Jacob 17 (charts). 

Haps of the Environs of Paris. The Army Ordnance Department ('Etat- 
Major') has published a coloured map (1887) on a scale of 1:20,000 
(86 sheets at 85 c. each); a second uncoloured (1896), 1:40,000 (9 sheets 
at 50 c), and a third uncoloured, 1 : 90,000 (6 quarter-sheets at 1 fr. or 30 c). 
The map of the Ministire de VIntirieur (1: 100,000) is in one coloured sheet 
(\>\z fr ), and that of the Prefecture de la Seine (Department of the Seine ; 
1 : 5000) in 104 coloured sheets- (1895-1900) at 1 fr. These can be obtained 
through Barrere (see above), who has also issued maps of the environs 
of Paris (1 : 50,000) in 9 sheets in colours (1895-1902) at 3 /< fr. — Cyclist 
maps: Taride, Boul. St. Denis 18 PA fr. ; sold at most booksellers): Smith. 
Rue de Rivoli 248 (Plan-Velo series). 

Mineral Waters : 81. Galmier, Vichy, Contrexeville, Vals, etc., 
at all chemists and some grocers. 

Music: Au Menestrel, Rue Vivienne 2bis ; Noel, Passage des 
Panoramas 22 ; Choudens , Boul. des Capucines 30 ; Durand, Place 
de la Madeleine 4; Hamelle, Boul. Malesherhes 22; Grus, Boul. 
Haussmann 116. Lending-libraries at these (per month 5 fr.). 

Musical Instruments. Pianos: Erard, Rue du Mail 13; Pleyel 
Rue Rochechouart 22; Herz, Rue d'Amsterdam 104, Rue de 
Clichy 91, Rue Lafayette 66 ; Gaveau, Rue Blanche 32, Boul. St. 
Germain 230, etc. ; Bord, Boul. Poissonniere 14bis ; Klein, Av. de 
la Re'publique 39. — Organs: Cavaille-Coll, Avenue du Maine 15; 
Merklin, Rue Delambre 22. — Harmoniums: Alexandre, Rue 
Lafayette 81. — Stringed Instruments: Bernardel, Passage Saul- 
nier 4; Collin, Faub. Poissonniere 29; Tournier, Boul. St. Martin 4; 
Thibouville, Rue Reaumur 68. 

Opticians (spectacles, lunettes; opera -glass, jumelles; eye- 
glasses, pince-nez): Chevalier, Fischer, Avenue de l'Opera, Nos. 27, 
19 ; Hazebroucq, Cam, Rue de la Pais, Nos. 23, 24 ; Armand, Franck- 
Valiry, Boul. des Capucines 12, 25; Cheuallier, Rue Royale 21; 
Comptoir Central d'Optique, Rue Vivienne 26, moderate ; Derogy, 
Quai de l'Horloge 33; Iseli, Boul. St. Germain 149. 

Perfumery: Violet, Boul. des Italiens 29 ; Pinaud, Place Ven- 
dome 18; Piver, Boul. de Strasbourg 10; Gelle Frires, Avenue de 
l'Ope'ra 6; Lubin, Deleitrez, Rue Royale, Nos. 11, 15; Guerlain, 
Botot, Rue de la Paix 9, 15; Agnel, Avenue de l'OpSra 16; Bimmel, 
Boul. des Capucines 9; Rue Auber 9, Boul. des Capucines 21, 
Boul. Malesherbes 31 and 83 ; Oriza ( Legrand) , Place de la Made- 
leine 11 ; Houbigant, Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore 19 ; Pierre, Place 
de l'Ope'ra 8 ; Bully, Rue Montorgueil 67 ; Parfumerie des Vizirs, Rue 
St. Lazare 57; Rigaud, Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore* 1 ; Eugenia, 
Rue St. Honors' 171. 

Phonographs: La Cigale, Boul. St. Martin 27; Edison, Rue 
Cambon 47; Chrono-Phono, Rue St. Roch 57; Phono-Charmeur, Rue 

Baedkkkh. Paris. 15th Edit. 4 

50 11. SHOPS. Preliminary 

Paul-Lelong 12; U Ideal (Lioret), Rue Thibaud 18; Thibouville, 
Rue Reaumur 68; Pathe, Rue de Richelieu 98. 

Photogbaphebs : Brawn (see Engravings, p. 47); Nadar, Rue 
d'Anjou 51 ; Liebert, Rue de Londres 6 ; Walery, same street, 9 Ws ; 
Pirou, Boul. St. Germain 5; Cautin & Berger, Rue de Caumartin 62; 
Bary (Benque), Rue Boissy-d'Anglas 33 ; Gerschel, Boyer, Ladrey- 
Disderi, Boul. des Capucines 23, 35, 6; Reutlinger, Ogereau, Boul. 
Montmartre, Nos.21, 18; Pierre-Petit, Rue Lafayette 122. — Photo- 
graphic Apparatus : Photo-Hall, Rue Scribe 5; Photo-Opera, Boul. 
des Capucines 8; Photo-Sport, Rue Caumartin 22; Verasccpe Richard, 
Rue Lafayette 3 ; L. Reusse, Rue des Pyramides21; llford, Rue 
Laffltte 27; Kodak, Av. de l'Ope'ra 5; Place Vendome 4; Agence 
Centrale de Photogrophie , Rue de Chateaudun 2; Office Central 
de Photographic, Rue de Rennes 47. For sellers of photographs, 
see Engravings. 

Pictures and Sculptures. At the galleries of Durand-Ruel and 
Georges Petit (p. 41) ; at Goupil'i (see Engravings, p. 47) ; Gold- 
scheider (see Bronzes, p. 45); Bernheim (pictures), Rue Laffltte 9. — 
Ancient paintings at Ch. Sedelmeyer's, Rue de la Rochefoucauld 6. 

Porcelain, Pottery, see Glass (p. 47). 

Rubber Goods (cycle-tyres, etc.): Falconnet-Perodeaud, Rue de 
laPompe 179; Talbot, Av. Malakoff 159. 

Saddlers: Camille , Boul. St. Germain 240 bis ; Desbans, Rue 
Montmartre 15. 

Stationers: Lesueur (visiting-cards), Rue St. Lazare 73; Coste- 
doal, Boul. de Strasbourg 55; Cabasson, Rue Joubert 29; Ruel, Rue 
de Rivoli 51; Baoid, Rue Castiglione 5; Schneider fy Cie. (visiting- 
cards), Passage du Caire 76. 

Silk Goods, Ribbons, etc. Geslot, Rue Montmartre 157; Bayard, 
Boul. de Se'bastopol 85. — Materials for embroidery, Suzor fy Pinta, 
Boul. de Sevastopol 62. 

Tailors. Prices of clothing made to measure by a good tailor 
are about 50 to 75% higher than in England. The visitor will do 
well to consult a resident, if possible, before bestowing his order. — 
Ready-made Clothing : A la Belle Jardiniere (also to measure), 
Rue du Pont-Neuf 2; Coutard , Boul. Montmartre 4; Old England, 
Boul. des Capucines 12; Maison de V Opera, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 18 
and 20 (also for ladies); A St. Joseph, Rue Montmartre 115; 
A Reaumur, corner of the Rues Reaumur and St. Denis; A la 
Grande Fabrique, Rue de Turbigo 50. — See also (specially for 
ladies) the Grands Magasins (p. 44). 

Tortoiseshell Articles: Cleray, Boul. de la Madeleine 15. 

Toy Shops : Au Nain Bleu, Boul. des Capucines 27 ; Magasin 
des Enfants, Passage de l'Ope'ra; Au Paradis des Enfants, Rue de 
Rivoli 156 and Rue du Louvre 1 ; Bail, Rue de Rivoli 110; Phalibois 
(musical toys), Rue Chariot 22; and, about the New Year, in the 
Grands Magasins and Bazaars (p. 44). 

Information. 12. BOOKSELLERS. 51 

Watchmakers : Leroy et Cie., Boul. de la Madeleine 7 ; Rodanet, 
Hue Vivienne 36; Breguet, Rue de la Paix 12; Detouche, Boul. 
Poissonniere 18 (chronometers at all these) ; Au Nlgre , Boul. St. 
Deuis 19 (also jewellery) ; Oarnier , Boul. Haussmann 17. — 
Lepaute (clocks), Rue Halevy 5; Planchon, Rue de la Chausse'e- 
d'Antin 5; Fabrique Exacte , Boul. des Italiens 18; Kirby, Beard, 
4'- Co., Rue Auber 5; Rousseau (clocks), Rue de Turenne 132; 
Thomas, Rue de la Boetie 10. 

Those who desire to transmit purchases direct to their destin- 
ation should procure the services of a goods-agent (p. 30). 

Flower Markets. Quai aux Fleurs (PI. R, 23; 7), on Wed. and Sat. 
(a bird-market on San.); Place de la Ripublique (PI. R, 27; III), on Mon. 
and Thurs.; Place de la Madeleine (PI. R, 18; //), on Tues. and Frid.; 
Place St. Sulpice (PI. R, 16-19; IV), on Mon. and Thurs.; etc. There are 
beautiful flower-shops in the boulevards and elsewhere; e.g. Labroutie, Boul. 
des Capucines 12; Lachaume, Rue Royale 10; Bories, Augusiin, Boul. St. Ger- 
main 179, 108; Au IAlat Blanc, Boul. Haussmann 188. — Horticultural 
Show, at the Jardin des Tuileriea (p. 663, in spring. 

Commissionnaires, or messengers, are to be found at the corners of 
some of the chief streets (no tariff; 1-2 fr. according to distance). Many 
of them are also Shoeblacks (20 c). 

12. Booksellers. Reading Rooms. Libraries. Newspapers. 

Booksellers. Oalignani's Library, Rue de Rivoli 224, with library 
(see p. 51) ; W. H. Smith (late Neal), Rue de Rivoli 248, with library 
and reading-room (see below); Brentano, Avenue de l'Opera 37; 
these three are English and American booksellers. 

Societe d'Editions Litteraires et Artistiques (Libraire Paul Ollen- 
dorff), Rue de la Chausstfe-d'Antin 50 (general agents for Baedeker's 
Handbooks). Flammarion, Boul. des Italiens 40, Boul. St. Martin 3, 
Galeries de l'Ode'on, etc. ; Arnaud, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 26 ; Sevin, 
Boul. des Italiens 8; Dentu, Avenue de l'Opera 36 Di s and Boul. 
de Sevastopol 73 ; Haar $ Steinert, Rue Jacob 21 ; Le Soudier, Boul. 
St. Germain 174; View eg, Rue de Richelieu 67; Klincksieck, Rue de 
Lille 1 1 ; Fischbacher, Rue de Seine 33 ; Ch. Eitel, Rue de Richelieu 18 ; 
Boyveau el Clievillet , Rue de la Banque 22. — Rare books : Mor- 
gand, Passage des Panoramas 55; Rouquette, Passage Choiseul 69; 
Conquet, Rue Drouot 5. The famous house of Hachette $ Cie. is at 
79 Boul. St. Germain. — The Second-Hand Book Stalls on the quays 
on both banks, E. of the Pont Royal, are interesting. The shops in 
the Galeries de l'Odeon and the numerous bookshops near the Sor- 
bonne may also be mentioned. 

Beading Booms and Circulating Libraries. Smith, Rue de 
Rivoli 248 (adm. 25 c, per week 1 fr.), well supplied with English 
newspapers and English and American magazines. — The reading 
rooms of the New York Herald, Avenue de l'Opera 49, the New York- 
Brooklyn Eagle, Rue Cambon 63, and the Chicago Daily News, Boul. 
des Capucines 10 (all open gratis), aTe well supplied with American, 
English, and French newspapers. — Qalignani, Rue de Rivoli 224 


52 12. NEWSPAPERS. Preliminary 

(English books, 25-75 c. daily, 3-6 fr. monthly). — La Lecture 
Universale, Rue des Moulins 5 (2 fr. monthly) ; Bibliotheque Vni- 
verselle, Rue Tronchet 24 (2 f r. monthly) ; Delorrne, Rue St. Lazare 80 
(1 >/ 2 fr. monthly) ; Liber, Rue Monsieur-le-Prince 55 (2 fr.). Annual 
subscription at these, 10 fr. Bibliotheque Oilier, Rue Bonaparte 76 ; 
Bibliotheque Cardinal , Place St. Sulpice 1. — The reading-rooms 
are also convenient for letter-writing. — There are also Public 
Libraries, open from 9 a.m. to 4 or 6 p.m., or even later. 

Newspapers. The oldest Parisian newspaper is the 'Gazette de 
France', which was founded in 1631 by Renaudot (p. 258). No fewer 
than 150 journals appeared in 1789, 140 in 1790, and 85 in 1791, 
but most of these were suppressed at various times by govern- 
ment, Napoleon finally leaving only thirteen in existence. On the 
restoration of the monarchy about 150 newspapers and periodicals 
were published, but only eight of these concerned themselves with 
political matters. Since then the number has been constantly on the 
increase, and now amounts to about 2600. The political papers 
number over 150, and are sold in the streets or at the 'kiosques' 
in the Boulevards (p. 78) at 5, 10, 15, and 20 c. 

Mokning Papers. Le Figaro (15 c; see p. 205), the most widely circu- 
lated of the larger papers, social and literary rather than political; Le 
Qaulois (15 c), Royalist and social ; Oil Bias (15 c), social and literary, 
typically French; Le Matin (5 c), Republican, well informed; Le Journal 
(5 c), L'Echo de Paris (5 c), both literary and Republican ; Le Petit Journal, 
popular Republican organ (largest circulation, see p. 205); Le Soleil (5 c), 
Orleanist ; La Libre Parole (5 c), antisemitic ; L" Intransigeant (Henri Roche- 
fort); VAutoriti (5 c), Bonapartist; Le Petit Parisien, La Lanterne, Le Radical, 
and Le Rappel (all 5 c), are Radical; La Croix (5 c), clerical; L'Evenemenl 
(5 c); Le Siecle (10 c); La Petite Ripublique '(5 c), Socialist; VAurore 
(10 c); La Fronde, a woman's paper (feministe) conducted entirely by 
women; etc. — Also, Le Journal Offlciel. 

Evening Papers. Republican: Le Journal des Dibats (10c), one of the 
best Parisian papers; Le Temps (15 c), well edited and influential; Le Boir 
(15c); La Liberti (5c); La Patrie (5c), 'patriotic'; La Presse (5c). — 
Conservative: La Gazette de France (royalist). 

Reviews and Periodicals: La Revue des Deux Mondes (the oldest); 
Nouvelle Revue (Republican) ; Le Correspondant (Conservative) ; Revue IllvMrie 
(artistic) ; La Revue (formerly Revue des Revues) ; Revue Gintrale des Sciences ; 
Revue Scientifique ; Revue Critique; LaNature; Revue Universelle (encjclopee&ic) ; 
Revue Bleue, Revue Blanche (both literary); Revue de Paris, and many others. 

Illustrated Journals: V Illustration ; L'Univers Illustri; Le Journal 
Amusant; Le Charivari; La Vie Parisienne ; Le Rire, etc. Most of these 
are issued weekly. 

English, German, and other foreign journals are sold in the 
kiosques near the Grand-Hotel and in some others on the principal 
boulevards. — The Daily Messenger (10 c), formerly 'Galignani's 
Messenger', an English paper published in Paris (office, Rue 
St. Honore" 167), has been in existence foT over 90 yeaTS. It con- 
tains an excellent summary of political and commercial news, the 
latest information from England, the United States, and the whole 
of the Continent, and a list of the principal sights and amusements 
of Paris. The English and American places of worship (p. 54) are 

Information. 13. PHYSICIANS. 53 

enumerated every Saturday. — The European edition of the New 
York Herald (office, Avenue de l'Opera 49) is a daily paper of a 
similar kind (price 15 c, Sun. 25 c). — The American Register 
(office, Rue Tronchetl3), with lists of American travellers in 
Europe and general news (10 c), and the Anglo-American Gazette 
(20 c.) are published every Saturday. 

Strangers desiring to learn French or other languages will find ample 
facilities at the Berlitz School of Languages, Avenue de TOpe'ra 27, and at 
the Jnstilut Rudy, Avenue d'Antin 53, where a course of three lessons per 
week costs 10-15 fr. a month. Private lessons are also given. The Inslitut 
Polyglotte, Ene de la Grange-Bateliere 16, is a similar establishment. The 
addresses of private teachers may he obtained from Galignani and the other 
booksellers. — The Franco-English Ouild, Rue de la Sorbonne 6, for women, 
supplies information regarding the conditions of study at the Sorbonne, 
the art-schools, and studios; the examinations held by the University oi 
Paris; special branches of study; etc. The annual inscription fee, including 
use of dining-room and reading-room, is 10 fr. ; course of ten lessons in 
French 30 fr.; full course of ten months 225 fr. — Girls who wish to com- 
bine the comforts of an American home with excellent opportunities for 
the study of French, history, and art will find these at the 'Study Home' 
of Mrs. Edward Ferris, 97 Boulevard Arago. 

The University Hall (sec, Mme. Chalamet), Boulevard St. Michel 95 and 
109, is a home and club for students, somewhat on the lines of the Uni- 
versity Settlements of Great Britain and America (see p. 12). 

13. Physicians. Dentists. Nursing Homes. Hospitals. 

Physicians. Should the traveller require medical advice during 
his stay in Paris, he should obtain from his landlord the name of 
one of the most eminent practitioners in the neighbourhood of his 
hotel or lodgings. Information may also be obtained at the English 
and other chemists' shops (p. 45), ot at OalignanVs (p. 51). The 
'BoltM, or Directory, may also be consulted with advantage (to be 
seen at any cafe"). Usual fee from 10 to 20 fr. per visit or con- 
sultation. In cases of emergency at night the address of a practitioner 
on night-duty can be obtained at a police-station (poste de police). 
The following British and American physicians may be mentioned: — 

Dr. Anderson , Avenue des Champs-Elysees 121 ; Dr. Austin, 
Rue Ohalgrin 20 ; Dr. Barley (Homoeopath), Rue Washington 3 ; 
Dr. De Chanaud, Rue du Oherche-Midi 33; Dr. Cree, Rue de la 
Paix 16; Dr. Deering, Avenue de Villiers 131; Dr. Dupuy, Avenue 
Montaigne 53 ; Dr. Oros, Rue de Ponthieu 28 ; Dr. Herbert, Rue 
Duphot 18; Dr. D'Hotman de Villiers, Rue Chambon 46; Dr. Jarvis, 
Boulevard Malesherbes 16; Dr. Oscar Jennings, Avenue Marceau 74; 
Dr. Koenig, Rue de Miromesnil 65; Dr. Magnin, Boulevard Hauss- 
mann 121; Dr. Mercier, Avenue MacMahon 15; Dr. O'Leary, Rue 
Copernic 47; Dr. Pike, Rue Francois-Premier 31 ; Dr. Riviere, Rue 
des Mathurins 25 ; Dr. Leonard Robinson, Rue d'Aguesseau 1 ; Dr. 
Tucker, Rue St. Florentin 4 ; Dr. Turner, Rue Lincoln 5 ; Dr. Warden, 
Rue Chalgrin 9; Dr. Whitman, Rue Leo Delibes 16. 

Oculists: Dr. Landolt, Rue Volney4; Dr. de Lapersonne , of 

54 13. HOSPITALS. Preliminary 

tkeHotel-Dieu, Avenue Montaigne 56; Dr. Kalt, Place Vendoine22; 
Dr. Bull (Amer.), Rue de la Paix 4. 

Dentists: I. B. fy W. 8. Davenport, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 30; 
J. Evans, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 19; T. W. Evans, Rue de la Paix 15; 
Dr. Levett, Boul. Haussmann 43; Dr. Spaulding , Boul. Males- 
herbes 39; Waller, Rue Auber 16; American Dental Assoc ation 
(Dr. Harry-Bernard), Rue Notre-Dame-de-Lorette 33; Didsbury, 
Rue Meyerbeer 3 ; Barrett, Avenue de l'Ope'ra 17 ; Daboll, Avenue de 
l'Ope'ra 14 ; Duchesne, Rue Lafayette 45 ; Dugit, Rue du Vingt-Neuf 
Juillet6 ; Bossi-Hartwick, Rue St. Honore' 185 ; Byan, Rue Scribe 19 ; 
Bykert, Boul. Haussmann 35 ; Weber, Rue Duphot 25. 

Nursing Homes (Maisons de Sante). In case of a serious or 
tedious illness, the patient cannot do better than take up his quarters 
at one of the regular sanatory establishments. There are many 
well-conducted houses of the kind in Paris and the environs. The 
following may be recommended : — Maison Municipale de Sante 
(Dubois), Rue du Faubourg-St-Denis 200 (terms 5-12 fr. per day, 
everything included); Maison des Hospitaliers de St. Jean-de-Dieu, 
Rue Oudinot 19 (10-20 fr.) ; Maison des Religieuses Auguslines de 
Meaux, Rue Oudinot 16 (for women; 300-500 fr. per month); 
Etablissements Hydrotherapiques d'Auteuil, Rue Boileau 12; Dr. 
Beni-Barde, Rue de Miromesnil 63; Maison Rivet, at St. Mande", 
Grande Rue 106 , Maison des Diaconesses Protestantes , Rue de 
Reuilly 95, these two for ladies. — Sick Nurses may be obtained at 
the Hollond Institution for English Hospital-trained Nurses , Rue 
d' Amsterdam 25, the American Graduate Nurses, Rue Freycinet 6, 
and at the Nursing Institution, Boul. Haussmann 190. 

Hospitals. The *Hebtpobd British Hospital , or Hospice 
Wallace (PI. B, 8), is a large Gothic edifice in the Rue de Villiers, 
at Levallois-Perret , near Neuilly , built and endowed by the late 
Sir Richard Wallace. It has accommodation for between thirty and 
forty patients, and is surrounded by a large garden. — Mention 
may also be made of the Protestant Hospice Suisse (for men ; apply 
at the Swiss Embassy, Rue Marignan l5). 

The following are the principal Hospitals of the 'Assistance Publique' 
(comp. the List of Streets, etc., in the Appendix). Andral, Beaujon, Bichat, 
Boucicaut , Broca (p. 328) , Broussais , de la Chariti , Cochin , des Enfants- 
Malades, HOlel-Dieu (p. 259), Zaennec (p. 294), Lariboisiire (p. 2U5), Necker, de 
la Pilii, Ricord, St. Antoine (p. 246), St. Louis, Tenon (p. 246), de la Salpetriere 
(p. 321), Trousseau, etc. Visiting days, Thurs. and Sun. 1-3. 

The Instilut Pasteur, for the treatment of hydrophobia, is at Rue Dutot 
25 (PI. G-, 13), see p. 326. BSpital Pasteur, Rue de Vaugirard 205. 

14. Divine Service. 
English Churches. For the latest information , visitors are 
recommended to consult the Saturday number of The Daily Mes- 
senger or New York Herald (pp. 52, 53). At present the hours of 
service are as follows : — 

Information. 14. DIVINE SERVICE. 55 

Episcopal Church : — English Church , Rue d'Aguesseau 5, 
Faubourg St. Honors, opposite the British Embassy; services at 
10.30, 3.30, and 8; chaplain, Rev. H. E. Noyes, D. D. — Christ 
Church, Boul. Bineau 49, Neuilly; services at 10.30 and 4; chap- 
lain, Rev. H. T. R. Briggs. — St. George's Church, Rue Auguste- 
Vacquerie 7 (A v. d'le'na); services at 10.30 and 6. — Church of the 
Holy Trinity (Amer.), Avenue de l'Alma 23 ; services at 10.30 and 5 ; 
rector, Rev. J. Morgan, D. D. — St. Luke's American Chapel, Rue de 
la Grande-Chaumiere 6, near the Boulevard Montparnasse; services 
at 10.30 and 8; Rev. I. Van Winckle. 

English Congregational Services, Rue Royale 23, at 10.45 
a.m. ; minister, Rev. S. H. Anderson. Also at the Taitbout Chapel, 
Rue de Provence 42 (behind the Grand Opera) at 2.30 p.m. 

St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church , Avenue floche 50, 
mass on Sundays at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11.30; sermons at 10 and 
3.15. Confessions heard daily, 6-9. 

American Church, Rue de Berri 21 ; service at 11 a.m. ; pastor 
Rev. E. G. Thurber, D. D. 

Church of Scotland, Rue Bayard 17, Champs-Elyse'es ; service 
at 10.30; chaplain, Rev. Edwin J. Brechin. 

Wesleyan Mbthodist Church, Rue Roquepine 4, Boulevard 
Malesherbes ; services at 10.45 and 8 ; minister, Rev. J. "W. Lightly. 

Baptist Church: Avenue du Maine 123; French service at 
2 p.m. — New Baptist Church, Rue Meslay 61 , near the Porte 
St. Martin, services at 2 and 8 p.m.; pastor, Rev. Rubens Saillen?. 

New Jerusalem Church, Rue Thouin 12 (near the Pantheon)'; 
service at 3 p.m. 

Christian Scientist Church, Rue Darcet 12 ; services on Sun. 
11 a.m.; Wed. 8 p.m. 

French Protestant Churches (Temples Protestants). The popu- 
lation of Paris is almost entirely Roman Catholic. The depart- 
ment of the Seine numbers only about 60,000 Protestants and 
25,000 Jews. 

Calvinist : L'Oratoire, Rue St. Honore 145 ; service at 10.15. — 
Ste. Marie, Rue St. Antoine216, near the Bastille; service at 10.15, 
in winter at noon. — Temple de VEtoile, Av. de la Grande-Arme'e 54 ; 
(10 and 4). — Temple des Batignolles, Boul. des Batignolles 46 
(10.15 and 4). — Eglise de Pentemont, Rue de Grenelle 106 (10.15 
and 4). — Temple de Passy, Rue Cortambert 19 (Tr<$cade"ro ; 10.15). 

— Temple de Neuilly, Boulevard d'Inkermann 8 (10.15). 
Lutheran : Temple des Billettes (p. 179), Rue des Archives 24, 

to the N. of the Hotel de Ville ; service at 10.15 or 12.30 in French, 
at 2 in German. — La Redemption , Rue Chauchat 16; service in 
German at 10.15. — Swedish Church, Boulevard Ornano 19 (2.30). 
Frbb (Libres): Eglise Taitbout, Rue de Provence 42; service at 
10.15 a.m. — Eglise du Nord, Rue des Petits-Hotels 17 (10.15). 

— Temple du Luxembourg, Rue Madame 58 (10.30 a.m. and 8p.m.). 

56 15. EMBASSIES. Preliminary 

— Chapelle du Centre, Rue du Tem le 115 (10.30). — Egltee 
Baptiste, Rue de Lille 48 (2.15). 

Greek Church. — Eglise Russe (p. 217 ; 11 a.m.). — St. Slephane, 
Rue Bizet 5. 

Synagogues: Rue Notre -Dame -de -Nazareth 15; Rue de la 
Victoire 44 (a handsome edifice) ; Rue des Tournelles 21bis, near 
the Place des Vosges ; Rue Buffault 28 (Portuguese). 

Missions. For those interested in home mission work the following 
notes may be of service. The M'All Mission has now between 30 and 
40 stations, of which the most important are at Rue Royale 23, Boul. 
Bonne-Nouvelle 8, and Rue St. Antoine 104; meetings every week-day at 
8 p.m. Sunday meetings at 4.30 p.m. at Rue Royale 23 and at 8.16 p.m. 
at Rue du Faubourg-St-Antoine 142 and Rue Nationale 157. The offices 
of the mission are at Rue Godot-de-Mauroi 36 ; chairman and director, Rev. 
Chas. E. Greig, D. T>. — Anglo-American Young Men's Christian Association, 
Rue Montmartre 160 (4.45 p.m.). — Christian Endeavour Society, Rue de 
Sevres 72 (Sun. 4 p.m.). • — The Girls' Friendly Society, Avenue d'lena 50, 
affords cheap lodgings. — Sociite' Centrale de la Mission InUriture : agent, 
Pastor J. Pfender, Rue Labruyere 46. 

15. Embassies and Consulates. Ministerial Offices. Banks. 

Embassies and Consulates. — Britain : Ambassador, 
Rt. Hon. Sir Edmund Monson, Rue du Faubourg - St - Honore" 39 
(11-3). — Consul, Albemarle Percy Inglis, Esq., Rue d'Aguesseau 5 ; 
vice-consul, O. 6. F. Atlee, Esq. 

United States : Ambassador, General Horace Porter, Avenue 
Kle'ber 18 (11-3). — Consul General, Col. J. K. Oowdy, Avenue de 
l'Opera 36; vice-consul general, Edward P. MacLean, Esq. 

Ministerial Offices. The days and hours of admission are fre- 
quently changed. Consult the 'Bottin' (p. 53). 

Affaires Etrangeres, Quai d'Orsay 37 and Rue de l'Universite 130 
(PI. R, 14; II). — Agriculture, Rue de Varenne 78 (PI. R, 14; IV). 

— Colonies, Pavilion de Flore, Tuileries (PI. R, 17; II). — Com- 
merce, Industrie, Postes et Telegraphes, Rue de Varenne 80 (PI. R, 
14; IV); Sous-Secre'tariat des Postes et des Te'le'graphes, Rue de 
Orenelle 101. — Finances, at the Louvre, Rue de Rivoli (PI. R. 20; 
II). — Ouerre, Boul. St. Germain 231 and Rue St. Dominique 10-14 
(PI. R. 17; II, IV). ■ — Instruction Publique et Beaux- Arts, Rue de 
Orenelle 110 (PI. R, 17; IV), Rue de Valois 3 (Beaux-Arts). — 
Interieur, Place Beauveau 103-120, Rue Cambace'res 7-13, and Rue 
des Saussaies 11 (PI. R, 15; II). — Justice, Place Vend6me 13 
(PI. R, 18 ; II). — Marine, Rue Koyale 2 (PI. R, 18; II). — Travaux 
Publics, Boul. St. Germain 244-248 (PI. R, 17; IV). — The Ministere 
des Cultes, which is attached to that of the 'Interieur', 'Instruction 
Publique', or 'Justice', as the case may be, has its office in the Rue 
de Bellechasse 36. 

Banks, Banque de France, Rue de la Vrilliere 1 and Rue Croix 
des Petits-Champs 39 (Pl.R, 21; 77,- see p. SO) and Place Ven- 
tadour (PI. R , 21 ; annexe for bonds) ; Caisse d' Amortizement et 

Information. 16. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. 57 

des Depdts et Consignations, Rue de Lille 56 (PI. R, 17; //, /F); 
Caisse d'Epargne, Rue Coq-Heron 9 (PI. R, 21 ; III) ; Credit Fonder, 
Rue des Capucines 19 (PI. R, 18; II); Credit Lyonnais, Boulevard 
des Italiens 19; SociSte Generate, Rue de Provence 54 and 56; 
Comptoir National d'Escompte, Rue Bergere 17 (PL B, 21; III), 
these three with numerous branches ; Rothschild Fr"°.res, Rue Laffltte 
21-25. — English and American Banks. Mvnroe $ Co., Rue 
Scribe 7; Morgan, Harjes, fy Co., Boul. Haussmann 31. 

Monet Changkrs (changeurs) are found in almost every part of Paris, 
particularly in the Palais-Royal, near the Exchange, the Boulevards, the 
Rue Vivienne, and the other streets frequented by strangers. That at the 
Cridil Lyonnais (see above) may be recommended. 

Stamps. Receipts for sums above 10 fr., ag well as various commer- 
cial documents, must be stamped. Receipt-stamps are sold at the post- 
offices and by many tobacconists (p. 16). 

16. Distribution of Time. 

At least a fortnight is'required to obtain even a superficial idea 
of Paris and its environs. The visitor should begin by taking a 
preliminary drive (p. 58) or walk from the Place de la Concorde 
(p. 63) up the Champs- Elys e"es (p. 69; view from the Arc de 
Triomphe, p. 76), and along the Boulevards (p. 77), through the 
W. central quarter of the city (p. 86). He should supplement this 
by a steamboat-trip ou the Seine , disembarking at the Quai de 
l'Hotel-de-Ville (p. 169) in order to visit Notre Dame (p. 259; view 
from the tower). The most important art collections are at the Louvre 
(p. 92), to which several days should be devoted ; the Luxembourg 
(p. 307 ; modern French art); the Hotel de Cluny (p. 265; industrial 
arts of the mediaeval and Renaissance periods) ; the Musee Carna- 
valet (p. 180; historical survey of the city of Paris) ; the Bibliotheque 
Nation ale (p. 195; rare bindings, medals, cameos, and small an- 
tiques) ; and the Hotel des Invalides (p. 269 ; military museums). 
Other interesting buildings are the Archives Nationales (p. 176), the 
Hotel de Ville (p. 169), the Halles Centrales (markets ; p. 188) the 
Bourse (p. 202), the Mint (p. 284), the Pantheon (p. 276), the Sainle 
Chapelle (p. 256), the Dome of the Invalides (p. 302), and the 
churches of the Madeleine (p. 77), St. Germain-l'Auxerrois (p. 91), 
St. Eustache (p. 189), St. Vine ent-de- Paul (p. 204), St. Germain-des- 
Pres (p. 288), St. Sulpice (p. 290), and St. Etienne-du-Mont (p. 280). 
— An early start should be made in order that time may be spared 
for objects of interest en route. The late afternoon should be devoted 
to the Bois de Boulogne (p. 230), the Pire- Lachaise (p. 237), the 
Buttes-Chaumont (p. 233) and other parks (p. 62), or to watching 
the busy life of the boulevards (p. 78). 

Paris is pre-eminently the city of fine Vistas. The wonderful 
prospects which the eye commands from in front of the statue of 
'Quand Meme', near the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (p. 68) ; 
from the Quai des Tuileries, to the left of the Pont de la Concorde 

58 16. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. Preliminary 

(p. 60) ; or from the Quai de la Conference, to the left of the Pont 
Alexandre Trois (p. 219) create impressions which can never he 

The Views enjoyed from certain elevated points are no less 
beautiful; e.g. from the top of the Arc de Triomphe de VEtoile 
(p. 76), the towers of Notre -Dame (p. 261), the basilica of the 
Sacre-Coeur (p. 209), the Tour Eiffel (p. 304), the Tour St. Jacques 
(p. 167), the Buttes-Chaumont (p. 233), etc., and from the terrace 
of the park at -St. Cloud (p. 239). 

Of places in the Environs Versailles (p. 341) and Chantilly 
(p. 387) stand first in interest; the former for its park and palace of 
Louis XIV. (now a historical museum), the latter as a modern princely 
residence, also with a park, and containing the Muse'e Conde'. The 
Royal Tombs at St. Denis (-p. 374) convey only a fleeting impression, 
so swiftly is the visitor hurried through. The same remark applies 
to the palace of Fontainebleau (p. 411), with its admirable Renais- 
sance interior. The forest of Fontainebleau deserves a whole day 
to itself. 

The following Preliminary Drive will occupy 2 l /%-3 hrs., and 
cost 6-10 fr. in a cab hired by the hour (see Appx., p. 41). From 
the Place de la Concorde (p. 63), through the Rue de Rivoli (p. 90) 
to theE., passing the Louvre (p. 92) and the Hotel deVille (p. 169) ; 
then through the Rue St. Antoine as far as the Place de la Bastille 
(p. 174), returning along the Grands Boulevards (pp. 78 et seq.) 
and past the Madeleine (p. 77). We next ascend the Champs- 
Elyse"es (p. 69) to the Arc de l'Etoile (p. 75 ; view). Thence we 
drive via the Pont de l'Alma (p. 220) , to the Champ-de-Mars 
(p. 304), the Hotel des Invalides (p. 296), and the Pantheon 
(p. 276). Then down the Boulevard St. Michel (p. 263), passing 
the Sorbonne (p. 274) and the Hotel de Cluny (p. 265) on the right ; 
across the Pont St. Michel (p. 263) into the 'Cite", where Notre- 
Dame (p. 259) is observed on the right. We regain the right bank 
of the Seine by the Pont d'Arcole (p. 169), at the Place de l'Hotel- 
de-Ville (p. 168). We may conclude our excursion with a steam- 
boat-trip on the Seine (see Appx., p. 40). 

Distribution of Time. The following diary, which is planned 
for a stay of three weeks, will aid the visitor in regulating his move- 
ments and economising his time. He must however, carefully, note 
the days and hours at which the different collections and objects 
of interest are accessible to the public (see the table, pp. 60, 61), and 
must make free use of cabs (p. 25) or the Me'tropolitain (p. 28). 
The shorter his stay, the more he should confine himself to the 
principal sights. 

1st Day. Preliminary drive (see above), combined with a visit 
to Notre-Dame (p. 259 ; not on Sun.). Afternoon: Bois de Boulogne 
(p. 230) and Jardin a" Acclimatation (p. 232). 

Information. 16. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. 59 

2nd Day. Louure (p. 92) ; Jardin des Tuileries (p. 65). After- 
noon : St. Cloud (p. 338) and Sevres (p. 336). 

3rd Day. Palais de Justice and Ste. Chapelle (pp. 255, 256). After- 
noon: Musee de Cluny (p. 266); St. Louis-en-l' lie (p. 262). 

4th Day. Musee du Luxembourg (p. 307) ; Ecole des Beaux- Arts 
(p. 285; test on Sun.) or the Mint (p. 284; Tues & Frid. 12-3); 
St. Germain-des-Pres (p. 288); -St. Sulpice (p. 290). 

5th Day. Palais-Royal (p. 89); Holies Centrales (p. 188) and 
St. Eustache (p. 189); Place de la Republique (p. 85); Pere-Lachaise 
( P . 237). 

6th Day. Louvre (2nd visit; p. 92); Madeleine (p. 77); Place 
and Colonne Vendome (p. 86). Afternoon : Jardin des Plantes 
(p. 317) and the Gobelins (p. 323 ; Wed. & Sat. 1-3). 

7th Day. Place des Vosges and House of Victor Hugo (pp. 185, 
186) ; Musee Carnavalet (p. 180); old houses in the Rue des Francs- 
Bourgeois (pp. 179,180). Archives Nationales(jp. 176; Thurs. 12-»3); 
Quartier da Temple (p. 194). 

8th Day. Chamber of Deputies (p. 292) ; Hotel des Invalidcs 
(p. 296): Muse'e d'Artillerie et de l'Arme'e (pp.297 & 300; Sun., 
Tues. , & Thurs.) ; Tomb of Napoleon (p. 302). Eiffel Tower (p. 304). 

9th Day. BibliothequeNationale(j>. 195); Bourse (p. 202); Notre- 
Dame-de-Lorette (p. 206); Musee Gustave Moreau (p. 206); Church 
of La Trinite (p. 208) ; St. Augustin($. 216) ; Pare Monceau (p. 217). 

10th Day. Versailles (p. 341). 

11th Day. Muse'e du Luxembourg (2nd visit; p. 307), the garden 
(p. 315), and palace (p. 306). Pantheon (p. 276); St. Etienne-du- 
Mont (p. 280). 

12th Day. Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers (p. 191) ; Boulevard 
de Strasbourg (p. 203); St. Vincent-de-Paul (p. 204); Pare des 
Buttes-Chaumont (p. 233). 

13th Day. Chantilly (p. 387). 

14th Day. St. DtnisQp. 371). Afternoon : Enghien (p. 377) and 
Montmorency (p. 378). 

15th Day. St. Germain-en-Laye (p. 366). 

16th Day. From the Place de la Concorde to the Trocade"ro 
(p. 225 et seq.); Petit-Palais (Dutnit Collection, p. 71); Musses du 
Troeade'ro (p. 224), Guimet (p. 221). and Galliera (p. 220). 

17th Day. Louvre (3rd visit; p. 92); Hotel de Ville (p. 169, 
2-3 p.m.). Afternoon: Montmartre, Sacre-Coeur (p. 209) and Cem- 
etery (p. 211). 

18th Day. Re-visit the Musee Carnavalet (p. 180) or the Musee 
de Cluny (p. 266); Vincennes (p. 247; best on Sun. and holidays). 

19th Day. Fontainebleau (p. 410). 

A day or two's rest at intervals -will add to the enjoyment. 

Hours of Admission. The table at pp. 60, 61 shows when the 
different collections and objocts of interest are open to visitors. The 


16. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. Preliminary 

Sun. and 












9-5, 6 

9-5, 6 

9-5, 6 

9-5, 6 

















12 3, 4 
12-3, 4 

12-3, 4 

12-3, 4 
12-3, 4 


11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 
1-4, 5 + 

11-4, 5 



11-3 + 


! 10-4, 5 
! 10-4 


10-4. 5 

11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 



12-4, 5 




12-4, 5 




12-4, 5 

10 4 




11-4, 5 




11-4, 5 




10.30 4 


10-4, 5 


10-4, 5 

10-4, 5 

10'/ 2 -4 

1 11-4, 5 

12-4, 5 

10 5.30 
12-4, 5 

11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 


11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 



11-4, 5 


11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 


11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 

11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 

Archives Nationales (p. 176) 

Arts & MHiers, Conser- f In summev 
valoire des (p. 191) \ In winter . 

Beaux-Arts, Ecole des (p. 285) . . . 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Exhib. (p. 197) 

Chambre des Diputis (p 282) . . . . 
Chantilly, Ch&teau de (p. S88) . . . 

Fonlainebleau, Palais (p. 410) .... 

Gobelins, Manuf. des (p. 323) .... 

Hdtcl de Ville (saloons; p. 170) . . . 

Imprimerie Nationale (p. 180) . . . 

Invalides, Bdtel des (p. 296) 

— ■ Musics cTArtillerie et de TArmie 
(pp. 297, 300) 

— Tomb of Napoleon I. (p. 302) . . 

Jardin des Plantes, Minagerie (p. 319) 

— — , Serves (p. 319) 

— — . Natural History Collections 
(p. 320) 

Monnaie, Uusie <b Studio (p. 284). . 
Musie Carnavalet (p. 180) 

— Cemuschi (p. 216) 

— de Cluny (p. 266) 

— du Conserv. de Musique (p. 83). . 

— Duluit (et de la Ville de Paris), at 
the Petit Palais (p. 71) 

— GallUra (p. 220) 

— Guimel (p. 221) 

— Gustave-Moreau (p. 206) 

— du Louvre, Paintings dt Antiquities 
(P. 96) . . 

, Other Collections (p. 144). . . 

— du Luxembourg (p. 3'J7) 

— de Minir. et Qiolog. (p. 317) . . 

Notre-Dame, Treasury (p. 261) . . . 

Palais de Justice (p. 235). 

PanthCon (p. 276) 

St. Denis, Tombs (p. 374) 

St. Germain, Museum (p. 337) . . . 

Ste. Chapelle (p. 256) 

Sevres, Musie (p. 233) 

Tobacco Manufactory (p. 305). . . . 

Trocadiro, Musie Ethnogr. (p. 227) . 

— , Casts and Musie Cambodgien 

(p. 226) 

Versailles, Palais (p. 343) 

Victor Hugo, House of (p. 186) . . . 

Information. 16. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. 





Admission free except where 
otherwise stated. 








Hours for students, see p. 197. 

9-5, 6 


9-5, 6 

9-5, 6 



During the vacation. Fee. 

From 15th April to 15th Oct. Closed durk 

the races. 
11-4 in winter (Oct. 1st -March 31st). 





By ticket issued gratis. 




By permission of the director. 

12-3, 4 
12 3, 4 

12-3, 4 


11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 
1-4, 5 + 

11-4, 5 
1-4, 5 + 

Botanic Garden open all day. 

f By ticket obtained at the office. 


11-3 -i- 

11-3 + 

-1- By ticket obtained at the office. 

10 4, 5 

11-4, 5 


11-4, 5 


By permission of the director. 
Closed on the chief holidays (p. 62). 



12-4, 5 




12-4, 5 



10-4 in winter. 


11-4, 5 




11-4, 5 


11-4, 5 



10-4 in winter (Oct. 1st -March 31st). 
10-4 in winter (Oct. 1st -March 31st). 




Adm. 1/2 fr. 

10-4, 5 

10-4, 5 

10-4, 5 

Dome and vaults by special permisson. 

11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 


11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 


11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 

Till dusk in winter. 

In winter ll'/2-4 on Tues. & Tlmrs. 

Closed on chief holidays. 

Permission to visit workshops, see p. 338. 





Public holidays excepted. 

Other days (except Mon.) after 1 p.m. ; fee. 

11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 

12-4, 5 

11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 

11-4, 5 
12-4, 5 

Trian>ns (p. 359) till 6 p m. in summer. 


days and hours enumerated, though correct at present, are liable to 
alteration ; and the traveller is therefore referred to The Daily Mes- 
senger (p. 52 J anil to the principal French newspapers. The museums 
and collections are apt to be uncomfortably crowded on Sundays and 

Most of the public collections and museums are closed on Monday, 
and also on the principal holidays, viz. Asoension Day, July 14th, 
Assumption (Aug. 15th), and All Saints (Nov. 1st), unless these 
happen to fall on a Sunday. The Louvre, Luxembourg, and some 
others are closed also on Shrove Tuesday. 

Chubchbs may be best inspected in the afternoons of week-days, 
as no service is then held. The Madeleine (p. 77) is not open to 
visitors till 1 p.m., and several other churches are closed at 5 or 
C p.m. Sundays and festivals afford an opportunity of witnessing 
the religious ceremonies and frequently of hearing excellent music 
(see p. 41). High mass is usually at 10a.m. The masses at midday 
and 1 p.m. are especially attended by the fashionable world; and 
the scene on the conclusion of service at the Madeleine (p. 77) 
and other leading churches is both interesting and characteristic. 
Chairs within the churches are let for 5 c. each; on festivals 10 c. 

Pab,ks and Public Gardens are usually open until 6 p.m. in 
winter, and until 10 or 11 at other seasons. The hour of closing is 
announced by a crier or (in cemeteries) by a drum or bell. 


The modern business and fashion of Paris are chiefly confined 
to the quarters on the right bank of the Seine, which contain the 
principal Boulevards, the handsomest streets and squares, the most 
luxurious hotels, cafe's, and restaurants, the best theatres, and the 
most attractive shops. Here, too, are situated the Louvre, with its 
magnificent treasures of art, the Champs-Elysees, the HStel de Ville, 
the Trocadero, the Opera House, the Palais-Royal, the Biblioth'eque 
Nalionale, the Archives, the Bourse, the Banque de France, and 
other great financial establishments, the Hotel des Postes, the Central 
Markets, the Conservatoire des Arts it Metiers, the Pire-Lachaise, etc. 

1. Place de la Concorde, Jardin des Tuileries, and 

The stranger visiting Paris for the first time, and anxious that 
his first impression of the city should be as striking as possible, 
cannot do better than begin by a walk from the Louvre to the Place 
de la Concorde. On all sides are imposing views ; whether we stand 
on the Pont de la Concorde and survey the river, or whether, from 
the Tuileries Gardens, with the palace of the old French kings to 
the E., we look N.W. towards the Champs-Elysees, with the long 
vista beyond the Obelisk, terminating in the Arc de Triomphe ; 
while to the S.W. rise the Eiffel Tower and the dome of the Invalides. 

The **Place de la Concorde (PI. K, 15, 18 ; IT) +, the centre of the 
fashionable quarters on the W., between the Champs-Elyse'es (p. 69) 
and the Jardin des Tuileries (p. 65), is one of the most beautiful 
and extensive squares in the world. It received its present form in 
1854 from designs by Hittorff. From the centre of the square a 
view is obtained of the Madeleine (p. 77), the Palais de la Chambre 
des Deputes, the Louvre, and the Atc de Triomphe de l'Etoile. 

In the middle of the 18th cent, the aite was still a desert. Louis XV., 
after the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748 ; see p. xviii), 'gratified' the municipal 
authorities of Paris by permission to erect an equestrian statue to him, and 

t With regard to the arrangement of our Plan of Paris , see note 
preceding the list of streets. The three sections of the tripartite plan, 
coloured respectively brown, red, and gray, are referred to in the text by 
the corresponding letters B, R, and G. If the place sought for is also 
to be found in one of the five special plans of the more important 
quarters of the city, that plan is indicated by a Roman Italic numeral. 
The above reference therefore indicates that the Place de la Concorde 
is to be found in the Red Section, Squares 15 and 18, and also in the 
Special Plan, No. II. 


Oabriel, the architect, constructed the present pavilions and balustrades. 
The statue, which was executed in bronze from designs by Bouchardon 
(model, see p. 114), was not set up until 1763; and its erection called forth 
some bitter epigrams (11 est ici comme a Versailles, il est sans coeur et 
sans entrailles'). The Place was at that time surrounded by deep ditches, 
which were the cause some years later of a tragic occurrence. On May 30th, 
1770, during a display of fireworks in honour of the marriage of the 
Dauphin (Louis XVI.) with Marie Antoinette, a flight of rockets, carelessly 
let off, fell amongst the crowd, with the result that 300 persons were pushed 
into the ditches and killed. The statue of the king was removed in 1792, 
and the Place was nr^ned Place de la Rivolulion. In 1795 the name was 
changed to Place de la Concorde, and after the restoration of the Bourbons, 
when it was proposed to erect an expiatory monument here, it was known 
successively as Place Louis XV. and Place Louis XVI. After 1830 the name 
Place de la Concorde was revived. 

In 1792 the guillotine began its bloody work here and Louis XVI. was 
executed in' the Place on Jan. 21st, 1793. Amongst la'er victims were 
Charlotte Corday, Marie Antoinette (16th Oct.), Brissot, chief of theGironde, 
with twenty-one of his adherents, and Philippe EgalUe*, Duke of Orleans, 
father of King Louis Philippe. In 1794, Hebert and his partizans, the 
determined opponents of all social rule, mounted the scaffold. The next 
victims were the adherents of Marat and the Orleanists; then Danton 
himself and his party, Camille Desmoulins, and the atheists Chaumette 
and Anacharsis Cloots, and the wives of Camille Desmoulins, He'bert, 
and others, and Madame Elisabeth, sister of Louis XVI. Soon after, Robes- 
pierre and his associates, his brother, Dumas, St. Just, and other members 
of the i comiti du salut public 1 met a retributive end here ; a few days later 
the same fate overtook 82 members of the Commune, whom Robespierre 
had employed as his tools. Lasource, one of the Girondists, said to his 
judges: 'Je meurs dans un moment oit le peuple a perdu sa ration; vous, 
vous mourrez le jour oit il la retrouvera'. Between 21st Jan., 1793, and 
3rd May, 1796, upwards of 2800 persons perished here by the guillotine. 

The *Obelisk, which rises in the centre of the Place, once stood 
in front of a 'pylon', or gateway, added by Ramses II. (14th cent. B.C.) 
to the great temple at Luxor (Thebes) in Upper Egypt. It was 
presented to Louis Philippe in 1831 by Mohammed Ali , viceroy of 
Egypt. This is a monolith, or single block, of reddish granite or 
syenite from the quarries of Syene (the modern Assuan). It is 76 ft. 
in height and weighs 240 tons. The pedestal of Breton granite is 
13 ft. high, and also consists of a single block, while the steps by 
which it is approached raise the whole 3^4 ft. above the ground. 
The hieroglyphics on the four sides narrate the deeds of Ramses II. 
The representations on the pedestal refer to the embarkation of the 
obelisk in Egypt in 1831 and to its erection in 1836 at Paris, under 
the superintendence of the engineer J. B. Lebas. — Cleopatra's 
Needle in London is 70 ft. in height, and the Obelisk in the Piazza 
di San Giovanni in Laterano at Rome is 104 ft. high. 

Each of the *Fountains beside the obelisk consists of a round 
basin , 53 ft. in diameter , above which rise two smaller basins, 
surmounted by a spout from which a jet of water rises to a height 
of 28 ft. In the lowest basin are six Tritons and Nereids, holding 
dolphins which spout water into the second basin. The fountain on 
the S. side is dedicated to the Seas, the other to the Rivers. 

Upon lofty pedestals around the Place rise eight stone figures re- 
presenting the chief towns of France : Lille and Strassburg by Pradier, 


Bordeaux and Nantes by Callouet, Rouen and Brest by Cortot, and 
Marseilles and Lyons by Petitot. The Strassburg is usually hung 
with crape and mourning garlands, in reference to the lost Alsace. 
Twenty bronzed rostral columns complete the decoration. 

The two imposing edifices of nearly uniform exterior on the N. 
side of the square , separated from each other by the Rue Royale 
(p. 77), were erected in 1762-1770, from Gabriel's plans, for the re- 
ception of ambassadors and other distinguished personages. That to 
the right (No. 2), the former 'garde-meuble' or store-room of the royal 
effects, was restored in 1898-1900 ; it is now occupied by the Ministers 
de la Marine. That to the left (No. 4), once the residence of the 
Marquise de Coislin(1776), is partly occupied by the Cercle de la Rue 
Royale (p. 43). Adjoining it, No. 6, is the house which formerly 
belonged to Rouille de l'Estang (1775), and is now occupied by the 
Automobile Club (p. 43). In the Rue de Rivoli (p. 90), which begins 
here, on the left, at the corner of the Rue Castiglione (p. 87), is the 
Hdtel Continental (PI. R, 18 ; II), which occupies the site of the former 
Ministere des Finances, destroyed by the Communards in 1871. A 
tablet on one of the pillars of the railing of the Garden of the Tuileries, 
nearly opposite this spot, records that here was situated the famous 
riding-school (Manege) used as a place of meeting by the Constituent 
Assembly, the Legislative Assembly, and the National Convention 
from 1789 to 1793. The Republic was instituted there on Sept. 21st, 
1792. Farther to the E. is the small Place de Rivoli (p. 88). 

The Pont de la Concorde (PI. R, 15, 14; //), which crosses the 
Seine from the Place de la Concorde to the Chambre des Deputes 
(p. 292), was built by Perronet in 1787-90, the material for the 
upper part being furnished by the stones of the Bastille. The piers 
are in the form of half-columns, and were adorned with statues 
(now at Versailles, see p. 345). 

The 'View from the bridge is very fine. It includes the Place de la 
Concorde, the Madeleine, and the Chamber of Deputies-, then, upstream, 
to the left, the Tuileries Garden , a pavilion of the Tuileries and one of 
the Louvre, the Pont Solferino and the Pont Royal; to the right, the 
Gare du Quai d'Orsay, in front of which is the little dome of the Palais 
de la Legion d'Honneur; farther off are the dome of the Institut, the 
towers of Notre Dame, the spire of the Sainte Chapelle, and the dome 
of the Tribunal de Commerce. Downstream, to the right, appear the 
Palais in the Champs-Elysees (p. 69); then the Pont Alexandre Trois, and, 
farther off, the towers of the Trocadero ; to the left the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs and the inevitable Eiffel Tower. The dome of the Invalides can 
be seen only from a little below the bridge, to the right of the Chamber 
of Deputies. 

Omnibuses, tramways, and steamboats, see the Appendix. The station 
of the Mdtropolilain (see Appx., p. 36) is almost opposite the Rue Mondovi. 

The entrance to the *Jardin des Tuileries (PI. R, 18, 17; II~), 
on the E. side of the Place de la Concorde, consists of a gateway 
the pillars of which are decorated with statues of Fame and Mercury 
on winged horses, by Coyzevox. The garden retains the same general 
features as when first laid out by the celebrated landscape-gardener 

Baedekeb. Paris. 15th Edit. 5 


he N6tre in the reign of Louis XIV. ; but the parts between the 
Place du Carrousel and the central basin are of later origin. The 
greater part of the Jardin des Tuileries is always open ; but the 
reserved portion closes between 6 and 9 p.m., according to the season, 
the signal being given by a drum. On each side the garden is enclosed 
by terraces. That on the N., called the Terrasse des Feuillants, 
derives its name from a monastery of the Feuillant Order (reformed 
Cistercians), dissolved in 1791. In July of the same year it was the 
meeting-place of the club of the moderate party ('Les Feuillants'), 
led by Lameth, Lafayette, etc., in opposition to the more violent 
Jacobins (Manege, see p. 65). The Alice des Orangers, which skirts 
the terrace, is adorned in fine weather with two rows of orange- 
trees in tubs, several of which are said to date from the time of 
Francis I. (1494-1547). The space at the end is known as the 'Jew 
de Paume 1 , the game whence it derives its name being still played 
here. The monastery of the Capuchins was situated to the W. of 
the present Rue Castiglione. — On the S. is the Terrasse du Bord 
de I'Eau, with the Orangerie, near which, on the S.E. towards the 
Seine, is a fine bronze group of a lion and serpent, by Barye. — 
Horticultural Exhibition, see p. 50. 

Not far from the entrance to the garden is an octagonal basin, 
300 yds. in circumference, with a fountain in the centre, where 
children sail small boats. On the "W. side are marble statues of the 
four seasons. On the E. side are four groups of river-gods : the 
Rhine and Moselle, by Van Cleve; the Rh6ne and Saone, by 
O. Coustou; the Nile, by Bourdic, after an antique in the Vatican, 
and the Tiber by Van Cleve, after an antique in the Louvre (p. 103). 

In the middle of the garden is a grove of fine trees, where a 
military band plays in summer on Sun., Tues., and Thurs. from 4 to 
5 or from 5 to 6 (chair 15 c, arm-chair 20 c). On the right and left 
of the central walk are two marble semicircular platforms con- 
structed in 1793 for the accommodation of the council of old men 
who were to preside over the floral games in the month of Germinal 
(21st March to 19th April). On the N., near the Terrasse des 
Feuillants, are several bronze groups : Hercules subduing the Hydra, 
by Bosio; and by the flight of steps opposite the Rue Castiglione, 
two groups of animals, by Ca'in. — Under the trees, on each side 
of the broad walk, are the Carres d'Atalante, also embellished with 
statues : on the right, Atalanta by O. Coustou and Hippomenes by 
Lepautre , on the left , Apollo and Daphne by Theodon. In the 
hemicycles, Ceres and Aristeus, by Oatteaux. 

To the E. of the grove are well-kept parterres embellished with 
statues and vases, mostly modern. To the left of the round basin in 
the centre : Oath of Spartacus, by Barrias ; Soldier tilling the ground 
(from Virgil), by Lemaire; Prometheus, by Pradier. — In the trans- 
verse walk : Silence, by Legros ; Ugolino (bronze), by Carpeaux ; Aurora 
(bronze), by Magnier; The Mask, by Christophe. — Then, near the 


basin: Alexander, by Dieudonne; Cassandra and Minerva, hyA. Millet. 

— To the right and left : Orithym carried off by Boreas, by Duques- 
noy and Gasp. Marsy ; Cybele carried off by Saturn, by Begnaudin. — 
On the right (returning) : Pericles, by J. B. De Bay (1855) ; Rape of 
Dejaneira, by Marqueste; Phidias, by Pradier; opposite, Comedy, by 
J. Roux (1874); Alexander Fighting, by Lemaire; Cincinnatus, by 
Foyatier, etc. — Beyond the gate, in the broad walk: Diana and the 
Nymph of Fontainebleau, by E. Leveque. Farther on, to the right : 
Corybante, by Cugniot; Lucretia and Collatinus, by Lepautre; New 
Year's Day, by Beaugeault. Near the fountain : Flora and Zephyr, 
by Coyzevox; on the lawn, Lioness and peacock (bronze), by Cain; 
on the left, Death of Lai's, by M. Meusnier. — On the left of the 
broad walk, in the corresponding order: Bacchante, by Carrier- 
Belleuse; Aeneas carrying Anchises, by Lepautre; Omphale, by 
Eude; Venus with the dove , and Nymph with the quiver, by 0. 
Coustou; Lion and crocodile, bronze by Cain. 

The E. annexe of the garden, behind the Rue des Tuileries, a 
street constructed in 1878, occupies the site of the Palais des Tuileries, 
which was burned by the Communards in 1871. Its only remains 
are the wings which connected it with the Louvre. That on the 
side next the river, including the Pavilion de Flore, was restored in 
1863-68 and again after the fire of 1871, in which it sustained little 
damage. On the side next the quay are excellent sculptures by 
Carpeaux. The right wing, in the Rue de^Rivoli, with the Pavilion 
de Marsan , was entirely burned down in 1871 and rebuilt in 
1875-78 ; but the interior is still unfinished and as yet only partly 
occupied by the Musee des Arts De'coratifs (p. 168). 

The Palais des Tuileries (comp. the Plan, p. 93), founded by Catherine 
de Me'dicig, widow of Henri II., was begun in 1564, beyond the city-walls 
of that period. It derived its name from the tile-kilns (tuileries) that orig- 
inally occupied its site. The first architect was Philibert Delorme, who 
was succeeded by Jean Bullant. The above-mentioned pavilions were 
subsequently incorporated with it. 

Before the Revolution the palace was only occasionally occupied by 
the French sovereigns; but it was the habitual residence of Napoleon I., 
Louis XVIII., Charles X., Louis Philippe, and Napoleon III. With the 
exception of the Hotel de Ville (p. 169), no other edifice in Paris is more 
closely connected with the historical events which followed on the close 
of the 18th century. On 5th Oct., 1789, Louis XVI. was brought from 
Versailles to the Tuileries , and in June , 1791, he was again forcibly 
installed here after the arrest of his flight at Varennes. On 20th June, 
1792, the anniversary of the meeting in the Jeu de Paume (p. 342), the 
palace of the Tuileries was attacked by a mob of about 30,000 rioters 
armed with pikes. The death-knell of the monarchy was sounded on 
10th August. The national guards posted in the palace-yard and garden 
were deprived by stratagem of their commanding officer, who was put to 
death, and the king, yielding to repeated solicitations, repaired, with his 
family, to the Manlge (see p. 65), where the legislative assembly held its 
meetings. The Swiss guards were eager to defend the Tuileries, but the 
king sent orders to them to surrender. The palace was immediately 
invaded by the assailants, who massacred the guard and sacked the building. 

— On July 29th, 1830, the Tuileries were again besieged by the populace, 
and Charles X., who was king under the Restoration, was foreed to fly. — 
The July monarchy was extinguished in the same way on Feb. 24th, 1848 



when Louis Philippe was compelled to leave the palace in the hands of the 
insurgents, who once more pillaged the contents. — On 20th May, 1871, 
the Communards, aware of their desperate position, determined to wreak 
their revenge by setting all the principal public buildings on fire. Barrels 
of gunpowder and combustibles steeped in petroleum were placed in the 
various rooms of the palace. It was set on fire at a number of different 
places on 22nd and 23rd May, after the Versailles troops had forced an 
entrance into the city, and, like the Hotel de Ville, was almost completely 

The E. portion of the garden also contains sculptures : 'Quand- 
meme'i by Mercie (1882), representing an Alsatian woman seizing 
the gun of a dying soldier, symbolic of the defence of Belfort in the 
Franco-German war. On the left of the broad walk, Penelope by 
Maniglier; Judith, by Lanson; Agrippina with the ashes of Ger- 
manicus, by Maillel. Behind, Magdalen, by Peine, and a Faun, by 
Becquet. In the broad walk, to the left, Ganymede, by Barthelemy; 
The Awakening, by Mayer; The Secret, by Moulin; Elegy, by Caille. 
Farther on, to the right of the broad walk, Eve after the Fall, by 
Delaplanche; Exiles, by M. Moreau; Velleda, by Maindron; The 
Bather, by Galli; Flora, by Soldi-Colbert (1903). The six Doric 
columns, surmounted by gilt balls, formed part of the railing sur- 
rounding the courtyard of the Tuileries. 

The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (PI. R, 17; II), which now 
bounds the garden on the E., was formerly the principal entrance 
to the Tuileries. It was erected by Fontaine and Percier to com- 
memorate the victories of Napoleon I. from 1805 to 1809. It is an 
imitation of the Arch of Severus at Rome , 48 ft. in height and 
63V2 ft- in width (Arch of Severus 75 ft. high and 82 ft. wide). 

The arch is perforated by three arcades and embellished with Corin- 
thian columns with bases and capitals in bronze supporting marble statues 
representing soldiers of the empire. The marble reliefs on the sides 
represent : in front, on the right, the Battle of Austerlitz ; on the left, the 
capitulation of Ulm; at the back, on the right, the conclusion of peace 
at Tilsit; on the left, entry into Munich. On the N. end, the entry into 
Vienna ; on the S. end, conclusion of peace at Pressburg. The arch was 
originally crowned with the celebrated ancient Quadriga from the portal 
of St. Mark's in Venice, hut this was replaced in 1815 by a Qoadbiga 
designed by Bosio: Triumph of the Restoration. 

The open space between the Louvre and the Tuileries, with the 
exception of the part beyond the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, 
was occupied until the construction of the new Louvre by a labyrinth 
of narrow streets. Louis Philippe began the removal of these, and 
the woTk of demolition was completed by Napoleon III. The Place 
du Carrousel, on the E. side of the arch, was formerly much smaller 
than now. It derives its name from a kind of equestrian ball given 
here by Louis XIV. in 1662. 

The Monument of Gambetta , opposite the arch, consists of a 
lofty stone pyramid with a bronze group in high relief represent- 
ing Gambetta (1838-82) as organiser of the national defence, by 
Aube. At the sides are decorative statues of less importance, repre- 
senting Truth and Strength, and on the top is Democracy (a maiden. 


seated on a winged lion), also in bronze, by Aube". The numerous 
inscriptions are chiefly passages from Gambetta's political speeches. 

The Equestrian Statue of Lafayette (by P. W. Bartlett), which 
stands on a lofty pedestal in the second grass-plot of the Carrousel 
square, is a gift from the children of the United States. 

In the Pavilion Denon, to the S.E. of Gambetta's monument, is 
the entrance to the Louvre (see p. 95). 

Quitting the Place by the gates near the Pont du Carrousel (p. 291), 
we notice the fine exterior facades of the Louvre (see p. 93). — 
Immediately beyond the N. gates we reach the Rue de Rivoli, not 
far from the Palais-Royal^p. 89). 

The *Champs-Elysees (PI. R, 15; II), in the strict signification 
of the term, include only the small park adjoining the Place de la 
Concorde, about 750 yds. long by 400 yds. wide, but the name has 
now been extended to the whole of the handsome modern quarter 
farther to the N.W. The park was laid out at the end of the 17th 
cent.; the magnificent Avenue, l 1 /^ M. in length, which intersects 
it and ascends to the Arc de Triomphe, was constructed by Le Notre 
in 1670. The park and avenue are among the most fashionable 
promenades in Paris, especially from 3 to 5, 6, or 7 p.m. according 
to the season, when numerous carriages, motor-cars, and cyclists are 
on their way to and from the Bois de Boulogne. At the entrance to 
the Champs-Elysees are placed two figures of Horse Tamers, by 
O. Coustou. They were removed from the palace at Marly (p. 363) 
to their present position, where they form a suitable counterpart to 
the winged steeds at the exit of the Jardin des Tuileries (p. 65). 
Farther on, to the right and left, are the cafes-concerts mentioned on 
p. 38. The small drinking-fountains, which we notice in the Champs- 
Elystfes and elsewhere in Paris, were erected by Sir Richard Wallace 
(d. 1890). 

To the right, separated from the Champs-Elysees by a large garden, 
is the Palais de l'Elysee (PI. R, 15; //), erected in 1718 but rebuilt on a 
larger scale in 1850. It is now the official residence of the President of 
the Republic (no admission). During the reign of Louis XV. this mansion 
was the residence of Madame de Pompadour. Louis XVI. presented it to 
the Duchesse de Bourbon, and it was known thereafter as the 'Elyse'e 
Bourbon 1 . The palace was afterwards occupied in turn by Murat, Na- 
poleon I., Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and his queen Hortense, the 
Due de Berry, and finally by Napoleon III., as President of the French 

Considerable alterations were made on the S. side of the Champs- 
Elysees for the universal exhibition of 1900, including the erection 
of the Petit Palais and the Grand Palais, between which passes the 
Avenue Alexandre Trois, or Allee Triomphale, leading to the Pont 
Alexandre HI (p. 219). 

The Petit Palais (PI. R, 15; II), on the left side of the avenue 
as we approach the Pont Alexandre III, is a more successful build- 


ing than its larger neighbour. It was designed by Charles Oirault, 
in a style suggestive of the 17-18th cent, and harmonizing with 
the adjacent structures in the Place de la Concorde and the Place 
des Invalides. The main facade is adorned with two graceful colon- 
nades and a dome, which contains the principal entrance. On the 
right of the porch are the Seasons, by L. Convers; on the left, the 
Seine and its banks, by Ferrary. The tympanum and the base of the 
dome are adorned with statuary by Injalbert and De Saint- Marceaux. 
Behind the edifice are the Houts, by H. Lemaire, and Archeology 
and History, by Desvergnes. This palace contains the Musee de la 
Villt de Paris, consisting of paintings and sculptures purchased dur- 
ing the last thirty years at the annual Salons, and the ^Collection 
Dutuit, bequeathed to the city in 1902. The museum is open daily, 
except Mon., 10-5 (4 in winter); no charge for leaving sticks and 
umbrellas. If time is limited it should be devoted'principally to the 
Dutuit Collection (p. 71). 

In the Vestibule, or 'Rotunda', is a gilt bronze group by Fremiet 
(St. George and the Dragon). — "We first enter the — 

Galerie de Sculpture de la Ville, to the right 'and left of the 
•vestibule. This contains over a hundred works in plaster or marble, 
but nothing very remarkable. 

To the right of the vestibule. Left wall: Marble sculptures by Allouard, 
Roufosse, and Biguine; O. Bareau, The poet's vision (Victor Hugo ; plaster). 
In the centre: Frirniet, Duguesclin (gilded); Salieres, Romance of April; 
Barrau, Salammbo and Matho. Right wall: Marble sculptures by Moncel, 
B. Pli, Berlaud, Biguine, and Vital- Cornu. Rotunda: centre, R. Larche, 
The tempest ; right, Francis I., by /. J. Cavelier (from the old Hotel de Ville). 

To the left of the vestibule. Right wall : Sculptures by Berthe Girardet, 
A. Gardet, Dalou, etc. In the centre: Frimiet, Torch-bearer (original at the 
Hotel de Ville, p. 172); Larroux, Nymph and dolphin; Daillion, Awakening 
of Adam. Left wall: L. Aubi, Dante. Rotunda: Octobre, Remorse; on the 
left, Empress Josephine, by Vital Dubray. 

The Galerie de Peinture de la Ville, which is entered from the 
left wing of the sculpture-gallery, is a collection that has been vari- 
ously criticised, though several of the paintings are of undoubted 

Lefo wall, beginning at the entrance: Landscapes," by Luigi Loir and 
fferpin; Gilbert, Dying-room at the Gobelins. To the left of the second 
door: "Rodin, Bust of Victor Hugo; to the right, G. Dubois, Female head. 
Then, Maignan, The Redeemer; Luigi Loir, Fete in honour of the Emperor 
of Russia (189o) ; Collet, Landscape; Bonnat, St. Vincent de Paul; L.Simon, 
A visit; J. P. Laurens, St. Bruno. Farther on: Humbert, Col. Marchand; 
J. P. Laurens, Proclamation of the Republic (1848); /. Blanche, Che'ret, the 
poster-artist. Then, landscapes by Ad. Demont, VHermitte, Ten Gate, and 
Cazii. Bail, Cinderella; Tanoux, Waifs; "Hetmer, Eclogue; G. Guay, 
Thrushes; Fantin-Latour, Temptation of St. Anthony; Duff and, Pastoral; 
Sail, Card-players; Jeanniot, The presentation; landscapes by Baudin, Bil- 
lotte, and Minard. Beyond the door: "Daumier, Chess-players, Print-collect- 
ors, Trio of amateurs; L. Cogniet, Bailly proclaimed mayor of Paris; Bonnat, 
Crucifixion ; G. Courbel, Siesta ; P. Delaro:he, The conquerors of the Bastille 
at the Hotel de Ville ; L. Cogniet, St. Stephen ; G. Courbel, Proudhon and his 
children. Farther on: H. Robert, Venus of Medici; L. Boilly (1761-1845), 
Distribution of food and wine in the Champs-Elyse'es; E. Robert, Farnese 
Hercules; Restout, Nativity of the Virgin. — Marble busts of Queen Marie 


Amelie (by A. Moyne) and the Prince Imperial, son of Napoleon III. (by 
Carpeaux; 1865). Opposite, marble bust of St. Just, by David a" Angers (1848). 
In the centre: "Barrias, The first interment (marble); Bastet, Magdalen 
(marble figure). — Eight wall (as we return): Raffa'elli, Hotel des In- 
valides ; Montenard, The Amphitheatre at Aries ; C. Rosat, December ; 'Roll, 
Summer; Lazerges (above), Captain Marchand; landscapes by Petit-Jean, 
Guillemet, and P. Vauthier. J. Viber, Three friends (a curious work). Beyond, 
Roll, Portrait of Alphand (d. 1891), the city engineer; Taltegrain, Sea-piece; 
Pointelin, The Jura Mts. ; Truchet, Aesthetic soire'e; landscapes by Guillemet, 
Allegro, Will, etc. — Spring, by ffercvle (marble); Paradise Lost, by J. 
Gautherin (marble). — Then, "A. de Neuville, Battle at the lime -kilns of 
Champigny (1871); Buland, Piocession; Sergent, Merry party; Roll, Fete du 
Quatorze Juillet (1882). Demont- Breton, In blue water; Aman-Jean, Portrait; 
Berton, An emulator of Venus ; small pictures by Carriere, Gagliardini, and 
L. GUM. Rixens, The foundry. — Marshall Turenne as a boy, statuette by 
Mercii; Lulli as a boy, bronze by A. Gaudel. — Beyond the door: Bour- 
geois, Moon-rise; Carrier-Belleuse, Tender avowal. 

In the parallel gallery, beginning again at the entrance. 1st Room : 
Sketches for the decoration of the Hotel de Ville (p. 169), by Puvis de Cha- 
vannes, [Martin, Baudoin, Roll, J. Ferry, etc. — 2nd Room : Drawings by 
Puvis de Chavannes; sketches by P. Delacroix and Andrieu. — 3rd Room: 
Decorations for civic edifices. In the centre: Meissonier on horseback, 
bronze by /. Fr. Meurice; Sporting-dog, marble, by Fouques. Corner to the 
right: Church decorations, by Dagnan-Bouverel, Maignan, etc. — 4ihRoom: 
Chiefly sketches and drawings ; pictures, to the left of the entrance : Boutigny, 
Old soldier; Didier-Pouget, Gorse; etc. Corner to the left: Various studies 
(Armand Renaud bequest). In the centre case, Modern medals. 

By the railing at the end of the picture-gallery is the entrance 
to the *Collection Dutuit, which was formed by the brothers Eugene 
and Auguste Dutuit (d. 1886 and 1902), and includes paintings, 
rare books, old prints, antiquities, and other works of art. It has 
been artistically arranged by M. Georges Cain, the curator of the 
Musee Carnavalet. 

Right Wall. — 1st Bat. Oudry, Sporting-dogs. — 2nd Bat. Parti- 
tion on the right: Claude Lorrain, Landscape; above, Tiepolo, Alexander 
and Bucephalus. In the corner, King-post in fayence (end of 16th cent.). 
1st glass-case: Palissy and Rouen ware; hexagonal dish (Rouen ; 18thcent.); 
Spanish -Mauresque circular basin in blue and gold; Damascus dish; two 
Sicilian- Arabian dishes ; below, °Mortar of jasper-coloured fayence (B. Palissy). 
Above, dish of Rouen ware with the arms of St. Simon, made to replace one 
in silver during the famine of 1709. On the wall, three low-reliefs of the Delia 
Robbia school ; Virgin and Child, Florentine school (15th cent.). In front, 
two bronze fire-dogs (Florentine school, 15th cent.); Day and Night, after 
Michael Angelo, attributed to Giovanni da Bologna. 2nd glass-case: below, 
dishes from Gubbio, Faenza, and Deruta, with a metallic lustre, adorned 
with mythological or Biblical subjects. In the centre, situla (School of the 
Patanazzi); round dish from Pesaro, with the Orsini coat-of-arms ; "Dish 
from Gubbio, with a female figure (16th cent.) ; invalid-cup ; ewers. Above, 
flask from Urbino. In the left corner, Jordaens, Martyrdom of St. Apollonia 
(sketch). By the partition: on a table, female statuette in wood, from the 
province of Champagne (16th cent.), and two Louis XIV. bronzes; Ave 
Maria (Delia Robbia School) ; views of Venice, by Guardi — 3kd Bat. 
Right partition : Drawings by Ruysdael, Van de Velde, Van Dyck, and Berghem; 
in the centre, 'Rembrandt, Saskia reclining. On the wall, *Rembrandt, 
Portrait of the artist, signed and dated (1631); to the left, "Sackaert, 
Landscape; "Aart van der Neer, Sunset; paintings by Van Goyen, A. van 
Ottade, A. von de Velde, etc. The glass-case in front contains drawings by 
A. van de Velde, Bakhuysen (two), Van Goyen, and "The Bagpiper, a coloured 
drawing by A. van Ostade. Farther on, A. van Ostade, Toper; "D. Tenters, 
Newspaper-reader; a work by Corn. Biga; Tavern-scene, by Brouicer ; a 


picture by Wouverman ; "J, Steal, The little collector; Van Goyen, Land- 
scape; works by Teniers; then, "Terburg, The Mirror; Lingelbach, Animals. 
In front is a glass-case wilh drawings by Cuyp and Berghem, a Holy Fa- 
mily (Italian school), and a landscape by Patel (18th cent.). Left partition : 
Drawings by P. de Koninck (Street), C. Visscher, C. Dusarl, Eobbema, L. van 
Leyden, Van Ostade, Uiwmeganck. etc. — 4th Bay. Partition on the right: 
Engravings (changed from time to time). These include 'Etchings by Rem- 
brandt, in variuus states. Among the 400 specimens the most noteworthy 
is the 'Hundred Guilder' etching (Christ healing the sick ; bought by Palmer 
in 1867 for 1200(. , and by Dutuit for llOOZ.). The engravings comprize 
examples by A. Dilrer, Mantegna, Callot, Clatide Lorrain, etc. They may be 
inspected by special permission only. On the wall, Povssin, Massacre of the 
Innocents. The table-cases contain Bindings in various styles (Empire, 
Restoration, Louis XVI., Louis XV.), and books bound by DerSme and for 
Grolier and Maioli (16th cent.). In the central case at the end of the room, 
opposite the exit, "History of Alexander the Great, MS. folio, by Jean Vau- 
quelin, translator to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, with 204 miniatures 
15th cent.). 

Left Wall (as we return). — 1st Bat. 1st table -case, specimens 
of early illustrated books. 2nd table-case, Louis XIII. bindings, etc. 3rd 
and 4th table-cases (beyond the door), 18th cent, vignettes, by J. Cars and 
others. — 2nd Bay. Partition on the right : /. Steen , Fortune - teller ; 
"D. Teniers, Card players ; "A. van Ostade, The analysis. Above, A. van de 
Velde, Landscape; "Janssens, Dutch interior; "Ruysdael, Plains of Haarlem. 
Glass-case : Drawings by Van Does, Berghem, etc. ; Van der Meulen, Louis XIV. 
and his staff (sketch). On the wall, Van Everdingen, Sea-piece; Berghem, 
A halt; "Terburg, The betrothed; Weenix, Merry company; "Eobbema, 
Windmills ; A. van de Velde, Mercury and Argus ; Eobbema, Forest-path ; 
"Gonzales Coques, Company of artists (among them, Brouwer, G. Coques, etc.) ; 
Berck-Eeyde, Landscape. Glass-case: Three drawings by Rembrandt ; drawings 
and small sketches by A. van de Velde, etc. Partition on the left: Pain'ing 
by P. Codde ; "G. Metsu, Lady at the harpsichord; Palamedes, Interior; 
J. van Ostade, The farm; If. Haas, Embroiderer; Cuyp, Cows; "Ruysdael 
(above), The castle; Palamedes, Bad company; Mieris (above), The inter- 
rupted song. Glass-case: Drawings. — 3rd Bay. Partition on the right: Land- 
scapes by De Marne, etc.; panels from the carriage of an Italian cardinal 
(18ih cent.); small Louis XIV. bronzes. On the wall: E.Robert, Maison 
Carree at Nimes; specimens of Boucher and J. Vernet: "Fragonard, Shady 
walk; drawings by Boucher a.n& Lipicii ; Watteau, Studies of heads. On the 
commode in front, Clodion, Faun and Bacchante. On the wall, farther on : 
Fragonard, Garden of the Villa d'Este; H. Robert, Washerwomen in a 
park; Pater, Park-scene; Oudry, Dogs. On a commode, Clodion, Bacchante. 
Above, carriage - panels (see above). Left partition: Leblond, Portrait of 
Louis XV. (coloured engraving) ; Clodion, Bacchanalian scenes (low-reliefs); 
Chardin, Monkey as antiquarian; E. Robert, The Colosseum. — The five 
Gobelins tapestries, of indifferent quality, on the left wall belong to the 
Dutuit Collection; the other tapestries, of excellent workmanship, came 
from the municipal Garde-Meuble. 

Centbal Cases. Right Row, beginning at the entrance. — 1st Case: 
Watches; Benaissance jewelry; metal pitcher, said fo have belonged to 
Luther; pax (Italian work; 16th cent.); at the end, on the left, bronze "Bust 
of a young man (Italian; 15th cent.). — 2nd Case: Venetian lustre-glass; 
"Chandelier, nearly perfect, in the famous Henri Deux ware or Oiron ware 
(2nd period), made at St. Porchaire, with the arms of France and monogram 
of Henri H. ; on the left, "Feeding-bottle, in St. Porchaire fayence (1st period), 
with the monogram of the Conne'table Anne de Montmorency and Made- 
leine de Savoie, his wife; to the right, similar feeding-bottle (1st period); 
lamp from a mosque (15th cent.) ; drinking-vessel in Venetian glass (15th cent.). 
— 3rd Case : Limoges enamels (16th cent.). Left side, triptych (Holy Fa- 
mily), by Nardon Pinicaud; "Female portrait, by L. Limosin; dish (scene 
from the story of Jason), by /. Courteys ; other articles by N. Penicaud and 
Courteys. Above, "Ewers illustrating the story of Jason, by Courteys; 


goblet, salt-cellar, and triptych by P. Raimond and N. Pinieaud; triptych. 
At the end (r.), Neptune quelling the tempest, by M. Didier. Right side, 
"Adoration of the Magi, by Jean II. Pinieaud, after the print by A. D'urer 
(16th cent.); Descent from the Cross, by J. Courleys; enamelled casket with 
the labours of Hercul-s. At the end (r.), triptych. — Large Central Case: 
Illuminated books aDd MSS. En'rance side, De Consolatione by Boethius 
(miniatures by Verard; 1494); Heures de la Vierge Marie (15th cent.). Above, 
Relation des Funerailles d'Anne de Bretagne ou le Trespas de 1 Hermine 
regrettee, by Pierre Choque (1515). Exit-side, Poeme d Adonis, given to 
Fouquet by La Fontaine (1658) ; the Labyrinthe de Versailles (1667), with the 
arms of L< uis XIV. — 4th Case (r.) : Bound volumes, once owned by Mmes. 
de Maintenon, du Barry, and de Montespan, and by the statesmen Louvois, 
Fouquet, Richelieu, Colbert, etc. Above them, bindings of Padelovp (1583) 
and Maioli (1584); specimen of the style known as 'fanfare' (geometrical 
patterns filled in with filiated forms), attributed 1o Eve, etc.; "History of 
Herodotus; bindings in mosaic. — To the left of the exit: Bronze bust of 
Auguste Dutuit, by P. Fosca of Naples. 

Left Row (as we return). 1st Case: On the left, bound volumes once 
Owned by Henri III., Henri II. and Diane de Poitiers, Marie de Medicis, 
Marie Antoinette, etc. — 2nd Case: Right side, ivory hunting-horn; ivory 
votive plaque (Byzantine work; 10th cent.); ivory chaplets (French; 16th 
cent.); processional cross of Theodorus, in chased silver (Byzantine); 
carved saddle bow (German ; 15th cent.), e tc. Right end, '"Ivory powder- 
flask (Italian; 16th cent.); above, knife-handle (15th cent.). Left side, two 
ivory bas-reliefs of scenes from the life of Christ (French; 14th cent.); 
two hunting-badges, enamelled (13th cent.). "Triptych of the Romanesque 
period ('reliquary of the true cross') : in the centre, double cross with two 
angels holding the spear and the sponge. Gilt fastening for a cope; two 
reliquaries (Rhenish, ldth and 14th cent.). Above, bone casket with represen- 
tations of gladiators (Italian; 16th cent.); head of a crozier; processional 
ima;;e of the Virgin from the Abbey of Ourscamp (Romanesque; 12tb. cent.) ; 
ivory crozier (French ; 14th cent.) ; ivory casket with scenes from the lives 
of the saints; two chandeliers (Limoges work; 12th cent.); censer. Left 
end, enamel (Scourging of Christ) attributed to Monvaerni. — 3rd Case : 
Louis XV. silver-work. Above, "Lepaute clock (Louis XVI.); Sevres break- 
fast-service once belonging to Mme. Dubarry; two silver salt-cellars, by 
M. Bouty (1778). — 4tti Case: Objects in lacquer, jade, and seladon 

Galerie des Antiqubs, entered through the door on the right. 

On the left, Roman bronze head, found at Fins d'Annecy , in Haute- 
Savoie (3rd cent. A. D.). — Eight wall, Bonus Eventus (bronze), from the 
same place. — 1st Case (by the wall). Below, small bronzes: weight shaped 
as pig; 59. Etruscan ewer; handle of a Macedonian situla; Hercules and 
Telephus. 1st shelf, small Roman toilet-vase; vase in the shape of a 
negro's head (Alexandrian art). 2nd shelf, chariot-pole in the form of a 
Greek warrior; Triton (Alexandrian); Roman scales; Jupiter hurling the 
thunderbolt; *Bust of Antonia (niece of Augustus, mother of Germanicus 
and Claudius), farther on, *Antonia as Venus; curious bronze amulet (bust 
of Mercury; Gallo-Roman, see p. 368); bust of the young Libyan Bacchus. 
Above, pottery, lecythi (oil-vases), and rhyta (drinking-horns). On the 
wall, bronze bust of Antoninus Pius (fromAnnecy; 3rd cent.). — 2nd Case 
Pottery. Below, hydrise with red and black figures; 64. Hydria with 
Orpheus, satyrs, and maenads; cantharus (two young wrestlers and their 
instructor). In the centre, Tanagra figurines; lecythi with ornamental 
figures; 42. Hydria with Orpheus and the maenads; "52. Hydria (toilet of 
the Graces). Above, lecythi, Tanagra figurines, etc. — On the wall, Queen 
of Egypt as Isis, in green bronze (Groec o-Egyptian work; 3rd cent. B. C). 
— 3rd Case : Bronzes. Below, Jupiter (ancient Greek style) ; balance-weight 
in the form of a human skull surmounted by a butterfly; 'Roman kettle- 
handle; Etruscan goddess; Thutmosis III. of Egypt. In the centre, "Group 
of two Etruscan figures found at Civita Castellana; Imhotep, Egyptian god 
of medicine. Above, bronze-plating from an Etruscan c'lariot; two bed- 


heads. — On the wall, "Bacchus erect, green hronze of the 4th cent. B. C, 
found at Rome in 1880. — At the bottom, Eoman bronze head, found at 
Fins d'Annecy (see p. 73). 

Central Cases (as we return). 1st Case: Below, vase adorned with 
black figures, Athena on her chariot, Hercules and Hermes; goblets, rhyta, 
antique glass. Above, Greek vase with satyrs and maenads ; Greek bronze 
mirror with graffiti (Venus); another with Helen (5th cent. B. C); "Bronze- 
figure of sleep, with wings at the temples, found at Aries; "Cista from 
Palestrina .with scenes from the Iliad; Greek shepherd (bronze; the eyes 
incrusted with silver), perhaps of the Alexandrian School (3rd cent.) 
Right end, mask of Medusa (glass - paste ; 4th cent. B. C). — 2nd Case: 
Fine medals of Lucretia Borgia, Malatesta da Rimini (by Matteo'de Potti), 
and Sigismondo Malatesta (by Bertolio), etc. — 3rd Case : Left end, collar 
for a slave, with a Latin inscription signifying 'arrest me and take me back 
to Apronianus Palatinus, at the Golden Napkin, on Mount Aventine, for 
I have run away 1 ; mirror with graffiti; judiciary tesserae ; Greek coins 
(Syracuse); Roman coins. Right side, Etruscan earrings; (Roman coins; 
mirror from Palestrina; necklet of gold coins. Right end, "Greek actor 
(coloured ivory); coins of Charles VII., etc. Right side, name-plate from 
an iron slave-collar with inscription; consular tesserae; private seals. — 
4th Case: "Large medal of Henri IV. and Marie de Me'dicis, by O. Dupri; 
medal of Georges d'Estouteville, cardinal-bishop of Rouen, who secured 
the rehabilitation of Joan of Arc (1457); "Medals of Francis I. by Romelli, 
of Catherine de Medicis by O. Pilon, etc. — 5th Case: Below, fine rhyta 
and other pottery. Right end (bronzes), voting-token of an Athenian judge. 
Above, rbyton with Bacchic scenes; "Phoenician patera (silver); chased 
silver handle. Below, rhyta, large cantharus, etc. 

The handsome central court of the Petit-Palais, adorned with parterres, 
ponds, and statuary, is temporarily closed to the public. 

The Grand Palais (PI. R, 15; 77), built by Deglane, Louvet, 
and Thomas, extends on the W. as far as the Avenue dAntin. The 
facade is adorned with a double colonnade, and the building is 
crowned by flat domes. The sculptures of the central portico are by 
Oasq, Boucher, R. Verlet, Lombard, C. and H. Lefebvre, Labatut, 
Barrau, Beguine, Charpentier, etc. At the top, above the abutments, 
are two imposing quadrigae (Harmony routing Discord and Immort- 
ality vanquishing Time), by Recipon. Behind the colonnade is a 
frieze in glass-mosaic, representing the Great Periods of Art, by 6. 
Martin, after Ed. Foumier. The cupola of the vestibule is to be 
painted by Bernard. In this palace are held the annual exhibitions 
of paintings and sculptures, horse -shows, cycle and motor-car 
shows, agricultural exhibitions, and the like. 

Beyond the Grand Palais, to the left, is the Palais de Olace 
( P . 43). 

On the other side of the avenue are the Pavilion de I'Elysee 
(Restaurant Maire , p. 15) , and the handsome Theatre Marigny 
(p. 38). ■ — On the grass-plot to the right of the Pavilion Maire 
is a marble Statue of Alphonse Daudet (1840-97), the novelist, by 
St. Marceaux, erected in 1902. 

The park or Carre des Champa-Elyseea extends as far as the 
Rond-Point des Champ a -Ely ales (PI. R, 15; 77), a circular space 
adorned with beds of flowers and six fountains, situated about mid- 
way between the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de l'Etoile. — 
In the Avenue Matignon (to the right of the Rond-Point) is the 


house (No. 3) where the poet Heine died in 1856, with a large balcony 
on the 5th floor, where he often sat. — The Avenue d'Antin, which 
crosses the Rond-Point, extends on the N. to the Faubourg St. Honore 
and St. Philippe -du-Roule (PI. B, 15; //), a basilica in the classic 
style, built in 1769-1784 from designs by Chalgrin. The cupola is 
decorated with a Descent from the Cross, by Chasseriau. At the S. 
end of the Avenue d'Antin is the Pont des Invalides (p. 219). 

The Avenue Montaigne, which also begins at the Rond-Point, leads 
towards the Pont de 1'Alma (p. 220). 

Farther on, to the left of the Champs-Elysees, extends the mod- 
ern Quartier Marbeuf (Metropolitain Stat.), consisting of handsome 
private residences. The Trocade'ro (p. 225 ; Metrop. Stat.), about % M. 
from this point, may be reached via the Rue Pierre-Charron. Farther 
on, to the left, is the vast Elysee Palace Hotel (p. 3). 

The Place de I'Etoile (PI. B, 12; 1), so named from the star 
formed by the twelve different boulevards or avenues which radiate 
from it (see p. 76), occupies a slight eminence, formerly known as 
the Montagne du Roule. In the centre rises the — 

*Arc de Triomphe de I'Etoile, the largest triumphal arch in exist- 
ence, and visible from almost every part of the environs of Paris. 
Begun by Napoleon I. in 1806, in memory of the battle of Austerlitz, 
from designs by Chalgrin (d. 1811), it was completed by Louis Philippe 
in 1836. It consists of a vast arch, 96 ft. high and 48 ft. wide, 
intersected by a lower transversal arch, 61 ft. high and 27 ft. wide. 
The whole structure is 162 ft. in height, 147 ft. in width, and 73 ft. 
in depth. The arch conveys a somewhat heavy impression when 
approached. The huge pillars of masonry on which it rests are 
adorned with colossal trophies, 36 ft. high, with figures 16 ft. high. 
The final top member is still wanting. 

The following groups adorn the E. facade: on the right, -Rising of 
the people in 1792 at the summons of the Genius of War, by Rude, the 
finest of the four groups; above it, the Obsequies of General Marceau (1796), 
by Lemaire. On the left, Triumph of Napoleon after the Austrian campaign, 
and the Peace of Vienna (1810), by Cortot ; above it, Mustapha Pasha sur- 
rendering to Murat at the battle of Aboukir (1799), by Seurre theE Ider. — 
The bas-reliefs on the frieze surrounding the monument represent the 
departure and the return of the troops, by Brun, Jacquot, Seurre, and Rude. 

On the W. facade : on the right, Resistance of the French to the in- 
vading armies in 1814, by Etex; above it, Passage of the bridge of Ar- 
cole (1796), by Feucheret. On the left, the Blessings of Peace (1815), by 
Etex; above it, the Taking of Alexandria (1798; Kl<5ber, who has received 
a wound on the head, points out the enemy to his troops), by Chaponniire. 

The reliefs on the N. side, by Gechter, represent the battle of Auster- 
litz (1805). On the S. side is the battle of Jemappes (1792), by Marochetti. 

The figures of Victory in the spandrels are by Pradier. A series of 
30 shields on the cornice above the entablature are inscribed with the 
names of different victories, while the names of 142 other battles appear 
on the vaulting of the principal arch. On the vaulting of the transversal 
arch are recorded the names of officers of the Republic and of the Em- 
pire, the names of generals who fell in battle being underlined (386 
in all). The figures of Victory in relief under these names relate to suc- 
cesses gained in the East, North, and South. 


The coffin of Victor Hugo (d. May 22nd , 1885) lay in state beneath 
the arch on June 1st, 1885, before its transference to the Pantheon (see p. 279). 

The Platform, to which a spiral staircase of 273 steps ascends, 
commands a noble *Prospect (adm. 10 till 4 or 6, free, hut a small 
fee, for a charitable object, is expected by the attendant). Best 
view towards evening, and in a W. wind after rain. 

To the E. the Champs-Elysees and the Grand Palais (right) ; farther on, 
the Louvre, beyond which rise the Tour St. Jacques, the Hotel de Ville, etc. 
To the right of the latter, the towers of Notre-Dame and the lofty dome 
of the Pantheon, with St. Etienne-du-Mont on the left and, nearer, ihe 
dome of the Sorbonne; in front the belfry of St. Germain-des-Pres, on the 
right the two towers of St. Sulpice and, nearer, the double spires of Ste. 
Clotilde; to the right, in the distance, the dome of the Val-de-Grace church; 
nearer, the gilded dome of the Invalides; in the distance, the belfry of 
Montrouge church; nearer, the Eiffel Tower and the Ti ocade'ro. To the left 
of the Louvre (N.E.) appear the low dome of the Bourse, the Vendome 
Column, the green roof of the Madeleine, the heights of Pere-Lachaise and 
Belleville, with the Crematorium and the churches of La Croix and Belle- 
ville ; in front are the Opera House, and the church of St. Augustin. Farther 
to the N. is the white church of the Sacre'-Coeur on Montmartre, and in 
the distance, the cathedral of St. Denis, and, to the left, the hills of 
Montmorency and Cormeilles, etc. To theW., the Avenues of the Grande 
Armee and de Neuilly, which it is proposed to extend as tar as the forest 
of St. Germain-en-Laye ; Mont Valerien, with the hills of St. Cloud and 
Meudon farther to the left. At our feet stretches the Avenue du Bois- 

Of the twelve avenues which radiate from the Place de l'Etoile 
there remain to be mentioned the Avenue de Friedland, with the 
Monument of Balzac (1799-1850), by Falguiere ; the Avenue Hoche, 
leading to the Park Monceau (770 yds. ; seep. 217); the Avenue 
de la Grande-Armee (p. 218), continuing the Avenue des Champs- 
Elysees towards Neuilly (p. 218); the Avenue du Bois-de-Boulogne 
(p. 230); the Avenue Kleber (Metropolitain Stat.), leading straight 
to the Trocadero (tramway) and passing the pretty Palais de Castille 
(No. 19), the property of the late Queen Isabella of Spain; and the 
Avenue Victor-Hugo, leading to the Bois de Boulogne via the Porte 
de la Muette (PI. R, 5; p. 230). 

In the Place Victor Hugo (PI. R, 9; Metropolitain Stat.) rises the 
Victor Hugo Monument, in bronze, by E. Barrias. The poet (1802-85) 
is represented standing on a rock flanked by allegorical figures of 
Drama, Lyric Poetry, Satire, and Fame, the pedestal being adorned 
with reliefs. His death took place at his house, No. 124 in the Avenue 
(comp. above). 

To the right of the arch (in coming from the Champs-Elyse'es) is a 
station of the Mitropolitain (see Appendix, p. 36), the tramway to St. Germain- 
en-Laye (p. 366), and other tramways. 


2. The Boulevards. 

For the Miiropolilain Stations in the proximity of the Grands Boulevards, 
see the Appendix, p. 36. 

The broad Rue Royale leads to the N. from the Place de la Con- 
corde (p. 63) to the Madeleine, the starting-point of the Boul. 
Malesherbes (p. 216) on the left, and the Grands Boulevards (p. 78) 
on the right. 

"The *Madeleine, or Church of St. Mary Magdalen (Pl.R, 18; IT), 
is built in the style of a Roman temple. It was begun in 1806, on 
the foundations of a church of the 18th cent., by Napoleon I., who 
intended it for a 'Temple of Glory'. The architect was P. Vignon. 
Louis XVIII. desired to make it an expiatory church with monuments 
to Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette. It was finished in 1842, from 
designs by Huvi. The church is 354 ft. in length, 141 ft. in 
breadth, and 100 ft. in height. The building, which is destitute of 
windows, is constructed exclusively of stone. It stands on a basement 
about 11 ft. in height, and is surrounded by an imposing colonnade 
of massive Corinthian columns. The niches in the colonnade contain 
thirty-four modern statues of saints. The relief in the tympanum of 
the principal facade (S.), by Lemaire, represents the Last Judgment. 
The bronze Doors, 34 1/2 ft- in height and 16 ft. in breadth, are adorned 
with illustrations of the Ten Commandments, by Triqueti. 

The 4 Interior (open to visitors from 1 to 6 p.m. ; when the front gate 
is closed, entrance hy the choir) forma a single spacions hall, with side- 
chapels, behind which are colonnades bearing galleries. The ceiling con- 
sists of three cupolas and a hemicycle. In the spandrels are figures of 
the Apostles, by Pradier, Rude, and Foyatier, 

Sculptures and paintings in the chapels : to the right, Marriage of the 
Virgin, by Pradier ; to the left, Baptism of Christ, by Rude; right, Ste. 
Amelie, by Bra, and the Conversion of Mary Magdalen, by Sc/metz; left, 
St. Vincent de Paul, by Raggi, and Christ at the house of Simon the 
Phaiisee, with Mary washing the Saviour's feet, by Couder; right, The 
Saviour, by Buret, and Mary at the foot of the Cross, by Bouchot; left, 
The Virgin, by Seurre, and Angels announoing the Resurrection to Mary, 
by Cogniet; right, Ste. Clotilde. by Barye, and Mary Magdalen praying in 
the desert, with angels, by Abel de Pujol; left, St. Augustine, by Etex, and 
Death of Mary Magdalen, by Signol. 

On the High Altar is u group in marble by Marochetti, representing 
Mary Magdalen being borne into Paradise by two angels. — At the 
back of the altar, in the apse, is a mosaic by Gilbert-Martin, representing 
Jesus Christ and personages from the New Testament. Above is a large 
fresco by Ziegler, representing Christ in the act of receiving and blessing 
the chief champions of Christianity in the East and West ; below is 
Napoleon receiving the imperial crown from the hands of Pope Pius VII. 

The Madeleine is famed for its sacred music and orchestral perform- 
ances on great festivals and during Passion Week. Comp. also p. 41. 

Behind the church is a Statue of Lavoisier (1743-94), the chem- 
ist, by E. Barrias, erected in 1900. The pedestal is adorned with 
reliefs representing Lavoisier in his laboratory, with his wife, and 
the great chemist instructing his pupils, Condorcet, Lagrange, La- 
place, Lamarck, Monge, etc. An inscription at the back records his 


In front of the church, on the right of the Rue Royale, is a marble 
Statue of Jules Simon (1814-96), the philosopher, by Puech (1903); 
on the base, reliefs in gilt bronze. Behind the statue is Simon's 
former house. 

For a description of the Boulevard Malesherbes, St. Augustin, etc., to 
the N.W. of the Madeleine, see p. 215. — Omnibuses and Tramways, see 
the Appendix pp. 28, 30. 

The **Grands Boulevards, or Boulevards Interieurs, over 30 yds. 
in width at places, extend in a semicircle round the old town, from 
the Madeleine to the Place de la Bastille, and owe their origin to 
the embellishment of the city undertaken by Louis XIV. The 
name, which recalls the 'bulwarks', or fortifications, that surrounded 
the city in the middle ages, recurs in the 'Boulevards Exte'rieurs' 
that encircled the capital until 1860, and in the 'Boulevards d'En- 
ceinte' (enclosure) which skirt the fortifications in the interior of the 
city. Since 1852 the name has been applied to numbers of thorough- 
fares which have nothing whatever to do with 'bulwarks'. The 'Great 
Boulevards', commonly known par excellence as 'The Boulevards', 
constitute the centre of Paris life. A walk from the Madeleine to the 
Place de la Republique at about four o'clock in the afternoon will 
afford the stranger an admirable insight into the general character of 
Paris. The pavements are then crowded with passengers, while 
elegant carriages, motor-cars, cabs, and omnibuses throng the road- 
way. The top of an omnibus (Madeleine-Bastille line) will afford a 
pleasant rest in case of need. 

Many of the boulevards, as well as some of the avenues and other 
principal streets, are paved with wood. The side-walks for foot 
passengers are of asphalt and flanked with trees. "When a tree dies, 
as frequently happens, the gap is speedily filled by a full-grown 
substitute. Outside the cafe's and brasseries are rows of chairs and 
little tables. Public benches are placed at intervals along the pave- 
ment, also chairs at 10 c, while there is a constant succession of 
newspaper and flower kiosques, advertising-columns, etc. At several 
of the crossings 'refuges' have been eTected for pedestrians, and 
the police are introducing the London system of arresting the traffic 
from time to time. 

The Boulevard de la Madeleine (PI. R, 18; 11), the first of the 
series, is also one of the shortest (240 yds.). In the Rue de Seze, 
No. 8 (r.), which diverges from it to the left, is the Galerie Georges 
Petit (p. 41). 

The *Boulevard des Capucines (PI. R, 18-21 ; II), which comes 
next, extends to beyond the Place de 1' Opera. On the left, the Olympia 
(p. 38), and, farther on, the Cafe de la Paix and the Grand Hotel 
(p. 3). On the right, the Glacier Napolitain (p. 22). 

The Place db l'Opeba (PI. R, 18; II), which is intersected by 
the Boulevard des Capucines, is one of the finest in Paris. Five 
broad streets radiate from it. To the S. run the Rue de la Paix (on 


the right) with the Vend6me Column in the background (p. 86) ; 
the Avenue de I'OpSra (p. 88 ; in the centre), with the Cercle Militaire 
at the acute angle which it forms with the Rue de la Paix ; and the 
Rue du Quatre-Septembre (on the left), leading to the Bourse (p. 202). 
To the N. , on the right and left of the Opera, are the Rue Halevy 
and the Rue Auber, the latter leading to the Gare St. Lazare (p. 208). 
The Rue Boudreau, to the left of the Rue Auber, leads to the small 
Square de l'Opera, adorned with a Pegasus by Falguiere. Continua- 
tion of the Boulevard, p. 81. 

Part of the Place de FOpe'ra is still encumbered with the excavation- 
works of the Mitropolitain (see p. 28). Three lines, one below the other 
will run underneath this Place: the uppermost line, from the Avenue de 
Villiers to Menilmontant, the metal roof of which will support the road- 
way of the Place; ta# intermediate line, from the Palais-Royal to the 
Place du Danube; and the lowest line, from Auleuil to the Madeleine. 

The *Opera House (PI. R, 18; II), a sumptuous edifice bearing 
the inscription l Aeademie Nationale de Musique', designed by Chas. 
Cornier, was begun in 1861 and completed in 1874. It is the largest 
theatre in the world, covering an area of 13,596 sq. yds. (nearly 
three acres); but it contains seats for 2156 persons only (La Scala 
at Milan, 3600). No adequate idea of its vast dimensions can be 
obtained without walking round the exterior, or viewing it from 
some elevated position. The site alone cost 420,000i. and the cost 
of building amounted to 1,460,000?. There is hardly a variety of 
marble or costly stone that has not been used in its construction. 

The Principal Facade, which, notwithstanding the richness 
of its ornamentation, has a somewhat heavy and depressed appear- 
ance, is approached by a broad flight of steps, and consists of three 
stories. On the groundfloor is the Portico with its seven arches, 
the piers of which are embellished with four large groups of statu- 
ary and four statues, viz., from left to right : Lyric Poetry by Jouff- 
roy, Music by Guillaume, Idyllic Poetry by Aizelin, Declamation 
by Chapu, Song by Dubois and Vatrinelle, Drama by Falguilre, 
Dance by Carpeaux, and Lyric Drama by Perraud. Above the 
statues are medallions of Bach, Pergolese, Haydn, and Cimarosa. 
On the first floor is a Loggia, with thirty Corinthian monolithic 
columns, sixteen of which, 33 ft. in height, are of stone, while the 
fourteen smaller columns are of red marble, with gilded bronze 
capitals, and form a kind of frame to the windows with balconies 
of green Swedish marble. In the intervening spaces are medallion 
busts, in gilded bronze, of the great musical composers. Above the 
loggia the facade terminates in a richly sculptured attic, embellished 
with gilded theatrical masks, and with colossal gilded groups by 
Gumery, one on each side, representing Musio and Poetry attended 
by the Muses and Goddesses of Fame. In the centre of the building 
rises a low dome (visible from a distance only), and behind it a huge 
triangular pediment, above the stage, crowned with an Apollo with 


a golden lyre , by A. Millet , and flanked with two Pegasi by Le- 
quesne. — There is also a pavilion in the centre of each of the Lateral 
Facades, that on the left side ('Pavilion d'Honneur') having a double 
carriage-approach. In front is the Monument of Charles Gamier, 
the architect (1825-98), by Carpeaux (1903). The pavilion on the 
other side is the covered carriage-entrance for regular subscribers. 
The lateral facades are adorned like the principal one with busts of 
composers and (in the pediments) allegorical figures. On the right, 
in the Rue Halevy and the Rue Gluck , is a series of fine candelabra 
or torch-holders, in bronze, designed by Carrier- Belkuse. — Perform- 
ances, see p. 35. 

*Interior. Passing through the gilded gates , we first enter 
the Vestibule , containing the ticket - offices and adorned with 
statues of Lulli, Rameau, Gluck, and Handel. Opposite to us is 
the *Orand Staircase ('Escalier d'Honneur '), the chef-d'oeuvre of 
Gamier. Visitors who take their tickets at the door have to ascend 
to their places by side-staircases, but they may inspect the Grand 
Staircase in the 'entr'actes'. The steps are of white marble, and the 
balustrades of rosso antico, with a hand-rail formed of Algerian onyx. 
Thirty coloured monolithic marble columns rise to the height of the 
third floor. The ceiling-frescoes by Pils, beginning on the right, re- 
present Minerva restraining the Primitive Forces before the Gods of 
Olympus, Apollo in his Chariot, the Instructiveness of the Opera, 
and the Triumph of Harmony. The handsome door on the first 
landing, flanked by bronze caryatide figures of Tragedy and Comedy 
with drapery of coloured marble, and the bronze groups supporting 
the lamps should also be noticed. 

Below the grand staircase, in a room reached from the subscribers' 
entrance (see above), are the Baesin de la Pythonisse, a fountain with a 
priestess of Apollo in bronze, seated on a tripod, by Marcello (a pseudonym 
of the Duchess of Colonna), and a marble statue of Music, by belaplancht. 

The Auditorium, or 'Salle', fitted up in the most elaborate 
style, is rather overladen with decoration, which, however, has al- 
ready begun to fade. There are five tiers of boxes. The spring of the 
arches, the 'avant-scenes', etc., on the fourth tier are adorned with 
figures and heads. Above are a handsome frieze and numerous 
small windows in the shape of lyres. The ceiling-paintings, by Lenep- 
veu, represent the hours of the day and night. 

The Stage is 196 ft. in height, 178 ft. in width, and 74 ft. 
in depth. Communicating with it is the Foyer de la Danse, the end 
of which is formed by a mirror 23 ft. broad and 33 ft. high. This 
foyer, to which subscribers only are admitted, has portraits of 
celebrated 'danseuses' and other paintings by Boulanger. 

The *Foyer du Public, one of the most striking features of the 
Opera House, is entered by the 'Avant-Foyer', the vaulting of 
which is adorned with mosaics designed by Curzon, and executed 
by Salviati, representing Diana and Endymion, Orpheus and Eury- 


dice, Aurora and Cephalus, and Psyche and Mercury. The Foyer itself 
is 175 ft. long, 42 ft. wide, and 59 ft. in height. Five windows and 
two doors lead from the Foyer to the Loggia (view). Opposite the 
windows are huge mirrors, 23 ft. high, separated by twenty columns 
bearing statues emblematical of the qualities required by an artist. 
At the ends are also two monumental chimneypieces with Carya- 
tides of coloured marble. The fine but somewhat faded paintings 
are by Baudry. On the ceiling are Melody and Harmony in the centre, 
with Tragedy and Comedy at the sides. Over the chimneypieces 
are Mount Parnassus and the Poets of Antiquity. The other paintings 
represent the Muses, with the exception of Polyhymnia, the Music 
of different nations, and Dancing. 

In the passage to the left as we quit the auditorium are paintings 
of the Months, by Clairin; the rotunda (buffet) at the end is decorated 
with tapestry designed by Afazerolie, representing Wine, Ices, Pastry, and 

The Pavilion d'Honneur (p. 80), Rue Auber, contains (on the 1st floor, 
to the right) a Library, belonging to the Opera, and the small Mutie de 
I'Optra (open on week-days 11-4). To the left in the latter is a portrait of 
Gtluck. The glass-cases on either side contain dolls in theatrical costumes 
and models of theatres since the 17th century. In the table-case at the 
entrance are miniatures of Lulli, Grelry, etc. Farther on (1.), Spontini's 
pianoforte; Rossini's clock. In the table-case at the end, leathern masks 
of dancers (18th cent.); shirt of the Due de Berry (p. 195), stained with 
blood; bomb thrown at Napoleon III. by Orsini (1858). On either side, 
mavble busts, including those of Mme. Miolan-Carvalho (p. 244), by Fran- 
cetchi, and Mme. Guimard (1743-1816), by Merchi. 

At the extreme end of the Boulevard des Capucines, on the left, 
are the Ihedtre du Vaudeville (p. 36) and the Rue de la Chaussee- 
d'Antin, at the end of which appears the church of La Trinite (p. 208). 
On the left, also, the Cafe Americain (p. 22). 

The *Boulevard des Italiens (PI. R, 21 ; II, III), which we 
next enter, is the most famous and fashionable of all the boulevards. 
It was so named in 1783 from the old Theatre des Italiens, which 
has been replaced by the Opera Comique (p. 82). At No. 33, on 
the right, is the handsome Pavilion de Hanovre (the groundfloor 
occupied by Christofle, the silversmith), built in 1760, restored in 
1887. The house of Marshal Richelieu (1757) previously stood on 
this site. On the left (No. 28) the Theatre des Nouveautes (p.*37), 
with the Theatrophone (p. 40). On the right are the large building 
of the Credit Lyonnais, and, a little farther on, the Magann des 
Manufactures de I'Etat (p. 44). The other end of the Rue Taitbout 
(1.) is the starting-point of the Boul. Haussmann (p. 215). Then 
follows the Rue Laffltte, at the corner of which stood the once cele- 
brated Maison-Doree Restaurant. On this site was the house of 
Mme. Tallien (1775-1835). At the end of the street is the church of 
Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (p. 206), while the Butte-Montmartre, with 
the church of the Sacre-Cceur (p. 209), rises in the distance. At the 
corner of the Rue Le Peletier is the Cafe Riche, in the Louis XV. style . 

Bakdekkk. Parii. 15th Edit. g 


On the right of the Boulevard are the Rue Favart and the Rue 
Marivaux, between which is the Opera Comique (PI. R, 21, II; 
p. 35). The theatre, which was burned in 1887, was rebuilt in 
1893-98 by Bernier, with its facade in the small Place Boieldieu, 
as before. The six caryatides and the ornamental heads on the 
exterior are by Allar, O. Michel, and Peynot. In niches are statues 
of Poesy and Music by Guilbert and Puech. At the top of the steps 
are two massive candelabra in red granite. — The box-office is in 
the Rue Marivaux, near the boulevard. 

Intekiok. In the vestibule are marble statues of Lyric Opera anil 
Comic Opera, by Falguiere and Mercil, and a monument to Bizet, by Fal- 
guiere. Gounod also is to be commemorated here. — The paintings on 
the grand staircase on the right are by Fr. Flameng: Tragedy (Sophocles 
causing the CEdipus Coloneus to be recited to his judges), Dance, and Vice 
fleeing before Truth and Satirical Comedy (on the ceiling). Those on the 
grand staircase on the left are by L. 0. Merson: Music and Song in the 
middle ages, Heroic Hymn, and Elegy. — The veslibule of the foyer is 
decorated by J. Blanc. — Grand Foyer: Gervex, The 'Ballet de la Reine' 
at the Louvre, in presence of Henri III. and Catherine de Me'dicis, Theatre 
de Nicolet at the fair of St. Laurent ; Maignan, Dance of the Notes (scenes 
from comic operas). — In the saloon next the Rue Favart (buvette): 
foudouze, Dance, Music, Musical Pastoral of the 13th cent., Glorification 
of MuMc (ceiling-painting). — In the saloon on the other side : Raph. Collin, 
Romance, Ode, Inspiration, Truth animating Fiction (ceiling-painting). — 
The ceiling-painting in the auditorium, by Benj. Constant, represents Fame, 
Symphony, Song, and Poetry, surrounded by typical figures from the operas 
performed here. 

The Boul. des Italiens ends on the E. at the Rue de Richelieu 
(right; pp. 201-195) and the Rut Drouot (left; p. 205). On the right 
are the offices of the Temps and of the Journal des Voyages, whose 
windows are kept well supplied with photographs from its correspond- 
ents. In the Rue Drouot on the left, at No. 9, is the Hotel des Ventes 
Mobili'eres, and farther on are the offices of the Figaro (p. 52). 

The Hotel des Venles Mobilicres, or Hotel Drouot, is noted for the ex- 
tensive sales of works of art, which take place between Jan. and May, 
generally at 2 p.m. Strangers are advised to refrain from bidding, unless 
accompanied by an habitue. The sales are for cash, and 5«/o is added to 
the purchase-price for expenses. 

"We now reach the Boulevard Montmartre (Pi. R, 21 ; III). On 

the right diverges the Rue Vivienne, leading to the (3 min.) Bourse 
(p. 202) and the Palais-Royal (p. 89). Farther on, on the same side, 
are the Theatre des Varietes (p. 36) and the Passage des Panoramas; 
on the left are the Passaye Jouffroy and the Musee Grevin (p. 40). 
Finally on the right and left diverge the Rue Montmartre and the 
Rue du Faubourg-Montmartre, two important thoroughfares. 

At No. 3, Rue Feydeau, to the right of the Rue Montmartre, is the 
Office National du Commerce, established to facilitate and encourage the 
intercourse of French manufacturers and merchants with foreign coun- 
tries. The Rue Montmartre (2/3 M. in length) debouches at the Halles 
Centrales (p. 188). About halfway down, at the corner of the Rue St. Sauveur, 
is the sign 'Au Soleil d"Or\ the finest in old Paris, dating from early in 
the 18th century. 

The Boulevard Poissonniere (PI. R, 21-24; III) owes its name 
to the Rue Poissonniere (p. 83), through which most of the ilsh was 


formerly brought to the market. Immediately on the left is the at- 
tractive shop of Barbedienne fy Co., dealers in bronzes (p. 45); on 
the right, the Cafe -Concert Parisiana (p. 39); on the left the 
Taverne-Restaurant Brebant. At No. 9 are the offices of the Matin, 
where photographs of personages of the day are always on view. 
Farther on, to the left of the Boulevard, diverges the small Rue 
de Rougemont, at the end of which is seen the Comptoir National 
d'Escompte, rebuilt in 1883, the doorway decorated with symbolic 
statues by A. Millet. At the end of the Boulevard are the Rue 
Poissonniire and Rue du Faubourg-Poissonniere, on the right and left. 

No. 21, Eue Poissonniere, a house dating fiom 1660, was occupied in 
1187 by Gretry, (he composer. — In Ihe Rue du Faubt urg-Poi=sonniere, 
No. 15, is the Conservatoire de Musique. 

The Conservatoire de Musique et de Declamation (PI. B, 21,24; ///), 
which stands on the site of the old Acade'mie Royale de Musique, founded 
in 1795, and which is about to be removed elsewhere, exists for the purpose 
of training singers and actors for the national stage, and has a teaching- 
s'aff of over 70 and about 700 pupils. Pupils are admitted by competition 
and receive their training gratuitously. Winners of the Grand Prix are 
awarded an annual allowance of cOOO fr. for four years, during which they 
visit Italy and Germany for the purpose of perfecting themselves in their 
art. The most distinguished students are enlilled to an engagement in one 
of the subsidized theatres. The Conservatoire, which is now under the 
management of Theodore Dubois, has teen at vaiious times presided over 
by Cherubini (1795-1804), Auber (1842-70), and Ambroise Thomas (1871-96). — 
Concerts, see p. 40. 

The Conservatoire possesses a valuable Collection of Musical Instruments, 
in the second court, next the Rue du Conservatoire, from which it may 
be entered. It is open on Mon. to visitors provided with a pass from the 
office of the Beaux-Arts, Rue de Valois 3, and to the public on Thars., 12-4. 
It contains numerous instruments remarkable eilher as works of art or 
for their historical associations. — There is also a Musical Library, the most 
important of its kind in existence (open 10-4, closed Sun. and holidays). 

A little farther on, at the corner of the Rue Ste. Cecile and the Rue 
du Conservatoire, is the church of St. Eugene (PI. B, 21,24; ///), a Gothic 
edifice, built in 1854-55 from the designs of L. A. Boileau. The interior 
is supported by cast-iron columns. 

In the Rue des Petits-Carreaux (PI. R, 21, 24 ; III), at No. 26, is the Cow 
Lanoix, with an ancient passage which led into the famous 'Cour des Miracles'. 
Of this nothing now remains, but from the 13th cent, up to the time of 
Louis XIV. it was the favourite haunt of beggais and vagranls. Victor 
Hugo gives an admirable description of it in 'Notre-Dame de Paris'. — Near 
by, in the Rue Montorgueil, is the quaint old 16th cent, inn of the' Compas 
d'Or' (Nos. 72 64; courtjard). 

The Boulevard Poissonniere is succeeded by the Boulevard 
Bonne-Nouvelle (PL R, 24; ///). On the left are the Theatre du 
Oymnase (p. 36), the Restaurant Marguery, the Rue d'Hauteville (at 
the end of which is seen the church of St. Vincent-de-Pau), p. 204), 
and the 'grand magasin' of La Mfnayere (p. 47). 

A few paces to the right of the boulevard, in the Rue de la Lune, is 
Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle (PI. P, 24; ///), a church built in 1624 en 
the site of the Chapel of Ste. Barbe, -which was destroyed during the siege 
of Paris by Henri IV. (1593) and reconstructed in 1823-30. It contains 
a handsome marble group in high-relief by Ch. Desvergnes, representing 
the Memory of the Dead (in the first chapel on the right). The large chapel 
of the Virgin, to the left of the nave, is painted in fresco by Aug. Hesse. 
The other paintings are by Sihnetz, Alaux, and A de Pujol. — The slop 



of 1he Brioche de la Lune in this street is noted for its 'brioches'. — Andre 1 
Che'nier the poet (1762-91) lived at No. 97 in the Rue de Cle'ry (inscription), 
which crosses the Rue Poissonniere (p. 83). 

The Boulevard St. Denis (PI. R, 24 ; III), which comes next, 
has the Rue du Faubourg-St-Denis on the left, and the Rue St. Denis, 
one of the oldest streets in Paris, on the right. 

The Porte St. Denis, between the two last-named streets, is a 
triumphal arch, erected after 1673, from designs by Fr. Blondel, to 
commemorate the victories of Louis XIV. in Holland and the district 
of the Lower Rhine. It is 81 ft. high and has a single archway. 
The piers are adorned on both sides with obelisks in relief cohered 
with military trophies. At the bases of the obelisks on the front are 
represented, on the left, vanquished Batavia (Holland), and on the 
right the river-god of the Rhine. The relief above the arch on the 
same side represents the Passage of the Rhine by Louis XIV. in 
1672; the relief on the other side, the Capture of Maastricht (1673). 
The sculptures, designed by Oirardon and executed by the brothers 
Anguier, were almost entirely remodelled in 1886-87. 

The handsome streets which diverge a little farther ou to the left 
and right are the Boulevards de Strasbourg and de Sebastopol, which, 
continued on the S. by the Boul. du Palais (p. 255) and Boul. St. Michel 
(p. 263), intersect Paris from the Gare de l'Est (p. 204) on the N. to 
the Observatoire (p. 326) on the S., a distance of 2 l / 2 M. The Gare 
de l'Est is visible at the end of the Boulevard de Strasbourg. Beyond 
the end of the Boulevard de Sebastopol rises the dome of the Tribunal 
de Commerce (p. 258). 

We next reach the Boulevard St. Martin (PI. R, 27, 24 ; III). 
The carriage-way was lowered in 1845, to facilitate traffic, while 
the foot-pavements Tetain their original height. Several theatres 
(see p. 33) are situated on the left side of this boulevard, viz. the 
Thiatre de la Renaissance (p. 37), the Theatre de la Porte St. Martin, 
burned by the Communards but rebuilt in 1873, the Ambigu-Comique, 
and the Folies Dramatiques (the last in the Rue de Bondy). 

The Porte St. Martin (PI. R, 24; III), a triumphal arch, with 
three openings , 57 ft. in height, designed by Pierre Bullet, was 
erected by the city in honour of Louis XIV. after 1675. The reliefs, 
on the S. side by Le Hongre and Legros the Elder and on the N. side 
by M. Desjardins and Q. Marsy, represent the Capture of Besancon, 
the Capture of Limburg, and the defeat of the Germans, Spaniards, 
and Dutch. 

A little to the S., in the Eue St. Martin, is the Conservatoire des Arts 
et Mitiers (p. 1S1). 

The Mairie of the 10th Arrondissement (PI. R, 26 ; ///) with its con- 
spicuous tower, in the Rue du Faubourg-St-Martin , about 300yds. from 
the Porte, is a tasteful structure of 1893-96, designed by E. Rouyer in a 
Renaissance style not unlike that of the Hotel de Ville. In the interior 
the staircase and the gallery in three stories may be mentioned. The Salle 
des Fetes, on the first floor, to the back, contains a large high-relief by 
Dalou, representing the brotherhood of nations. 


The Boulevard St. Martin terminates in the Place de la Re- 
publique, formerly called the Place du Chdteau-d' Eau (PI. R, 27; III). 
This handsome square occupies the site of an ancient bastion be- 
longing to the fortifications removed by Louis XIV., but did not 
receive its present regular shape until 1880. — On the N.E. side is 
the Caserne du Chdteau, formerly called the Caserne du Prince Eugene 
(1858), a barrack constructed by Napoleon III. to command the boule- 
vards. Near it is the Hotel Moderne (p. 8). — The centre is embel- 
lished with a bronze Statue op the Republic, by the brothers 
Morice , erected in 1883 , which is 32 ft. high to the top of the 
olive-branch. The stone pedestal, 50 ft. in height, is surrounded 
with seated bronze figures of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, and 
adorned with twelve bas-reliefs in bronze, by Dalou : Taking the oath 
in the Jeu de Paume; Capture of the Bastille; Renunciation of 
privileges ; Festival of the Federation ; Meeting of the Constituent 
Assembly ; Volunteers enrolling; Battle of Valmy; Combat of the 
'Vengeur'; Resumption of the tricolor in 1830 ; Provisional Govern- 
ment of 1848; September 4th, 1870; National Fete, July 14th, 
1880. In front is a bronze lion with the urn of 'suffrage universel'. 

Several important streets diverge from the Place de la Re'publique. 
To the S.E. is the Boulevard Voltaire (p. 23i); to the E. runs the Avenue 
de la Re'publique, leading to Pere-Lachaise (p. 237). To the N.E., between 
the hotel and the barracks, the Rue du Faubourg-du-Temple leads to Belle- 
ville (p. 233; cable-tramway in l /t hr., 10 c). Near the point where it crosses 
the Canal St. Martin is a small square, on the Quai de Valmy, with a bust 
of Frld. Lemaitre (1800-76), the actor, by P. Granet. To theN.W. diverges 
the Boulevard de Magenta, which leads past the Gate de l'Est and the 
Gare du Nord (p. 29) to Montmartre (the dome in the distance advertises 
the position of the Magasins Dufayel, p. 209). To the S, W. are the old Rue 
du Temple, leading to the Hotel de Ville, and the wide Rue de Turbigo, more 
to the right, descending to the Halles Centrales (p. 188) — Tramways, Omni- 
buses, and Cable Tramway from the Place de la Re'publique, see Appx. 

Between the Boul. Magenta and the Boal. St. Martin is the Bourse 
du Travail (PI. R, 27; ///), planned by Bouvard. It was erected in 1889-90 
by the city of Paris and placed at the disposal of the trade-councils ('syndieats 
professionals'), with a view to superseding the private 'registry' offices. 

The Boulevard du Temple (PI. R, 27 ; III) is named from its 
proximity to the old Temple quarter (p. 194). It was at one time 
the fashionable promenade of the citizens, when the centre of Paris 
lay more to the E. than at present, and contained numerous theatres 
(comp. the views in the Musee Carnavalet, p. 193). — The Thidtre 
Dejazet (p. 37), at No. 41, was built in 1852. 

The Boulevard des Filles-du-Calvaire (PI. R, 26; III), which 
comes next, derives its name from an ancient nunnery (1633-1790). 
At its N. end, to the left, is the Cirque d'Hiver (p. 38). 

The Boulevard Beaumarchais (PI. R, 26 ; ///, V), named after 
Caron de Beaumarchais (1732-99), the author, who owned a consider- 
able part of the E. side of the street, the last of the Great Boulevards, 
is also the longest (820 yds.). — At No. 99 (Rue St. Claude 1) is the 
house where the famous Cagliostro lived (d. 1795). Nos. 21-23 mark 
the house of Ninon de l'Enclos (d. 1706), built by Hardouin-Mansart. 


The Rue St. Claude, to the right, leads to the church of St. Denis-du-Saint 
Sacrement (PI. R, 26; ///), in the Rue de Turenne. The church, in the 
neo-classic style, dates from 1823-35 and contains (in the chapel to the right 
of the entrance) a Descent from the Cross, by Eug. Delacroix, and a fine statue 
of Ste. Genevieve by Perraud (1868). Paintings in the choir by A. de Pujol.— 
No. 54 in the Rue de Turenne (now a school) was occupied by President 
de Gourgues (1728); No. 60 was the residence of the chancellor Boucherat 
and (until 1901) the Convent of St. Elizabeth. The court of No. 23, formerly 
inhabited by Colbert de Villacerf (1740), should be noticed. — In the Rue 
Thorigny (almost opposite the Eue St. Claude) is a beautiful house (No. 5) 
dating from the 17th century. 

The Boulevard Beaumarchais ends at the Place de la Bastille 
(p. 174). — Restaurants in the Eastern boulevards, see p. 19. 

3. From the Western Boulevards to the Louvre. 

The Place Vendome lies about midway between the "W. boule- 
wards and the Rue de Rivoli (p. 90). It is reached from the Place 
de l'Opera by the broad Rue de la Pais (PI. R, 18 ; //), which prior 
to 1814 was called the Rue Napole'on, and has long been famous for 
its jewellers' shops and great dressmaking establishments. 

The buildings in the Place Venddme (PI. R, 18 ; II) were paitly 
constructed by J. Hardouin-Mansart (1708). The Place was then 
embellished with an equestrian statue of Louis XIV. by Girardon, 
and was known as the Place Louis-le-Grand. This statue was 
replaced at the Revolution by a statue of Liberty, and the name of 
the square changed to Place des Piques. In 1800 the erection of a 
column in memory of the soldiers who fell in the first campaigns of 
the Republic was contemplated, but in 1806 the Senate decided for 
the present column in honour of Napoleon I. The Place owes its 
present name to a palace erected here by Henri IV. for his son, the 
Due de Vendome. In the centre rises the — 

Colonne Venddme, an imitation of Trajan's column at Rome, 
142 ft. in height and 13 ft. in diameter. It was designed by 
Oondouin and Lepire, its erection being supervised by Denon. The 
column is constructed of masonry, encrusted with plates of bronze 
(designed by Bergerei) forming a spiral band nearly 300 yds. in 
length , on which are represented memorable scenes of the cam- 
paign of 1805, from the breaking up of the camp at Boulogne down 
to the Battle of Austerlitz. The figures are 3 ft. in height, and 
many of them are portraits (reduced model at the Mint, see p. 285). 
The metal was obtained by melting down 1200 Russian and Austrian 
cannons. At the top is a statue of Napoleon in his imperial robes, 
after Chaudet. Visitors are no longer permitted to ascend. 

The vicissitudes of the Vendome Column reflect the political history 
of France. In 1814 the statue of Napoleon was taken down by the Royal- 
ists, and under the Restoration it was replaced by a monster fleur-de-lis 
surmounted by a white flag. The metal was used in casting the equestrian 
statue of Henri IV. (p. 254). In 1831 Louis Philippe caused a new statue 
of the emperor, in a greatcoat and three-cornered hat, to be placed on the 

3. ST. ROCH. 87 

summit, but Napoleon III. replaced this in 1863 by one resembling the 
original figure. The column was overthrown by the Communards in 1871, 
but as the fragments were preserved, it was re-erected under President 
Mac-Mahon in 1875. 

The street beyond the Place is the Rue Castiglione (PI. R. 18 ; //), 
which joins the Rue de Rivoli (p. 90) near the Hot. Continental. 

The first cross-street is the long Rue St. Honore (PI. R, 18 ; II), 
to the W. Here , on the left , are the Nouveau Cirque (p. 38) and 
the Church ofihe Assumption(No. 263 ; sometimes closed), a building 
of the 17th cent., with a somewhat heavy dome. In the cupola is 
an Assumption by Ch. de la Posse. 

The Church of the Assumption was once, the chapel of the convent of 
the Dames de VAssomption (1670), which extended to the 'Orangerie' of 
the Tuileries. Secularised in 1793, it was converted into the barracks of 
the 'Cent-Suisses\ — Farther on, No. 398, is the house of the carpenter 
Duplay, where Robespierre lodged; at that time it had only one story, the 
general arrangement of which is unaltered (see the small court on the left); 
at No. 271 , at the corner of the Rue St. Florentin, is the ancient tavern 
of the 'Saint Esprit', famous under the Revolution, with a fine wrought 
iron grille on which is a representation of the Holy Ghost. Retracing our 
steps, we notice on the left a series of old houses tastefully decorated 
(specially Nos. £66 and 362). On the right, No. 231, the former novitiate- 
convent of the Feuillants (p. 66), with a pediment on the facade. > 

St. Boch (PI. R, 18; //), in the E. part of the Rue St. Honore", 
was erected in 1653-1740 from designs by Jacques Lemercier, but 
the facade, with its two rows of Doric and Corinthian columns, was 
designed by Robert de Cotte, and executed by his son Jules de Cotte. 

Intekioe. The vault over the nave is of remarkable width. On the 
pillar to the left of the main portal is a medallion of Comeille (d. 1684), 
who is buried in the church. The chapels of the aisles were decorated in 
the early part of the 19th cent, with paintings, now faded and visible 
only in bright weather. The subjects of the paintings are indicated by 
the names of the chapels; viz., on the left, Chapelle des Fonts, St. Nicolas, 
de la Compassion, Ste. Suzanne, St. Denis, St. Vincent-de-Paul, St. Joseph, 
St. Francoi3 Xavier, and St. Carlo Borromeo; on the right, as we return, 
Chapelle'Ste. Madeleine, Ste. Catherine, Ste. Therese, Ste. Clotilde, Ste. 
Genevieve, of the Apostles, St. Stephen, and Chapelle des Monuments. In 
the 1st chapel to the left: Baptism of Christ, a group in marble, by 
Lemoine. — 3rd Chapel : Mater Dolorosa, by Bogino. — 4th Chapel : Monument 
of the AIM de VEpte (1712-1789), founder of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum 
(p. 321), by Priault. — In the transepts, from left to right: St. Augustine, 
by (THuez; St. Andrew, by Pradier; Agony in the Garden, by Falconet; 
St. Roch, by Coustou, etc. The other side-chapels contain eight large reliefs, 
by Deseine, representing scenes from the history of the Passion. 

To the left and right, behind the high-altar, are paintings, by Lethiire 
and Sestoul, of Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen and the Presentation 
in the Temple. — Upon the altar of the 1st chapel of the retro-choir : 
Nativity, a group in marble by Michel Anguier. — In the ambulatory are 
paintings by Schnelz, Thomas, Delorme, and Restoul. — In the Chapelle du 
Calvaire (the 2nd), which is separate from the other two (door on the left) : 
the Crucifixion, by Duseigneur, Christ on the Cross, by Mich. Anguier, with 
a Magdalen by Lemoine (bearing the features of the daughter of the painter 
Mignard, from whose monument it was taken) , and the Entombment, by 
Deseine. — In the last chapel but one, as we return towards the entrance: Mon- 
ument of Charles II. de Cre'quv, Governor of Paris (d. 16S7I. by Coyzevox. — 
Last chapel: Monuments of Marshal Fr. de Cr<?quy (d. 1687), of Cardinal 
Dubois (d. 1729), by Quill. Couslou, and of Comte d'Harcourt, Henri de 
Lorraine (d. 1666), by Renard; busts of Mignard (d. 1695), by Desjardins, 
and of the landscape-gardener Le N6tr<j (d. 1700), by Coyzevox; monument 


of the astronomer Maupertuia (d. 1759), by d'Huct, etc. — St. Roch is noted 
for its music (10 a.m. on Sun.). 

It was in the Place in front of St. Roch, extending at that time as 
far as the Tuileries Garden, that the Royalists who attacked the Conven- 
tion on 5th Oct., 1795, placed their best battalions. Bonaparte, however, 
by a vigorous attack overwhelmed the soldiers of St. Roch, thus stifling 
the counter-revolution in its birth. 

The Rue des Pyramides , to the E. of St. Roch, leads on the S. 
to the small Place de Rivoli, with an equestrian statue of Joan of 
Arc, in gilded bronze, by Fremiet. Beyond this Place is the Rue 
des Tuileries (p. 65). 

Farther to the E. the Rue St. Honore traverses the Place du 
Theatre-Francais (see below), skirts the Magasins du Louvre , and 
ends near the Halles Centrales (p. 188). 

Beyond the Places du Theatre-Francais and du Palais-Royal, to the 
left of the Rue St. Honore, begins the Rue de Valois (PI. R, 21 ; ///). Here 
(Nos. 6-8) is the house ('Hotel Melusine') built by Richelieu, now the Boeuf 
a la Mode restaurant (p. 18), with a handsome gilded balcony. In the Rue 
des Bons-Enfants, farther on, to the left (PI. R, 21; ///), No 7, is the dark 
Passage Henri IV., constructed under the buildings of the old Theatre 
Moliere. If early opposite (No. 8) is one of the entrances to the old cloister 
of St. Honore' (interesting courtyard). At No. 19, the mansion of the 
Chancellerie d'Orleans (1700), restored by Boffrant, has some pretty reliefs 
of children above the doors in the passage. Returning to the Rue St. 
Honore, we notice, between Nos. 184 and 188, another entrance to the 
cloister of St. Honore. — For a description of the rest of this street, 
see pp. 91, 92. 

The Avenue de l'Opera (PL R, 18-21 ; II) , which runs due S. 
from the main facade of the Opera, abounds in handsome and 
attractive shops. It has been left without trees, so as not to interfere 
with the view of the opera-house. 

The Place du Theatre-Francais (PL R, 21 ; IT), at the end of the 
Avenue de l'Ope'ra, is embellished with two handsome modern foun- 
tains by Davioud, with nymphs in bronze by Carrier-Belleuse and 
Moreau, and with a monument to Alfred de Musset (p. 218), by Mercie* 
(1904). The Metropolitain has a station here (see Appx., p. 36). 

The Thiatre Franeais (PI. R, 21 ; II), which cannot be said to 
be of imposing appearance, was restored by Guodet after the fire of 
March 8th, 1900. It has been used for the performances of the 
Comedie Francaise since 1799, but existed previously (since 1787) 
under the name of Variete's-Amusantes. It was altered in 1860-64, 
and a new facade was added in 1873. The entrance under the portico 
is adorned with large medallions in marble of Moliere, Racine, 
Corneille, and Victor Hugo, by D. Puech. 

Most of the sculptures which it contained were saved from the fire. 
In the Vestibule are statues of Talma, the tragedian (d. 1826), by David 
d'Angers, and of the celebrated actresses Rachel (d. 1858), as 'Phaedra', and 
Mars (d. 1847), as 'Celimene' (in Moliere's 'Misanthrope'), by Duret. Stair- 
case: Gobelins tapestry, representing the Crowning of Moliere, after J. Blanc; 
Zaire, by Claude and Qalland; IpMgenia, by Doucet and Qalland. To the right 
and left of the staircase : busts of C. Delavigne and Che'nier, by David <F Angers ; 
exit-gallery: (r.) "Dumas the Elder, by Chapu; (1.) Diderot, by Lescorni. 
To the right and left of the landing : Balzac, by Vasselot; Musset, by Mezzara; 
in the centre, busts of Dumas the Younger and Emile Augier. In the foyer: 


Bust of Victor Hugo (to the left as we enter); the ceiling-painting, Triumph 
of Truth, by the younger Dubufe,\ *Statue of Voltaire (d. 1778), by Houdon; 
chimneypiece with a relief representing comedians crowning the figure 
of Moliere, by Lequesne; and busts of celebrated French dramatists by 
MoUdon, CaJ [fieri, etc. The four caryatides to the right and left, of the 
Stage are by Thomas. The new curtain, painted by H. cTEspoui and Calbet, 
represents a corner in the Park of Versailles. 

The theatre possesses a collection of furniture and other objects which 
belonged to Moliere and other dramatic authors and actors (seen by special 
permission only) and a library (shown on request 2-4; entrance from the 
Palais-Royal side), containing autographs of Talma, wreaths presented to 
actors, etc. (fee to the concierge). 

The Theatre Francais forms the S.W. wing of the Palais-Royal. 

The Palais-Royal (PI. R, 21 ; II) is formed of two quite distinct 
parts : the Palace properly so called, and the Garden surrounded with 
Galleries, behind. 

The palace was erected by Cardinal Richelieu in 1619-36, from designs 
by /. Lemercier, and named the Palais-Cardinal until 1643. Richelieu, who 
died there in 1642, bequeathed it to Louis XIII., and it was occupied by 
Anne of Austria with her two sons, Louis XIV. and Philip of Orleans, 
then in their minority. Since then the building has been called the 
Palais-Royal. It was subsequently enlarged by Fr. Mansart. Louis XIV. 
presented it to his brother Duke Philip of Orleans, whose son, Philip of 
Orleans (d. 1723), regent during the minority of Louis XV., afterwards 
indulged here in his notorious orgies. After the burning of the opera- 
house in 1763, some large new buildings, chiefly on the side next the 
Place du Palais - Royal , were erected by P. L. Moreau, the architect. 
Phitippe Egaliti, grandson of the regent, led a scarcely less riotous and 
extravagant life than his grandfather, and in order to replenish his ex- 
hausted coffers caused the garden to be surrounded with houses, which 
he let to professional gamblers, shopkeepers, etc. The cafe's on the ground- 
floor soon became a favourite rendez-vous of democrats and malcontents. 
It was here that Camille Desrnoulins called the populace to arms on 12th July, 
1789, two days before he led them to the capture of the Bastille (p. 174). 
From 1801 to 1807 the palace was the seat of the Tribunate, which in 1804 
conferred imperial hereditary rights on the Consul Napoleon Bonaparte. 
In 1815 the Orleans family returned thither and remained until 1848. Under 
the Second Empire Prince Je'rome Napoleon, the former King of Westphalia 
(d. 1860), and his son, Prince Napoleon, resided here. In 1871, the Com- 
munards set the Palais-Royal on fire; since its restoration it has been 
occupied by the Conseil oVEtat. 

Except on the S. side, the Palais-Royal is surrounded by houses and 
is entered by unobtrusive passages. Entering from the S., we cross the 
palace-courtyard and enter the Garden, a promenade scantily shaded 
by a quadruple row of small trees, with a circular basin of water 
and a couple of flower-beds. It is embellished with sculptures, viz., 
from S. to N. : Eurydice bitten by a serpent, by Nanteuil; Mercury, 
by Cugnot; the Snake Charmer, by Thabard; Boy struggling with 
a goat, by Lemoine; the Versailles Diana, after the antique; and a 
Youth bathing, by Espercieux. Up to the time of the second Empire 
a constant stream of people coming or going from the Cite" (p. 253) to 
the "W. boulevards passed through the garden, which was surrounded 
with large cafe's and handsome shops. A few jewellers' and similar 
shops, in the Galtrie de Valois and the Galerie de Beaujolais on the 
E. and N., are still dimly reminiscent of the past, but even among these 
are some 'to let'. The Cafes are popular in summer, when a military 


band plays in the afternoon (see p. 41). The chairs are let at 10 c. 
each ; the benches are free. — At the end of the "W. arcade, at the 
corners of the Rue de Montpensier and the Rue de Beaujolais, is the 
Theatre du Palais-Royal (p. 37), of the same period as the Theatre 
Francais, and originally known as 'The'atre des Petits Comediens du 
Comte de Beaujolais'. Adjoining it, in the Galerie d'Orleans, is a 
large hall containing the collections of the French Colonial Office, in- 
cluding a small commercial museum (daily 2-5, except Sun. & Mon.). 
Behind tfce statue of Eurydice is a small cannon which is fired 
automatically at noon precisely by means of a burning-glass. 

To the N. of the Palais-Royal, in the Rue de Richelieu, is the 
Bttliotheque Nationale (p. 195). 

To the N.E., in the Rue de la Vrilliere (Nos. 1-3), is situated the 
Banque de France (PI. R, 21 ; Til) , formerly a private mansion 
(Hotel de la Vrilliere), built by Mansart in 1635, restored by 
R. Cotte, and subsequently remodelled. It -was the residence of the 
Princesse de Lamballe, and contains a handsome apartment of the 
18th cent, called the Oalerie Doric, which may be visited on 

The Bank of France, founded in 1800, is not a state-institution , but, 
like the Bank of England, is a private joint-stock bank, though subject, 
of course, to the control of the government. It has the sole right of issuing 
notes in France. The cellars contain bullion, diamonds, and other valu- 
ables, worth in all several milliards of francs, guarded with the most 
elaborate precautions. At No. 2 Rue de la Vrilliere is an old house with 
turrets, and a spiral balcony. 

For the adjacent Place des Victoires, see p. 201. 

The Place du Palais -Royal (PL R, 21; II), which faces the 
S. facade of the Palais, invariably presents an animated scene, prin- 
cipally owing to the numbers of omnibuses which traverse it. Almost 
in the centre is a station of the Melropolilain (see Appx., p. 36). 
On the W. side aTe the Grand-Hotel du Louvre, with a restaurant 
on the groundfloor, and, farther on, the Cafe de Rohan; to the E. are 
the Grands Magasins du Louvre (p. 44), and to the S., on the farther 
side of the Rue de Rivoli , the Ministry of Finance, occupying a 
portion of the New Louvre (p. 93). 

The *Rue de Rivoli (PL R, 18, 20, 23; II, III, V), one of the 
main arteries of Paris, was begun in 1802, and was so named in 
honour of Bonaparte's victory ovot the Austrians at Rivoli in 1797. 
It was not completed until 1865, under Napoleon III. Beginning at 
the Place de la Concorde, it runs to the E., parallel with the Seine, 
as far as the Rue St. Antoine, which connects it with the Place de 
la Bastille. The houses in the "W. portion of the street (as far as the 
Louvre) are all modelled on the same lines, i.e. with an arcaded 
gallery below and balconies on the upper stories. 

Following the Rue de Rivoli to the E. from the Palais-Royal, we 
observe on the right, beyond the Finance Ministry, the N. facade of 


the Vieux Louvre (see also the historic plan, p. 93). To the left, 
farther on, and partly concealed by the arcades, is the Temple 
de VOratoire, a church erected by the priests of the Oratoire in 
1621-30, but now used as a Protestant place of worship (p. 50). 
A statue of Admiral Coligny, one of the victims of the Night of 
St. Bartholomew (p. 167), by Ciauk, was erected here in 1889; it 
represents the admiral between Fatherland and Religion. The 
facade of this church is in the Rue St. Honore (pp. 87, 92; No. 145), 
on the site of the former Hotel du Bouchage, where Jean Ohatel 
made an attempt on the life of Henri IV. 

At this point the arcades terminate and the Rue de Rivoli is 
intersected by the Rue du Louvre (PI. R, 20; III), by which we turn 
to the right. Station of the Metropolitan, see Appendix, p. 36. — 
The remainder of the Rue de Rivoli is described at p. 167, and the 
N. portion of the Rue du Louvre at p. 187. 

The S. portion of the Rue du Louvre, which terminates at the 
Seine, passes an open space. To the right we have a good view of 
the E. facade of the Vieux Louvre, with its colonnade (p. 93). In the 
gardens, at the S. E. angle, is the equestrian statue of Velazquez (p. 94). 

Opposite rise the Mairie of the 1st Arrondissement (Louvre) and 
the church of St. Germain-l'Auxerrois. The rose-window in the 
facade of the mairie is the outcome of an ill-judged attempt to make 
it harmonize with the church. The 'Salle des Manages' inside is 
adorned with paintings by Besnard. The tower, which was built 
merely in order to fill up the gap between the two structures, has a 
peal of bells which sound at 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. 

The church of St. Germain-l'Auxerrois (PI. R, 20 ; III), founded 
in the 6th century, dates in its present Gothic form from the 
12- 16th centuries. The facade, which is pierced with a rose- 
window of Flamboyant tracery and flanked by two hexagonal turrets, 
is preceded by a porch. "When the gate is closed visitors are ad- 
mitted by the right side-entrance. — The signal for the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew (Aug. 24th, 1572; p. 104) was given from the 
little bell-tower of this church, to the right of the transept. 

The Interior, to which the lowness of the roof gives a depressed 
character, consists of nave and double aisles. — The large chapel to the 
right of the entrance is closed by modern Gothic woodwork, and contains 
a Tree of Jesse, in stone, of the 14th cent., several paintings, and stained 
glass by Amaury- Duval. The handsome woodwork of the 'Banc d'CEuvre', 
or churchwardens' pew (in the nave, to the left), was designed by Le. Brim 
and Perrault. Behind is a Gothic screen of carved wood, with the Story of 
Christ and the Virgin. — The marble Basin for holy water in the S. tran- 
sept, is by Jouffroy. The pillars of the choir were converted into fluted 
columns in the 18th century. — The fourth chapel to the right of the 
ambulatory, beyond the sacristy, contains monuments to the chancellor 
Etienne d'Aligre (d. 1635) and his son (d. 1677). The chapel beyond the 
apse contains two statues from a mausoleum of the Kostaing family 
(1582-1645). — The "Chamhre des Archives, formerly the treasury, which is 
reached by a spiral staircase, is situated above the side-door on the left of 
the porch (apply to the verger, 9.30-11; fee). This is a paved room dating 
•from the 15th cent., in perfect preservation, with a wooden ceiling and 

92 4. LOUVRE. 

Gothic windows; the cupboards and lamp are of the same period. By the 
left wall is an altar-screen of the 16th century. 

From this church the Rue des Pretres St-Germain-1'Auxerrois leads to 
the S. to the Place de VEcole (PI. R, 20; III), on the right. The gabled 
house here (No. 5), with its king-post, dates from the time of Francis I. ; 
No. 4 is the tavern of 'La Mere Moreaux', noted for brandy 'chinois'. 

Diverging from the Place de l'Ecole on the left is the ancient Rue de 
VArbre-Sec (PI. R, 20; ///), where ihe Hotel des Mousquetaires (No. 4), the 
balcony adorned with a mask, still stands. D'Artagnan (d. 1673), the hero 
of the 'Trois Mousquetaires', is said to have lived here. — Beyond the Rue 
de Rivoli, at the corner of the Rue St. Honore, on the left, is a fountain 
designed by Souf (lot in the place of one which used to stand (under Francis 1.) 
in the middle of the street beside the Croix du Trahoir, an ancient gallows- 
tree. It is ornamented with stalactites and a charming nymph by Boizot 
(an inscription at No. Ill, Rue St. Honore', refers to it). — Nearly opposite, 
Rue St. Honori (p. 87) No. 96, is the site of the house where Moliere was 
born (inscription almost illegible). To the right of the fountain, in the 
same street, is a row of interesting old houses (Maison du Marteau d'Or, 
No. 54, of the 18th cent., with a large circular balcony). Lastly, at No. 33, 
beyond the Rue du Pont-Neuf, the wine-shop 'A lEnfant Jesus' has an 
ancient grille of wrought iron (see p. 23), the design consisting of vine- 
branches, with the monogram of Christ surmounted by the Child. We 
return thence in 5 min. to the Rue du Louvre, by the Rue St. Honore. 

From the S. end of the Rue du Louvre the Pont-Neuf is visible, 
with the statue of Henri IV. (p. 254); beyond it rises the dome of the 
Pantheon (p. 276). 

4. Palace and Galleries of the Louvre. 

The ** Louvre (PI. R, 17, 20; II), the most important public 
building at Paris, both architecturally and on account of its treasures 
of art, rises between the Rue de Rivoli and the Seine. 

The Louvre perhaps derives its name from an ancient rendez-vous of 
wolf-hunters, known as the Zupara, Lupera, or Louverie. It is usually 
supposed that Philip Augustus (1180-1223) erected the first castle here; it 
is at any rate certain that, when that monarch was constructing the new 
city-walls he also built the massive corner-tower of which the founda- 
tions were discovered in 1885 in the cellar below the Museum of Anti- 
quities (p. 96). The plan and extent of the mediaeval chateau were made 
plain by the excavations of 1865 and are now indicated by a white line 
on the ground in the S.W. corner of the Cour du Louvre. It was not, 
however, until the time of Charlei V. (1364-80), who removed his treasury 
and library to it, that the chateau was fitted up in the handsome style 
appropriate to a royal residence. Scarcely a trace of these buildings now 
remains. In 1527 Francis I. (1015-47), an indefatigable builder, tore down 
the old tower and modernized the chateau, and a little later he undertook 
to rebuild it entirely. The growth of the building may be traced in the 
adjoining ffistorical Plan. The works were directed by Pierre Lescotf, 
one of the greatest architects of the early French Renaissance period, who 
was also retained by Henri II. (1547-59) and his successors, until his death 
in 1578. To Lescot is due half the wing to the W. and S. of the Vieux 
Louvre with its frontage on the Seine, and also the adjacent Pavilion du 
Roi on the S. These pavilions' are a distinguishing feature of French 
palaces; they were placed either at the angles or in the centre of the 
facade, and are reminiscent of the mediaeval towers. The rich three- 
storied "Facade in the W. court, the work of Jean Goujon and Paul Ponce, 
is justly considered the most perfect monument of Francis I.'s time. 

t For details regarding the^artiets, see List at the end of the Handbook. 

R~iie d~u Louvre 

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Architecture. 4. LOUVRE. 93 

After the death of Henri II. his widow, Catherine de Midicit (d. 1589) 
daring the reigns of her sons Francis II. (1559-60), Charles IX. (1560-74)' 
and Henri III. (1574-89), continued the erection of the S. wing, and in 
1566-76 P. Chambiges built to her order the so-called 'Petite Galerie', a 
wing originally of one story overlooking the Seine. She next proceeded 
to build the 'Grande Galerie' or Galerie du Bord de l'Eaa, said to have 
been carried out by Thibaut Mitezeau, which was to connect the Louvre 
with the old Palais des Tuileries (p. 67) dating from the same period. 

Henri IV. (1589-1610) employed Louis Mitezeau, the son of Thibaut, to 
add a second story to both the 'Grande Galerie' (extending to the Pavilion 
Lesdiguieres) and the 'Petite Galerie', the execution of the latter work 
being entrusted to Fournier and Coing. This second story forms the present 
Grande Galerie and Galerie d'Apollon. The extension of the gallery to 
the Pavilion de Flore was also accomplished during the latter part of 
Henri IV.'s reign (see, however, p. 94). 

Operations on a grander scale were conceived by Louis XIII. (1610-43). 
Hitherto the original proportions had been adhered to, the new buildings 
merely replacing the original structures on two sides of the quadrangle. 
But now the scope of the undertaking was quadrupled. The king's choice 
of architects fell on Jacques Lemercier, and in 1624 he laid the foundation- 
stone of the Pavilion de l'Horloge, in the centre of the new W. wing. 
The eight caryatides which adorn it were executed by J. Sarazin. The 
W. wing was completed by Lemercier, who also began the N. wing. 

Under Louis XIV. (1643-1715) Louis Levau (d. 1670) succeeded Lemercier 
in 1659; he rebuilt the Galerie d'Apollon after its destruction by fire in 1661. 
Various architects, among them Bernini, who was summoned from Rome, 
were consulted as to the design of the great B. facade. Eventually the 
work was entrusted to Claude Perrault, a physician, whose imposing 
"Colonnade, consisting of twenty-eight Corinthian columns in pairs, is 
scarcely in keeping with the older parts of the edifice. Perrault designed 
also the facade looking towards the Seine. In 1676 the work was suspended 
and soon afterwards was almost entirely abandoned. The 'Grand Monarque 
had lost interest in everything but his palace of Versailles. His successors 
too, preferred Versailles or the Tuileries to the Louvre. 

The completion of the Louvre was not seriously resumed until 
Napoleon I. came to the throne. In 1805 he ordered a thorough restoration 
of the edifice, and commanded his architects, Perrier and Fontaine, to con- 
struct a N. connecting-gallery between the Tuileries and the Louvre. This 
wing had been completed as far as the Pavilion de Rohan (see p. 94) 
when the Emperor was deposed. In 1848, after another period of inactivity, 
the original plan of connecting the Louvre and the Tuileries was once 
more proceeded with. On July 25th, 1852, Napoleon III. undertook the 
erection of the new buildings, employing for the purpose Visconti (d. 1853) 
and then Le/uel, who completed the N. gallery in 1857, at a cost of 
36 million francs (840,000 1.). Finally, the S. gallery (next the Seine), 
greatly enlarged and, in its W. portion entirely remodelled, was completed 
(1863-68). The latter's rich, but somewhat heavy facades, with their pro- 
jecting domed pavilions, their Corinthian columns, their porticos and 
caryatides, their 86 statues of celebrated Frenchmen, and their 63 groups 
ot allegorical statues, harmonize in their general arrangement only with 
the Vieux Louvre. — All these buildings taken together constitute the 
largest and most splendid palace in the world, embracing a superficial 
area of about 45 acres, or three times as great as the Vatican including 
St. Peter's. They consist of two main divisions: the Vieux Louvre, the 
four wings of which enclose the large E. court, and the Nouveau Louvre, 
comprising the two palaces on the N. and S. of the Square du Louvre and 
the wings extending to the pavilions of the Tuileries on the W. 

Since 1793 the Old Louvre has been used as a Museum. Part of 
the S. wing of the New Louvre also contains collections, the rest of 
the building being chiefly occupied by the Ministere des Finances. 


4. LOUVRE. Galleries. 

A pleasant stroll, before or after visiting the Galleries, may be enjoyed 
in the Jardin des Tuileries. The magnificent vista of the Place de la Con- 
corde and the Champs-Elyse'es (see p. 69) is well seen from here. A walk 
along the Quai du Louvre, whence the facades on the S. of the Louvre 
can be seen, should also not be omitted. The central portion, the palace 
built by Catherine de Medecis in 1556-76, is the finest, embodying as it 
does all the charm of the early French Renaissance. The W. wing, too, 
towards the Pavilion de Flore (p. 07), has preserved features dating from 
Henri IWs time, in spite of the alterations which it underwent at the 
bands of Napoleon III. The passage connecting the two blocks between 
the Place du Carrousel and the Pont du Carrousel was constructed under 
Napoleon HI. Flanking the entrance opposide the Pont des Saints-Peres 
are colossal statues symbolising the Mercantile Marine and the Navy, by 
Jouffroy: above, the Genius of the Arts, a bronze figure by Mercii, in high- 
relief. The entrance on the opposite side, in the Rue de Rivoli, facing the 
Rue de Rohan, is under the Pavilion de Rohan, the gilded facade of which is 
adorned with eight statues of generals, including that of Marceau, by J. Thomas. 

The small gardens on the outside of the Vieux Louvre are adorned with 
monuments of artists. To the left, in front of the colonnade, is an eques- 
trian statue of Yelazquez (1599-16G0), by Fre"miet; farther to the left is the 
monument of Fr. Boucher (1703-70), by Aube", then that of Raffet (1804-60), 
with the drummer from his 'Review of the Dead', by Fre'miet; and 
beyond that is a fine monument to Meissonier (1815-91), by Mercie. — 
Below the first window on this side, coming from the garden, is a hand- 
some gilded balcony with the monogram of Louis and Anne of Austria. 
Near it was the window whence Charles IX. is said to have fired on the 
Huguenots on the Night of St. Bartholomew. 

For Restaurants in the neighbourhood of the Louvre, see p. 19. 


The Louvre Collections are open gratis to the public daily, except 
Mondays, New Year's Day, Ascension Day, July 14th (Fete Nationale), 
and, unless they happen to fall on a Sunday, Assumption (Aug. 15th), All 
Saints (Nov. 1st), and Christmas Day. The picture and sculpture galleries 
are open in summer (April lst-Sept. 30th) 9 a.m. -5 p.m. on week-days, 
and 1U-4 on Sun. and holidays; in winter daily 10-4; nearly all the other 
collections, including the Rothschild Donation (p. 155), from 11 to 4 or 5. 
The sole exception to this rule is the Gallery of Casts (Salle des Haulages, 
p. 86), which is open only on Tues. and Sat. 1-4 or 5 p.m. 

The best time for visiting the galleries is as early as possible in the 
morning, as they are often crowded in the afternoon, particularly on Sun- 
days. On dark and foggy days the museum is occasionally closed. — 
Overcoats, sticks, and umbrellas may be left in the vestiaires at the 
principal entrances (fee optional). Visitors should notice where their 
belongings are placed. Ten minutes after closing-time all articles not 
claimed are taken to the foot of the Escalier Henri It. (not the grand- 
staircase). — Conveniences for the use of visitors are to be found off the 
Galerie Mollien and Rtt. VII and IX of the picture-gallery (comp. Plans); 
keys kept by the custodians. 

Persons desiring to copy in the Louvre or Luxembourg apply to the 
Administration des Musics, the office of which i3 in the S.W. angle of the 
court of the Vieux Louvre (PI. M). The conditions and regulations are 
posted up in the various galleries. 

The director of the National Museums is M. Homolle, the well-known 
archaeologist. Departmental keepers : MM. Hiron de Villefosse (Greek and 
Roman Antiquities), Pierrel (Egyptian Antiquities), Lafenester (Paintings, 
Drawings, and Engravings), Heuzey (Oriental Antiquities and Antique 
Pottery) Michel (Mediffival, Renaissance, and Modern Sculpture), and Migeon 
(Objects of Art). 

The history of the "Louvre Collections dates from the time of the 
French monarchs of the Renaissance of the 16th cent., who were not only 

Galleries. 4. LOUVRE. 95 

intimately connected with Italy in their political relations , but paid 
enthusiastic homage to Italian culture. Foremost among patrons of art 
and collectors was Francis I. He summoned several Italian artists to his 
court, and it was an open secret that the way to gain his favour was to 
beg his acceptance of some work of art. More than once he essayed to 
enlist the services of Michael Angelo and he cheiished the desire of forming 
a collection of casts of antique masterpieces. His efforts, however, were 
but partly successful. It was not until the accession of Louis XIV., whose 
ambition it was to sbine in every sphere, that it became the fashion both 
with persons of the highest rank and members of the middle class (like 
Crozat), to make collections of treasures of art. The royal collections, 
known collectively as the 'Cabinet du Roi', which included even at the 
beginning of the 17th cent, a number of very valuable pictures, was en- 
riched by the addition of 647 paintings and 60U0 drawings, acquired princi- 
pally through the purchase of collections belonging to Cardinal Mazarin and 
the banker Jabach. In 1710 the oil-paintings numbered 2376. The Revolution 
converted the Louvre into a museum, and it was thus that the idea of 
centralising the art collections of the country took shape. Various treasures 
distributed throughout the royal palaces, in churches, and in the suppressed 
monasteries were united here, and the museum was opened in 1793. At 
length, when the French armies returned to Paris from Italy, the Nether- 
lands, and Germany, laden with treasures of art, the Louvre Collection 
became par excellence the museum of Europe and was so celebrated under 
the name of the 'Musfe Napoleon', that the Allies in 1814 did not venture 
to restore its treasures to their former owners. The act of restitution was, 
however, performed in 1815, but many fine paintings and statues still 
remained in Paris, and the collections of the Louvre can still boast of 
being the most extensive and valuable on the continent. They have 
moreover constantly been increased by purchases, such as the Tochon 
and Durand collections of antique vases, in 1818 and 1825; those of Revoil 
(1828) and Campana (1862; 200 Italian paintings and numerous antique 
vases); and by gifts and bequests, like those of Sauvageot, Thiers, Davillier, 
Lenoir, Grandidier, and specially La Gaze (1809; 275 pictures). In 1992 the 
Alfred de Rothschild Donation (p. 155) wes installed here, and in 1903 the 
Thomy-Thiiry Collection (p. 162). 

The rooms of the Louvre are so numerous that it takes 2 hrs. to 
walk through them all without stopping. The visitor should par- 
ticularly note that the Ground Floor contains the Sculptures and the 
Engravings; the First Floor the Pictures, the Smaller Antiquities, 
the Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern Art Objects, the Drawings, 
and various small collections; the Second Floor the Thomy-Thiery 
Collection (paintings and bronzes), the continuation of French 
Paintings of the 19lh Century, the Musee de Marine, the Musee 
Ethnographique, and the Musee Chinois. 

Visitors who have only a short time to devote to he Galleries 
should begin with the Antique Sculptures (p. 96) and the Pictures 
(p. 116), which are the first to be opened (see p. 94). It will save 
time to adhere closely to the following order of proceeding through 
the rooms, though it should be borne in mind that changes in the 
arrangement are not infrequent. 

Entrances. Most of the Galleries have special entrances (see 
the enumeration at pp. vii, viii), which are shown on the Plans, and 
which we indicate where necessary. The Principal Entrance, leading 
to the Gallery of Antique Sculpture and to the First Floor (Picture 
GallcTy), is ia the Pavilion Denon (PI. G, groundfloor), in the court 

96 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor : 

of the New Louvre, on the side next the Seine. The descriptions 
below and at p. 116 begin here. 


The ** Collection of Ancient Sculpture (Musee des Marbrea An- 
tiques), though inferior to the great Italian collections, boasts a 
number of works of the highest rank. We mention only the most 
important sculptures. 

The brief official catalogue of the antique sculptures (comprising over 
3000 Nos.), by A. Hiron de Tillefosse, with illustrations and indexes (1896), 
costs 1 fr. 85 c. The numbers appear on the left side of the sculptures, 
but are sometimes lacking. It may also be noted that the labels give the 
origin of the specimens in large letters in the first line, not the subject of 
the sculpture. Frequent changes. 

In the Vestibule Denon is a cloak-room [optional; comp. p. 94). 
— To the right is the Galebie Mollien (XXVIII), which contains 
reproductions in bronze of antique statues, executed in the 16-18th 
centuries at Fontainebleau and Rome, ancient statues, more or less 
mutilated, Byzantine mosaics, found near Tyre, in Phoenicia, antique 
sarcophagi, etc. At the end is a staircase ascending to the French 
department of the Picture Gallery (PI. K; see p. 138). 

Opposite the entrance to the left is the Salle des Moulages, containing 
a collection of casts for the use of students (hours of admission, see p. 94). 
This room was the riding-school of the Prince Imperial under the Second 
Empire. Visitors may proceed through this room to the Chalcographie and 
the Collection Grandidier (p. 166). 

"We turn to the left in the vestibule and enter the — 
Galebie Dbnon (XXVI), where bronze copies from the antique 
(see above), sarcophagi, and mutilated antiquities are exhibited. 

Sarcophagi. On the left, 341. Cupids forging their arms; 438. Tritons 
and Nereids; 490. Prometheus creating Man; 85. Apollo and Marsyas; no 
number, Combat of Amazons; three sarcophagi (no numbers): Phsedra and 
Hippolytus , Daedalus and Pasiphae, and Death of Meleager. On the right 
(as we return), 1335. Selene and Endymion ; no numbers, Myth of Actseon ; 
Scenes from the life of Achilles ; 476. The Muses (on the lid, Banquet ; right 
side, Muse with a philosopher or poet; left side, Muse with Socrates); 1346. 
Bacchus and Ariadne. 

We next reach the Escalier Dabu, or Grand Escalier, which 
ascends to the Picture Gallery (p. 116). 

The Salle d'Afkiqtje (XXV), to the right of the staircase, 
contains Antiquities from Northern Africa, including sculptures, 
numerous inscriptions, fine mosaics, Roman lamps, etc. In the 
centre, Draped female figure (Cyrene); 1888 (left, under glass), Bust 
of Ptolemy, King of Mauretania; 1783. Head of Medusa in profile 
(admirable Greek work); 1838 (entrance- wall, to the right), Relief 
with three Elements : Heaven, Earth, and Water (found at Carthage); 
a nearly similar relief, from the Ara Pacis (see p. 97) is preserved 
at Florence. Mosaics (no numbers) : opposite the 2nd window, Ser- 
vants preparing a feast (Carthage); almost opposite. the 3rd window, 
Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite (Constantine) ; below, Venus 
In her bark, surrounded by Cupids (Utica). , — We now descend either 



10 SO 30 *0 5Q 



A . Entree des salles des antiquities 

eyyptiennes . 
B .Entree des salles desantiovites 

(isiatjques . 
C . Entree du musee desmarbres 

antiques, grecs et romcdns. 

D . Entree du musee des sculptures 
duMoyen,-Age et de loiRerudss. 

E . Entree thb naaee des sculp- 
tures modernes. 

F . Entree de la, ChalafgrapMe et 
de la collection Grandidier. 

(r. Entree' des musees du ITetage 

et des marines antiques. 
H . Escatier des musees d'antbquites 

egjptietvnes etgreegues, etc . 
I . Escatier du musee du Moyen - 

Age etdeUt Renaissance, etc . 
J . Escah'erFenri IT (collection la 

Caze, musee de peinfure, etc.) . | 
K . Escatier des gaieties trancaises 

et sortie de la Grande Galerie. 
li . Direction des musees mxtionaiu:. | 
M. Eureaux de I' administratian. . / 


NEscalier Henri W, sortie quand il r a fbuZe. 
Nota.-iar salles indiguees id agauehe surle quai ne sont 
pas au rez-de-chaussee, mais a une sarte de second entresol , 
sous la Grande Galerie. 

Ancient Sculptures. 4. LOUVRE. 97 

side of the staircase. On the left side: 1339. Tutor and Niobid freely 
restored (from Soissons). Below the staircase is the — 

Salle des Pbisonniers (XX), in which are collected 
inscriptions, reliefs, sculptures in coloured marble, etc. 1056. Seated 
figure of Minerva, restored as Roma, in red porphyry, the flesh-parts 
in bronze gilt (modern) ; to the left, No number, Minerva, in oriental 
alabaster; 1381, 1383, 1385. Statues of captive barbarians; 1354. 
So-called African fisherman, in black marble, wrongly restored as 
Seneca; 438. Porphyry bath; 1389. Chair in red marble. In the 
middle is a large Roman mosaic with rustic scenes and occupations. 

Rotonde (XIII), the 1st room looking on to the court, with fine 
decorations in stucco by Michel Anguier (1653) and ceiling-paintings 
by Mauzaisse, representing the Creation of Man. In the centre, *866. 
Borghese Mars (formerly called Achilles), in Pentelic marble. In the 
first window-niche, fine Greek reliefs. By the central window: 672. 
Borghese Tripod-Base, called also Altar of the Twelve Gods, archaistic, 
with representations of the gods, the Fates, the Graces, and the 
Hours. In front, to the right, 884. Archaic Apollo ; to the left, 889. 
Statue of a pugilist (archaic). By the next window : 666. So-called 
Astrological Altar from Gabii, with the heads of the twelve Olympian 
deities and the signs of the zodiac. At the entrance to the Salle 
Grecque : 867. Female head, a Greek original of the Phidian age ; 
931. Head of Ares (Mars) ; 926. Sepulchral statue of a woman, Greek. 

By the entrance to the room on the right (XIV), *922. Silenus 
with the Infant Bacchus, known as the 'Faune a l'Enfant', of the 
end of the 4th cent. B.C., perhaps after Lysippus. 

This is one of the most attractive of those representations from the satyr 
world which were so much in vogue during the later period of Greek art. 
The guardian seems to be pacifying the child by his looks and kindly 
gestures, while the child smiles to him and raises his left hand caressingly. 
An air of perfect repose and content pervades the whole group, and 
the effect is enhanced by the admirable ease and finish of the execution. 

To the right of the Silenns, 920. Roman portrait-head of an 
old man. 

Turning to the right, we now enter a suite of apartments in the 
wing erected by Catherine de Medicis (p. 93). The archway leading 
to the first room is embellished with a relief by Chaudet, represent- 
ing Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. 

Salle db Mboene (XIV ; formerly so called), with ceiling-paint- 
ings by Meynier (the World receiving from Hadrian and Justinian 
laws dictated by Nature, Justice, and Wisdom) ; the arches by Bien- 
noury ('Sculpture'). Roman reliefs. In the middle, reconstruction 
of a large altar which stood in front of a temple of Neptune at Rome 
(dedicated by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus about 35 B.C.). The left 
side only, with a relief of the sacrifice of the Suovetaurilia, is an- 
cient; the other three sides are casts from the frieze of the bridal 
procession of Poseidon and Amphitrite in the Glyptothek at Munich. 
By the second window to the left: 1088. Procession of seven adults 

Baedekeb. Paris^kilfc~***"i 7 

98 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor: 

and two children, a fragment of the AraPacis erected by Augustus at 
Rome in B.C. 13-9 (other fragments -at Rome and Florence). 

The next four rooms chiefly contain sculptures of the Roman 
imperial epoch and are comparatively unimportant. The ceiling- 
paintings, however, are noteworthy. 

Salle dbs Saisons (XV), with ceiling by Romanelli (1617-62; 
Diana with Apollo, Actaeon, andEndymion; Apollo, Marsyas, and 
the Muses; the Seasons). In the centre, 1121. Statue of Julian the 
Apostate, in marble (found at Paris, see p. 274). To the right, 1021. 
Bust of Constantine the Great (?). 1023. Slaying of a bull in honour 
of Mithras, the Persian god of the sun, found at the Capitol. 

Salle de la Pais (XVI), with ceiling by Romanelli (Peace as 
the fruit of War; Peace and Agriculture). Door of 1658. In the 
centre, 1075. Statue of Mammaea, mother of Alexander Severus, as 
Ceres. — The eight granite columns at the entrance and exit of 
this room belonged to the part of Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral built 
by Charlemagne, and were brought to Paris in 1794. 

Salle de Severe (XVII), with ceiling by Romanelli (Poetry and 
History celebrating the warlike fame of Rome ; Rape of the Sablnes ; 
Continence of Scipio ; Cincinnatus ; Mucius Scaevola). Extensive 
collection of busts of Roman emperors and empresses from Corn- 
modus to Caracalla, named with the help of coins and medals. In 
the middle, 1009. Roman married pair in the characters of Mars and 
Venus. To the right of this group (no number): Bust of Antinous 
(see below; the face partially restored). By the first window to the 
left: 996. Colossal head of Caracalla, found in Macedonia. 

Salle des Antonins (XVIII). In the middle, 1133. Colossal 
statue restored as Marcus Aurelius. In front of it, *1205. Colossal 
Bust of Antinous in the character of Osiris (from the Villa Mondra- 
gone, near Frascati). Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian, was deified 
after drowning himself in the Nile. The expression of the youth is 
grave and pensive; the holes in the serpentine crown and the fillet 
were for the insertion of the divine attributes. To the left, 1171. 
Colossal head of Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus, found at Carthage in 
1847. Here also are statues of Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, 
Marcus Aurelius, ^Elius Caesar, Lucius Verus, etc., and numerous 
busts (several repetitions). — The ceiling-paintings of the first 
division, by Romanelli, represent Religion and the Theological 
Virtues, Genii, Judith, Moderation, Prudence, etc. Those of the 
second division are the French Hercules, by Hennequin; Victory and 
the Arts, by Lethi'ere ; Esther and Ahasuerus, by Romanelli ; Study 
and Fame, by Peyron, etc. — To the right is the — 

Salle d'Augustb (XIX). Busts and statues of the early Roman 
emperors are exhibited here. In the middle row : *1204. Head of a 
Hellenistic Ruler (probably Antiochus III. ; not Julius Caesar); 1003. 
Colossal bust of Maecenas. — *1207. Roman Orator, formerly called 

Ancient Sculptures. 4. LOUVRE. 99 

Germanicus, of ideal conception, though realistic in execution. It 
is inscribed with the name of the sculptor Cleomenes of Athens (on 
the tortoise at the foot) and belongs to the period of the revival of 
Greek art under the early Roman emperors. — 1208. Bust of 
Agrippa; 1209. Colossal bust of Roma, with Romulus and Remus on 
the sides of the helmet, each suckled by a she-wolf. In the middle 
of the end-wall, in a niche : *1212. Statue of Augustus, with finely 
executed draperies; in front, 1210, 1211. Two Young Romans with 
the Bulla (a gold medallion worn by young patricians). Along the 
sides of the hall : Statues and busts of the Julian emperors and 
empresses ; some of the female heads are executed with great delicacy. 
— Modern ceiling by Matout (Assembly of the Gods). 

We now return to the Rotonde (p. 97) , whence we enter the 
other rooms to the right. 

The *Sallb Gkecciue, or Salle de Phidias (XII), contains works 
of the culminating period of Greek plastic art, and that immediately 
before and after it (5th cent. B.C.). Everything here is worthy of 
careful inspection, though for the most part sadly mutilated. 

In the centre , three mutilated statues , in the archaic style : 
*686. Juno, from Samos. This statue, of which the head is missing, 
illustrates the primitive type of idols, which were at first carved in 
wood, with the arms close to the body, the lower portion being barely 
more'^than a round column. . The folds of the drapery alone impart 
a little life to the bust of this rigid figure. An inscription on the front 
names Cheramyes as the donor. 687, 688. Two male torsos (6th cent. 
B.C.), found in the shrine of Apollo at Actium, both in the style of 
the so-called archaic statues of Apollo, i.e. a youth (ephebos) standing 
up, with left leg advanced. — Adjoining it, under glass, 691. Head 
of Apollo (after an original of the 5th cent. B.C.); 695. Archaic 
head, with wreath and traces of colour (6th cent. B.C.). 

To the right, below , by the wall next to the Rotonde : *696. 
Three Reliefs from the Island of Thasos, found in 1864. 

These three reliefs originally formed one whole, which, as we learn 
from the ancient inscriptions, belonged to a sanctuary sacred to Apollo, the 
Charities (Graces), and the Nymphs. The inscription in larger letters at 
the top is of later origin, and'refers to the use of the reliefs in adorning 
a tomb in the Roman period. From each side of the central niche step 
four goddesses , holding garlands and blossoms in their hands ; those on 
the left are accompanied by Apollo, those on the right by Hermes. In 
form and movement the stiffness and angularity of the archaic school are 
still visible, but the vitality and variety of the motives, as well as the 
fine arrangement and execution of the drapery, betoken the period of 
transition to a more perfect style. The work thus probably dates from 
the end of the 6th or the beginning of the 5th cent. B.C. 

Above : *738. Fragment of the Frieze of the Parthenon, the cel- 
ebrated temple of Athena on the Acropolis at Athens, executed by 
Phidias and his pupils. 

The frieze, which ran round the walls of the temple within the colon- 
nade , represents the festive procession which ascended to the Acropolis 
after the Panathensean games for the purpose of presenting the goddess 


100 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor: 

with the peplos, or rohe woven and embroidered by Athenian virgins. 
The rest of the reliefs are in London and Athens. The fragment preserved 
here represents young Athenian girls with vessels, and two priests, advan- 
cing in solemn procession. 

Still higher : *736. Metope from the Parthenon (much mutilated), 
representing a Centaur carrying off a woman, probably by one of the 
pupils who assisted Phidias in the decoration of the Parthenon. — 
To the right and left, 716, 717. Hercules subduing the Cretan Bull, 
and bringing to Athena one of the Stymphalian birds, two metopes 
from the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (ca. 460 B. C; excavated by the 
French in 1829). Other fragments of this temple (found by the 
Germans in 1875-81) are now in the museum at Olympia. Compared 
with Attic sculptures, these works are somewhat deficient in grace, 
but they are full of freshness and vigour. 

Below, to the left: *854. Attic relief (dating from shortly after 
Phidias) of Hermes, Orpheus, and Eurydice, an admirable example 
of the simple and yet majestic style of the best period of Greek art. 

'Orpheus was permitted to bring back bis wife Eurydice from the 
infernal regions to the light of day on condition that he should not look 
at her on the way; but he failed to fulfil the condition. Hermes, the 
leader of the dead, gently, but firmly grasps the hand of Eurydice to con- 
duct her back to the empire of shades. In this simple and beautiful com- 
position are traceable a whole series of different phases of hope and pain. 
The advance of the procession, the turning round of Orpheus , the confi- 
dential communing of the pair, the halt, and the impending return of 
Eurydice are all distinctly portrayed'. Kikuli. — There are replicas of 
the work at Naples and Rome. The inscription 'Zetus, Antiope, Amphion' 
over the figures is of the Renaissance period. 

To the right of the first window on the side next the Seine : 
*766. Tomb Relief of Philis, daughter of Cleomedes, from Thasos. 

The deceased is here represented, as was the custom on Attic steles, 
in a scene of daily life, with a jewel-ease in her baud. A peculiar charm 
is lent to this relief by the faint lingering characteristics of archaic Greek 
art and by the simple and natural feeling of the representation. 

Above, 701. Tomb-relief of two girls with flowers (from Phar- 

This work stands on the border between the archaic and the developed 
style. It is marked by a tender and naive naturalism, but is inferior in 
delicacy of execution to contemporary Attic works. 

697. Archaic relief from the arm of a throne, with Agamemnon 
and his heralds, Talthybius and Epeius (from Samothrace). — Glass- 
case containing fragments from the temple at Olympia (ca. 
460 B.C.). — Between the windows : 855. Torso of a youthful hero, 
formerly called Alexander the Great or Inopus (a river-god on the 
island of Delos, where the statue was found). 692. Head of Apollo. 
By the 2nd window, 831. Marble Stele, brought from Athens by 
Choiseul-Gouffier, with one of the most ancient Greek inscriptions 
in the Louvre. It records the sums spent by the treasurers of the 
Parthenon in the archonship of Glaucippus (410 and 409 B. C). 
Above, Athena, the sacred olive-tree, and a representative of the 
Attic people; on the walls, votive bas-reliefs; to the right, 857. 
Lion pulling down a bull. By the third window, funeral bas-reliefs. 

Ancient Sculptures. 4. LOUVRE. 101 

In front of the end-wall, 765. Fragment of a sepulchral couch, 
found in Macedonia. 

On the side next the court, in the entrance: 850. Head of a 
youth (from Cos) ; 848. Bust of a veiled woman (so-called Aspasia); 
847. Minerva from Crete (perhaps a copy of a statue hy Alkamenes, 
a pupil of Phidias). By the window, inscriptions and small reliefs. 
— To the right of the window : 830. Head of a Greek athlete, called 
Theseus ; 829. Female figure (not a daughter of Niohe). 

Paintings on the ceiling and walls : Diana and Jupiter, by Frud'hon ; 
Hercules receiving from Diana the stag with the golden horns, by Oar- 
nier; Diana restoring to Aricia Hippolytns resuscitated by jEseulapius, by 
Mirimte. Sculptures: Bas-reliefs by Cartellier, Espercieux, and Foucou; 
casts of Jean GoujoiCi sculptures on the Escalier Henri II (p. 105). 

We proceed in a straight direction, leaving the Salle des Cari- 
atides (p. 104) on the left, and the Salle du Tibre (p. 103) on the right. 

Corridor de Pan (H), rather dark. To the right, between two 
columns : 266. Sitting figure of Pan, of poor workmanship and freely 

Sallb du Saroophage de Medee (III) , so called from a sarco- 
phagus which used to be here, and is now to be placed with the 
others in the Galerie Denon (p. 96). By the wall : 286. Satyr playing 
with a panther, a fine bas-relief in the Greek style. 

Salle de l'Hermafhrodite de Velletri (IV). In the window 
recess : 323. Hermaphrodite of Velletri (comp. p. 104). 324. Wounded 
Gaul, replica of a statue from one of the groups representing battles 
of Giants, Amazons, Persians, and Gauls, dedicated by Attalus II. of 
Pergamum and placed on the Acropolis at Athens. 

Salle du Sarcophage d' Adonis (V). 345. Statuette of Euripides, 
with a list of his works. — In the entrance to the next room, to the 
left, 366. Statue of Aphrodite in Coi'c raiment, probably after 
Praxiteles (inscription on the base). 

Salle db Psyche (VI). To the right : 371. Psyche (freely restored), 
between busts of the youthful Hercules (378; wrongly called Om- 
phale) and Perseus, King of Macedonia (381). To the left, two 
line marble chairs. To the right and left of the entrance, 387. Ath- 
lete anointing himself with oil, 375. Victorious athlete (with the 
palm). At the entrance to the end-room, Venus of Falerona, in the 
same pose as the Venus of Milo. 

Sallb db la Venus db Milo (VH), dedicated to the ** Venus of 
Milo, the most celebrated of the treasures of the Louvre. 

'How great, how beautiful and noble is this Venus ! . . . What a vague 
and divine smile rests on these parted lips ; what a superhuman glance is shed 
by this sightless eye! . . . The arms are missing, but it seems as though, 
if they were found, Ihey would be a hindrance to our enj oyment by masking 
the vision of this superb bust and noble bosom. And it was a small island- 
temple that harboured this glorious masterpiece by an unknown sculptor 
worthy of the greatest period of Hellenic art 1' {Thiophile Oautier). 

The statue was found in 1820 by a peasant in the island of Melos, 
now Milo, at the entrance to the Greek Archipelago, and sold for 6000 fr. 

102 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor: 

to the French government.' It is a work of the 2nd cent. B. C, but is 
evidently inspired by the ideas of an older school, contemporary with the 
schools of Praxiteles and Scopas (4th cent. B.C.), though with a very different 
style from either. 

Venus is supposed to have been holding a shield and gazing at her 
reflection in the polished surface. Among various fragments found with 
the statue were part of a left arm and a left hand, the closed fingers of 
which hold an apple (now preserved in a glass-case by the first window 
to the left) ; and this has naturally led some of the French critics to suppose 
that this Aphrodite (like the Venus of Aries, see below) held an apple in 
her uplifted left hand and her drapery with the right. The fragments in 
question are, however, of inferior workmanship to the torso, so that they 
are probably either altogether unconnected with it, or belonged to an 
ancient attempt to restore the work. 

Salle de la Melpomene (VIII). By the wall at the back: 411. 
Melpomene, one of the largest ancient statues in existence (13 ft. 
in height), from Rome, and probably from Pompey's Theatre. — 
The large mosaic in front, by Francois Belloni (after Ge"rard), re- 
presents Minerva, Peace, and Plenty. — To the right and left of 
Melpomene : 420, 414. Statues of Venus restored as EuteTpe. To 
the right, by the back-window, 421. Replica of the head of the 
Cnidian Venus of Praxiteles. To the right of the exit, *419. Ideal 
Female Head. 

Salle de la Pallas de Velletri (IX). In the centre : *436. 
Bust of Alexander the Great, probably after Lysippus ; *437. Venus 
of Aries, found in 1651 at Aries in Provence, and perhaps a replica 
of an early work by Praxiteles. — **440. Head of Homer (upper 
part of a hermes). 

*441. Apollo Sauroctonus, 'the lizard-slayer', a copy of a work 
by Praxiteles ; the right hand originally held a dart. 

'The easy attitude, the charming abandon of the figure almost femi- 
nine in its forms, the ideal beauty of the countenance, the perfect pro- 
portion of the limbs are so many distinctive marks of the genius of the 
great Athenian sculptor'. (Froehner.) 

442. Vase of Sosibius, with a curious representation of a festive 
dance of two Maenads and a Satyr round a sacrificial altar , with 
Diana, Apollo, Mercury, and Mars. 

By the wall , in the centre : *464. Pallas of Velletri, a Roman 
copy of a Greek bronze original of the 5th cent. B.C., found in 1797 
at Velletri near Rome. In the right hand (badly restored) was a 
spear, in the left perhaps a cup or a small Nike (Victoria). To the 
left of the entrance, 444. Statue restored as Urania. — By the 
window-wall, 508. Circular base with representations of Luna and 
Oceanus. In the window-niche to the left, 510. Ideal female head 
(Greek). — At the entrance to the next room, 522. So-called Ata- 
lanta, more probably a wrongly restored Diana. 

Salle du Heeos Combattant (X). In the centre : *525. Aphro- 
dite (named 'Venus Genitrix' from a medal), a good Roman copy of 
a Greek work of the 5th cent, attributed to Alkamenes (found at 
Frejus). 526. Hercules or Theseus (bust). 

*627. Borghese Gladiator ('He'ros Combattant'), found at Antium. 

Ancient Sculptures. 4. LOUVRE. 103 

The inscription records that it was executed by 'Agasias, son of 
Dositheos of Ephesus', a sculptor of the late republican or early im- 
perial epoch, who seems to have here reproduced a work of the end 
of the 4th century. 

The right arm is modern , while the left arm with the strap of the 
shield is preserved. Opposite the hero we must suppose an Amazon on 
horseback or standing on a rock above , against whom he is defending 
himself with his shielded left arm, while his right is drawn back to deal 
a heavier blow with his sword. The mouth is open, as if the hero, like 
Homer's warriors, were reviling his adversary. The expression of the 
face is indicative of a supreme and yet controlled effort of strength. The 
simultaneous acts of defence and attack are admirably expressed. 

528. Faun of Vienne (where it was found in 18'20), known as 
the 'Faune a, la tache' ; traces of red pigment are still visible in the 
hair, and two small horns spring from the forehead. — *529. Diana of 
Oabii, probably a 'genre' work representing a girl finishing her toilet, 
after Praxiteles. 

To the right, in retracing our steps : 573. Mercury (called the 
'Richelieu Mercury', from its having belonged to the Cardinal) ; 
*562. Borghese Centaur, or Ce»taur subdued by Cupid, resem- 
bling the Capitoline Centaur (a copy of which may be seen in the 
Galerie Denon, p. 96), but bearing a Cupid on his back; 552. Wound- 
ed Amazon (freely restored). On the other side : 530. Minerva Paci- 
fica; 535. Fine head of Ganymede or Paris; 536. Cupid and Psyche. 
Middle of the wall, opposite the window : *542. Marsyas bound to 
the trunk of a tree, in order to be flayed alive at Apollo's command ; 
*544. Bust of a Man , an admirable Greek work of the time of 
Lysippus ; 545. Cupid. 

Salle du Tibbk (XI). In the centre : 588. Unknown Greek Poet. 
— *589. Diane Chasseresse, or Diana of Versailles, probably a re- 
plica of a work of the time of Praxiteles and Scopas. 

The goddess, walking fast, seizes an arrow. She is looking round as if 
in search of fresh game. The expression of the face is grave, the forehead high 
and severe, the eyes eager. The roe running beside her heightens the 
impression of the rapid strides of the goddess. — This statue bears some 
resemblance to the Apollo Belvedere, though less masterly in execution. 

*593. Colossal God of the Tiber, recumbent, with Romulus and 
Remus and the she-wolf by his side, probably a work of the early 
Roman empire, an admirable companion to the celebrated group of 
the Nile in the Vatican (reproduction in the Tuileries Garden, p. 66). 
On the left and right: 595, 594. Flute-playing Satyrs. — Behind, 
597-600. Four colossal Satyrs bearing a frieze (Greek). 

To the left, on the window-side: 677. Head of a satyr ('Faun of 

By the last window : *664. Fragment of a replica of the Besting 
Satyr of Praxiteles ; 665. Smaller copy of the same torso. In the 
recess to the right of the entrance: 660. So-called Zingarella, a 
statue of Diana, with head, arms, and feet in bronze (modern). — Iii 
front of the window : 2240. Crouching Venus, from Sainte Colombe, 

104 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor: 

near Vienne (another opposite, found at Tyre; on the backs of both 
statues are traces of a Cupid's hand). 

Rear wall: 622. Resting Bacchus ; 639. ^Esculapius; 640. 'Jupiter 
Talleyrand', archaistic. 

Salle des Cabiatides (I), so-called from the caryatides at the 
other end, originally an ante-chamber of the apartments of Catherine 
de Medicis. 

Here, on Aug. 19th, 1572, the Princess Margaret of Valois, sister of 
Charles IX., was married to the young Protestant King of Navarre (after- 
wards Henri IV. of France). Admiral Coligny and many other Huguenot 
leaders were present at the ceremony. Five days later, on the Eve of 
St. Bartholomew (Aug. 23rd), Charles IX., at the instigation of his mother, 
Catherine de Medicis, gave the order for the massacre of the Huguenots 
and the arrest of King Henri. It was in this saloon that the Ligue held 
its meetings in 1593, and that the Due de Guise (reconciled with Henri 
owing to the latter's renunciation of Protestantism) caused four of its 
most zealous members to be hanged the following year. The body of 
Henri lay in state here after his assassination in 1610. In 1659 the room was 
used as a theatre by Moliere, who acted here in his own inimitable plays. 

We first enter a kind of vestibule, which contains, by the 
farther wall, a chimney-piece executed by Percier and Fontaine 
in 1806. In front of the chimney-piece : 540. Fragments of a Grseco- 
Egyptian map of the stars; 75. Hercules, with his son Telephus and 
the hind by which the latter was suckled. — To the left , by the 
window, 231. Borghese Hermaphrodite, of the latest Greek period, 
and too sensuous in style. The mattress is an unhappy idea of 
Bernini (17th cent.). 

In the Salle proper, between two pillars : *78. Jupiter of Versailles, 
a colossal torso on a modern stand. To the right , 80. Statue of a 
Greek philosopher (Posidonius ?). To the left, 79. Demosthenes, the 
head from another statue. 

In the centre : 81. Orestes and Pylades, of the school of Pasiteles 
(1st cent. B.C.) ; 82. Ancient basin of Sicilian alabaster, so placed 
that the faintest whisper uttered at its edge is distinctly audible to 
an ear at the edge of the similar basin (90) at the other end ; 83. 
Hermes in the act of fastening his sandals; 85. Reposing Bacchus; 
86. Borghese Vase, with Bacchanalian representations ; *87. Young 
Dionysus (the 'Richelieu Bacchus'); 89. Discobolus. — The four 
•Caryatides bearing the gallery at the end were executed by Jean 
Ooujon (p. 110). Above it is a cast of Benv. Cellini's Nymph of 
Fontainebleau (p. 111). 

Third window on the right, as we return: 113. Bacchus; 149. 
Large Candelabrum reconstructed by Piranesi in the 18th cent, 
from ancient fragments. — On the side next the court, 1st window 
(to the right as we enter) : 53. Venus in the Bath (freely restored) ; 
2nd window: 40. Boy with a goose; 91. 'Minerve au collier 1 , a med- 
iocre reproduction of the type of Phidias's Athena Parthenos ; 3rd 
window: 18. Crouching Venus C Venus a la coquilW); 4th window: 
Crouching Venus (similar to No. 53) ; to the right, in front of the 

Asiatic Museum. 4. LOUVRE. 105 

central door, 849. Demetrius Poliorcetes (more probably Seleucus 
Nicator). To the right of the exit : 32. So-called Bust of Diomedes. 

Antique Bronzes, see p. 150; Terracottas, Vases, etc., p. 159. 

The Escalibr HbnbiII, in the Pavilion de l'Horloge, adjoining 
the Salle des Cariatides, ascends to the principal collections on the 
first floor (see plans, pp. 96, 115; Collection La Caze, p. 149). It 
is, however, better to ascend by the grand staircase , reached by 
returning through the Salle des Cariatides, and turning to the right. 
The Escalier Henri II is decorated with sculptures by Jean Ooujon. 

Visitors who have time to spare should pass out, however, into 
the Court of the Old Louvre, in ordeT to inspect the following 
collections, which are open daily, usually from 11 a. m. 

The *Asiatic Museum (Musee des Antiquites Asiatiques ; generally 
open at 11, but sometimes not before 1 o'clock) is entered from the 
passage under the colonnade (p. 96), to the left in coming from 
the Cour du Louvre (B on the Plan, p. 96). — It contains one-half 
of the yield of the excavations made at Kouyunjik (Nineveh) be- 
tween 1845 and 1854 by M. Botta and Sir A. H. Layard (the otheT 
half being in the British Museum), and also antiquities collected 
from other parts of Asia. 

Room I (Grande Galerie) : Assyrian Antiquities, most of which 
belonged to the palaces of Kalah (the modem Nimroud ; 9th cent. 
B.C.), Khorsabad (8th cent.), or Nineveh. 

The kingdom of Assyria or Assur, the land oi Nimrod of the Bible, 
lay on the left bank of the Tigris, its capital being Assur, and afterwards 
Nineveh. The Assyrians conquered the Babylonian empire about B.C. 1250, 
and afterwards extended their supremacy as far as Asia Minor. The ex- 
cavations have brought to light remains of extensive palaces, the cham- 
bers of which were lined with alabaster slabs, bearing scenes from the 
lives of the Assyrian monarchs, similar to those on the Egyptian mon- 
uments, and still more lifelike. Hunting-scenes, battlefields, and sieges 
alternate with others representing the king in his court or among his 
guards, and accompanied by figures of fantastic monsters. The inscriptions 
are in caneiform character, or wedge-shaped and angular signs placed 
horizontally and obliquely. 

Most of the gigantic * Winged Bulls come from the palace reared 
at the modern Khorsabad by Sennacherib or Sargon. These were 
placed, like the Egyptian sphinxes, at the entrances to great build- 
ings, and they are provided with five legs as they were intended to 
be viewed either from the front or from the side. Their human 
heads wearing a tiara seem to leave no doubt that they were per- 
sonifications of kings. Like the sphinxes, too, these animals sym- 
bolized the union of strength and intelligence ; and wings are fre- 
quently found as the emblem of power on Assyrian monuments. — 
The Colossal Figures at the back-wall also adorned the entrance to 
the palace. The figures who , without apparent effort and without 
passion, are crushing lions against their breasts represent the Assyrian 

106 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor: 

Hercules. In the spaces between these figures are bas-reliefs of 
royal corteges, a king and a priest, a king sacrificing an antelope to 
a god, etc. The details on these and other reliefs have an important 
historical value; while certain portions, especially the horses (near 
the windows) and the animals in general are of admirable work- 
manship. In the centre of the room: Nine headless Statues, in 
greenish black diorite, and two Beads from Chaldaea, covered with 
inscriptions and indicating a very advanced technique; Threshold 
of a Boor, from Nineveh. 

Visitors who are pressed for time may pass hence immediately to the 
Egyptian Museum (p. 107). 

Rooms II & III : Continuation of the reliefs ; Phoenician Sarco- 
phagi, in black and white marble. — In the middle, basalt Sarco- 
phagus of King Esmumar of Sidon, with the longest known Phoeni- 
cian inscription. 

The Phoenicians, whose chief settlements were on the Syrian coast, 
possessed important colonies on every part of the Mediterranean, and were 
the earliest traders between the East and West. To them we are indebted 
for our modern system of writing, as they were the first to reject the 
cumbrous Egyptian style and to adopt a simple sign for each simple sound. 

Salle Phenicienne et Chypbjotb, to the left: Phoenician anti- 
quities and others from Syria and Cyprus. Among these are a Vase, 
12 ft. in diameter, from Amathus in Cyprus, hewn out of a single 
block of stone, and seven statues and some carved capitals from the 
same island. — The — 

Sallb de Milet (XXXVI) contains sculptures from Miletus and 
Heraclea in Asia Minor, and also fragments from the Temple of 
Apollo at Didyma. In the centre , Two colossal bases of columns 
from the same temple. At the back, Statues (headless) which 
adorned the theatre, in the Greek style. Mutilated statues from the 
Necropolis, in the Assyrian style. On the upper part of the walls, 
Bas-reliefs from the temple of Assos, in Mysia, specimens of primi- 
tive Ionian art. To the left of the entrance to the following room, 
Sepulchral stele, from the Troad. — The — 

Salle de Magnesie du Meandbe (XXXVII) contains fragments 
of the Temple of Artemis Leucophryene ('Diana of the white eyebrows') 
at Magnesia, near Ephesus, of a late period. The frieze, one of the 
most extensive relief-compositions of ancient times, about 88 yds. 
in length, represents wild contests between Greeks and Amazons. 
"We observe also &Vase from Pcrgamum, with reliefs of young Greeks 
on horseback ; and a statue of Diana from Phrygia (replica). 

Continuation of the Asiatic Antiquities on the first floor, to which 
the adjoining staircase ('Escalier Asiatique') ascends, see p. 156. 

On this staircase are farther Assyrian bas-reliefs, casts from similar 
reliefs in the British Museum, and sarcophagi. 

The Sallb Judaique, to the right, under the staircase, contains 
Jewish antiquities from Palestine and the neighbouring countries, 
such as sarcophagi from the Tombs of the Kings, architectural frag- 

Egyptian Museum. 4. LOUVRE. 107 

ments, reliefs, vases, pottery, Moabite sculptures, and inscriptions. 
In the centre of the room is the famous basalt Stele of King Mesa 
ofMoab (9th cent. B.C.), whose battles with the Jews in B.C. 896 are 
recorded by the inscription. This is the oldest known example of 
alphabetic writing. 

Adjacent is a small Salle Punique, with antiquities from Car- 
thage. — Opposite the Salle Juda'ique opens a long corridor with 
casts of the sculptures discovered at Delos and Delphi in 1892-98. 

The ^Egyptian Museum (Musee des Antiquites Egyptiennes) has 
its entrance opposite that of the Asiatic Museum, to the right when 
approached from the court (A on the Plan, p. 96). One of the most 
important collections of the kind in Europe, it affords, so far as is 
possible without the appropriate architectural surroundings, an almost 
complete survey of the religion, customs, and art-life of the most 
ancient of civilised nations. The exhibits are provided with explan- 
atory labels. 

We first enter the Salle Henbi Quatke, which contains the largest 
objects in the collection. Among these are the Sphinxes, fantastic 
figures with lions' bodies and human heads (gods or kings), symbols 
of power united with intelligence, which were usually erected in 
pairs on the avenues leading to the temples; Monuments com- 
memorating special events ; Steles, or votive stones erected to the 
memory of deceased persons, bearing inscriptions and representations 
of the infernal deities (Osiris), to whom, as well as to the deceased 
themselves, offerings were presented by the bereaved relatives; 
Statues, from tombs or temples ; Bas Reliefs ; and Sarcophagi. 

Egyptian chronology being scarcely an exact science, the monuments 
of this collection are dated merely by Dynasties. This mode of reckoning 
rests on the authority of the Greek writer Manetho, who reckons thirty-one 
such dynasties between the beginning of Egyptian history and the conquest 
of Egypt by Alexander the Great The first dynasty is placed by Mariette 
at 5004 B.C. and by Lepsins at 3892 B.C. The fourth dynasty flourished 
about 2500 B.C.. the 12th about 1996-1783, the 18th about 1545-1350, the 
19th about 1350-1200 B.C. Exact dates begin to be possible with the accession 
of Psammetichus I. in 663 B.C. (26th dynasty). 

The large Sphinx in pink granite at the entrance is in better preserv- 
ation but is not so interesting as its pendant at the other end of the room. 
To the right, Nos. A 18, A 19. Foot and head of a colossal statue of 
the 12th or 13th Dyn., 'usurped' by Amenhotep (or Amenophis) III., the 
Memnon of the Greeks. *D 9. Sarcophagus of Taho, a 'masterpiece of the 
later Egyptian sculpture' (26th Dyn.); the scenes and inscriptions on this, 
as on other sarcophagi, refer mainly to the nightly voyage of the ship of 
the sun through the lower regions, in which the dead take part. — In the 
centre, wooden mummy-case from the coffin of Sopi (an official of the 
1st Theban empire). To the left, D 8. Sarcophagus of another Taho of 
the reign of Psammetichus I. (26th Dyn.). Farther on, A 20. So-called 
Statue of Ramses II., belonging to a king of the middle empire (12th or 
13th Dyn.), usurped by Ramses. In the middle, the capital of a column 
in the form of a double head of Hathor, from the temple at Bubastis, 
and (to the right) a fragment of a clustered. column with a lotus -bud 
capital. In front of the large capital, "B 7. Painted bas-relief of Seti I. 
(Sesostris ; 19th Dyn.) and the goddess Hathor (discovered by Champollion.) 

108 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor: 

Left, A 24. Colossal Statue of Seti II. (end of the 19th Dyn.), in red sand- 
stone, with the double crown on his head and holding a flag-staff on which 
the royal name and titles are engraved. Farther back, D 31. Portion of 
the base of the obelisk of Luxor (p 64), with four cynocephali (dog-faced 
baboons) adoring the rising sun. Above, D 38, Cast of the Zodiac of Den- 
dera (p. 198). Several statues of the lion-headed goddess Selchmet. A little 
farther on: no number, Colossal Sarcophagus of Ramses III. (20th Dyn.), 
in pink granite (the lid is at Cambridge). — In the centre, painted sarco- 
phagus of Sopi (1st Empire). To the right, D 10. Sarcophagus of Hor a royal 
official; in the interior are the 42 infernal judges who assisted Osiris in 
judging the dead In front and farther on are mummy shaped sarcophagi 
with well-executed reliefs. — To the left, by the wall, C 43. Stele of pink 
granite, in the form of an Egyptian temple-gate under the 18th Dyn. ', 
farther on, D 29. Naos of Atnasis, a monolithic votive chapel in pink granite, 
intended to receive the statue of a deity (5th cent. B.C.). 

At the end of this hall is a staircase, on the left of which is the stone 
lining from a wall in the temple at Karnak, with a fragment of a list of 
the campaigns of Thutmosis III. (18th Dyn.). Higher up, A 22. Alabaster 
statue (freely restored) of Ramses II. 

To the left, at the foot of the staircase, is the Salle d'Apis, con- 
taining the statues, steles, and other objects found by Mariette in the 
Serapeum or large mausoleum of the Apis bulls at Memphis. 

The Apit was the animal sacred to Ptah , the god of Memphis. The 
bull to be thus honoured required to be black in colour, to have a white 
triangle on his forehead, a white mark on his back resembling an eagle, 
and an excrescence under his tongue in the shape of the sacred scarabteus 
beetle. After his death the sacred bull was interred with great pomp in 
the vaults known to the Greeks as the 'Serapeum', a word derived front 
'Osiris Apis', which the Egyptians applied to the dead Apis. 

In the middle of the room, S98, large Figure of Apis, on which the 
marks of the sacred bull are distinctly visible. At the side are several 
Canopi, or stone vessels, in the shape of the heads of the patron-gods of 
the deceased and containing the entrails of the embalmed bulls. Around 
the walls are Steles, erected by devout persons in the tombs of the bulls, 
which give the dates of the deaths of these revered animals, with the king's 
reigns when they occurred, affording a valuable clue to Egyptian chrono- 
logy. Opposite is a statuette of Bes, a grotesque Egyptian divinity. The 
Lion, near the window, of a late period, should ae noticed. — At the 
entrance to an adjacent apartment is the gateway of the Serapeum (under 
glass), with inscriptions of the period of the Ptolemies. A door leads 
hence to the rooms containing the Renaissance Sculptures (see below). 

Another gallery, for monuments of tha Old and Middle Empires 
(4th-18th Dyn.), will be found under the colonnade beside the Salle d'Apis. 

Continuation of the Egyptian Antiquities, on the first floor, see 
p. 157. 

"Collection of Mediaeval and Renaissance Sculptures (Mus£e 
des Sculptures du Hoy en Age et de la Renaissance; open after 1 p.m.). 
— The chief entrance is in the S. wing of the inner Court of the 
Louvre, by the door on the left of the passage, as we face the Seine 
(PI. D; p. 96); but it may also be reached via the small room 
under the staircase at the end of the large room of the Egyptian 
antiquities (p. 107). — Catalogue, 1 fr. 25 c. 

Vestibule. Reconstruction of a bronze fountain - group from 
Fontainebleau: Diana (after the Diana Chasseresse, p. 103) with four 
dogs, a French work of the early 17th century. — The room to the 

Mediaeval Sculptures. 4. LOUVRE. 109 

left contains the most recent acquisitions (p. 112); that to the right, 
the Christian Antiquities, see p. 113. — We may either enter the 
Salle Jean Goujon (p. 110) straight on, or turning to the left, 
traverse all the rooms to begin our inspection -with the first, or Salle 

Salle d' Andre Beauneveu or Room I contains statues from 
tombs and statuettes of the French school of the 14-15th centuries. 
The chief work is No. *216. Monument of Philippe Pot, grand-sene- 
schal of Burgundy and favourite of Philip the Good, who was buried 
at the Abbey of Citeaux; the recumbent statue reposes on a slab 
supported by eight mourning figures (1477-83). By the window 
towards the Seine, *219. Flemish Calvary, in wood (16th cent.). 
At the window towards the Place, Brass of a Catalan merchant (1400); 
Crown of Thorns (French school, ca. 1500). In the centre, 94. Tomb- 
figure of Blanche de Champagne, in embossed copper (l4th cent.). 
224. Sepulchral monument of Philip VI. of France, attributed to 
Andre Beauneveu of Valenciennes (14th cent.) ; opposite, Statue of 
Guillaume de Chanac, similar in style ; then (by the central window) 
that of Philippe de Morvillier, the head and hands of marble (early 
15th cent.). 

Salle dtj Moyen Age (II). Other French tomb-statues of the 
14th century (110. Jean de Dormans); Virgin and Child (12th cent. ; 
wood) ; figures of the Virgin, Christ, and bas-reliefs of the 14th cen- 
tury. Statue of Childebert, King of France (13th cent.) ; Gothic 
door from a house in Valentia in Spain (15th cent.). Sculptured 
fragments, including four (Nos. 61-64) from the rood-loft of the 
cathedral of Bourges and another (78. Scenes in Hades) from Notre- 
Dame at Paris (in the centre); capitals, etc., of the ll-13th centuries. 

Salle Michel Colombb (III). By Michel Colombe or Michault 
Columb (1431-1514), the chief representative of the Loire school of 
his period, from whom the room takes its name, *226. Relief of 
St. George and the dragon, near the next door. Below, *262. 
Entombment (?), ascribed to O. Pilon. To the right, *143. Virgin, 
of the 16th century. In the middle : 276. Mercury and Psyche, by 
A. de Vries (1593); 225. Mercury, a replica of the statue in Florence 
by Oiov. da Bologna, a native of Douai in Flanders ; 224bis. Fame, 
by P. Biard, from the tomb of the Due d'Epernon at Cadillac (all 
these are bronzes). Behind and at the sides, sepulchral statues and 
bas-reliefs of the 15-16th cent., including *126. Monument of 
Philippe de Comines (1445-1509) and his wife (Paris; beginning 
of the 16th cent.); 274. Statue of Henri IV., ascribed to B. Tremblay 
and Q. Gissey. Busts: 180. Martin Fre"minet (d. 1619); *173. Jean 
d'Alesso (d. 1572); 426. Giov. da Bologna (by P. Tacca). To the 
right, *144. ViTgin from Ecouen (16th cent.); 160. Bronze bust of 
Francis I.; 149. Tomb-statue of Roberte Legendre, by O. Begnault 
and O. Chalevau; above, *220. Tomb of Jean de Cromois, abbot of 

110 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor : 

St. Jacques at Liege (d. 1525). By the second window, 153. 'La 
Mort St. Innocent', a skeleton from the former Cimetiere des 
Innocents (p. 189) ; fine bas-reliefs in Munich stone including a 
Holy Family (277), after Diirer, attributed to Hans Daucher (16th 
cent.). At the first window, Death-mask of Henri II., in terracotta, 
reproducing the cast taken after the fatal blow accidentally struck by 

Salle Jean Goujon (IV), named after the most distinguished 
French sculptor of the 16th century, who executed, under Henri II., 
a great part of the decorations of the Louvre. His best-known work 
is No. *228, the large group of Diana with the stag, in the middle 
of this saloon , which affords an excellent example of the grace- 
fulness of form and other attributes characteristic of French taste. 
(The visitor will find it interesting to compare this Diana with 
Benvenuto Cellini's Nymph of Fontainebleau , p. 111.) To the 
left and right (255 and 250) are works by Germain Pilon, the Three 
Theological Virtues or Three Graces (the urn on whose heads was 
intended to contain the heart of Henri II.), and the Four Cardinal 
Virtues (destined as the supporters of the reliquary of St. Genevieve). 
■ — Round the room from right to left : 260. G. Pilon, Bust of a child ; 
168. French School (16th cent.), Charles de Maigny (Paris, 1556); 
258. Effigy, genii, and reliefs from the tomb of the wife of Chancellor 
Renede Birague (see below) ; above, *229. J.(?ou/oji,Descentfromthe 
Cross, reliefs from the old rood-loft of St.Germain-l'Auxerrois (1541); 
256. G. Pilon, Mater Dolorosa, in painted terracotta ; 268. B. Prieur, 
Column^ three bronze figures, and emblems from the tomb of Con- 
stable Anne de Montmorency (p. 388); 261. G. Pilon, Chimney- 
piece from the Chateau de Villeroy, with a bust of Henri II. (227) 
by J. Goujon ; 235. Et. le Hongre, Fragments of the mausoleum of 
the Cosse'-Brissac family; G. Pilon, 253. Bust of Henri III., *257. 
Bronze statue of the Chancellor de Birague (d. 1583); 137. Statue 
of Admiral Philippe de Chabot(d. 1543) ; *230. J. Goujon, Fountain- 
nymphs from the Fontaine des Innocents (p. 188). — At the third 
window : 270. Jean Richier (?), Daniel come to judgment (relief) ; 
271. Ligier Richier, Infant Jesus; 162. Fr. Roussel (?) , Nymphs 
awakened; G. Pilon, 241, 240. Faith and Strength (reliefs), 252. 
Bust of Charles IX. ; no number, Christ on the Mount of Olives. At 
the second window : 266, 267. B. Prieur, Statues from the tomb of 
Constable Anne de Montmorency and his wife; 245. G. Pilon, 
Entombment (bronze relief). At the first window : 246. G. Pilon, 
Fragments of a pulpit, from the Grands-Augustins, Paris. — The — 

Salle Miohel-Ange (V), containing Italian sculptures of the 
15-1 7th cent., is named from the marble statues of the two Fettered 
Slaves (*379, 380), by Michael Angela (1475-1564), which were 
intended for the mausoleum of Pope Julius II., and were to represent 
the Virtues fettered. The head of the younger (and more beautiful) 
is unfinished. 

Renaissance Sculptures. 4. LOUVRE. Ill 

'They writhe in a magnificent effort to hurst their bonds. One of them, 
realising the uselessness of his struggles, throws his head back in despair, 
and closes his eyes. Nothing can be more sublime than this figure of 
impotent strength'. (Th. Soulier.) 

These statues stand on the right and left of the entrance to the 
next room, which consists of a *Portal (329) of the 15th cent. , removed 
from the Palazzo Stanga in Cremona, and executed by Antonio da Rho. 
The reliefs represent scenes from the life of Hercules, the mythical 
founder of Cremona, and from that of Perseus ; also the daughter 
of Herodias with the head of John the Baptist. In front, to the left, 
*396. Bust of Filippo Strozzi, by Benedetto da Maiano. In the middle 
of the room, 333. Marble fountain-basin from the chateau of Gaillon 
(p. 431), 308. Bronze bust of Michael Angelo, Italian works of the 
16th century. 

By the entrance-wall, from right to left: 403. Bust of John the 
Baptist as a child, by Mino da Fiesole; 386. Julius Caesar, bas-relief 
by Donatello (?) ; Six Virgins, by unknown artists of the 15-16th 
cent., and one (no number; above, to the left) by Jac. Sansovino 
(Tatti); 323 (centre of the wall), Circumcision, a wood- carving of 
the Venetian school of the 15th century. High up : *381. Benvenuto 
Cellini, the 'Nymph of Fontainebleau', executed in 1543 for a 
tympanum in the palace at Fontainebleau. 

By the back-wall: 304. Jason, 354. Hercules slaying the Hydra, 
two bronze statues of the 16th cent.; 334. Equestrian figure in 
high-relief of Rob. Malatesta, captain-general of the papal forces 
(end of 15th cent.); 336, 337. Virgin and the Angel Gabriel, in wood 
(Florentine school of the end of the 14th cent.) ; 302, 302bis. Busts 
of a man and woman (15th cent.); Virgin in painted terracotta 
(medallion) attributed to Andrea della Robbia; two other Virgins, 
an Angel Gabriel (14th cent.), and a Pieta in high relief (15th cent.). 

By the first window: 303. Romulus and Remus suckled by the 
wolf, an Italian work of the 16th century. — The highly interesting 
collection of early-Renaissance *Bronze-reliefs by the windows in- 
cludes eight (414-421) by Andrea Briosco, sumamed Riccio, of Padua 
(1480-1532). Originally belonging to the tomb of Marcantonio 
della Torre, these reliefs illustrate the life and death of that 
celebrated physician in a thoroughly antique style. Here also are six 
bas-reliefs of the Virgin, three of which (399-401) are by Mino 
da Fiesole. At the second window: 310. Polychrome statue of a 
negro, after the antique (17th cent.); 395. Bronze medallion of 
Charles V., by Leone Leoni of Arezzo('?), and other medallions. 

Salle Italienne (VI). 411 bis. Virgin and Child, group in 
painted and gilded wood by Jac. delta Querela; left; 383. Bust of 
John the Baptist, by Desiderio da Settignano (not Donatello) ; 300. 
Funeral rites, high-relief in black stone, in imitation of the antique. 
At the window: 351. Relief of a child, in the style of Donatello; 
fine ornamental sculptures, etc. At the sides, the Four Virtues, of 
the Italian School of the 14th century. 

112 4. LOUVRE. Ground Floor: 

Salle della Robbia (VII). This room contains nearly 50 bas- 
reliefs, statues, and statuettes in terracotta by the Delia Robbia and 
their school (Florence ; 16th cent.) and also reliefs of the 12-15th 
centuries. To the right of the entrance, 407. Statue of Louis XII., 
by Lor. da Mugiano (head modern). To the left, 408. Friendship, 
by P. P. Olivieri; 463. Nature, a curious work by II 2W5oZo(1485-1550). 
In the middle of the room, 464. St. Christopher, in painted and 
gilded wood, by VeccMetta. By the window to the left, Bust of Card. 
Medici, by Bernini (?). By the right wall, 368. Bust of Ferdinand I. 
of Aragon, King of Naples (1423-94). 

Salle des Antiquitbs Chrbtiennes (XXXIX). Small bronzes, 
sarcophagi, reliefs, inscriptions, vases, lamps, and mosaics, chiefly of 
the 4th and 5th centuries. — We return hence to the vestibule, 
through which we enter the — 

Sallb des Nouvbllbs Acquisitions (VIII), on the opposite side, 
where recent acquisitions are kept until their ultimate places are 
assigned to them. 30. Wooden crucifix of the 12th cent. ; French statues 
of the 13-16th cent.; two Italian brasses (15-16th cent.); several 
Madonnas, one of the school of Jacopo della Querela; Christ in the 
act of blessing (Florence, 15th cent.). In the middle, Ag. di Duccio 
(see p. 155), Virgin and Child (15th cent.); Scipio, bas-relief 
(Florentine school; 15th cent.); Eve (Franconian school; 16th cent.); 
Falconet, Bust in terracotta (study). In the glass-case are models 
and other statuettes of the 18th cent., by Carpeaux, Barye, etc. At 
the 1st window: Busts by Deseine (1791). 

The "Collection of Modern Sculptures (Musee des Sculptures 
Modemes), which forms a continuation of the Renaissance collection, 
comprises chiefly French works of the 17-19th centuries. It occupies 
the W. portion of the Vieux Louvre ; entrance by the second door 
to the right of the Pavilion d'Horloge (PI. E). 

Sallb de Puqet (II), named after Pierre Paget of Marseilles 
(1622-94), the most famous of the French artists of the 17th century. 
Among his works are, in the middle : 793. Hercules reposing (1660); 
795. Perseus and Andromeda (1684) ; *794. Milo of Croton attacked 
by a lion, the most admired of his works (1682). Between them, 
745. Two fine vases from St. Cloud (16th cent.). On the wall to the 
left, 796. Puget, Diogenes and Alexander the Great, a bas-relief with 
masterly treatment of the vulgar types of the attendants ;*&62.Coyxevox 
(see p. 113), Monument of Cardinal Mazarin. By the window, 830. 
Theodon, Atlas. Between the windows, 754-757. P. Legros, Hermae 
of the Seasons. By the 2nd window, 774. The large 'Vase de Marly", 
of the French school. 691, 692. Qirardon, Bronze model and a foot 
of the equestrian statue erected to Louis XIV. in the Place VendSme 
in 1699. — By the next window, 831. Theodon, Phaethusa meta- 
morphosed into a reed. To the right : 487. Fr. Anguier, Monument 

Modern Sculptures. 4. LOUVRE. 1 13 

of Jacques de Thou (d. 1617), President of the Parliament, with 
statues (488, 489) of his two wives, that to the right (489) attributed 
to B.Prieur; *702-704. Sim. Gillain, Louis XIII., Louis XIV. as 
a child (the nose not of the characteristic type), Anne of Austria, 
bronzes from the old monument on the Pont-au-Change (p. 254). 
By the window, 764. J. L. Lemoyne, Bust of Mansart ; 659. Desjardins, 
Bust of Colbert. — The door on the leftof the entrance leads to the — 

Salle de Coyzevox (I), named after Charles Antoine Coyzevox 
(1640-1720), one of the ablest of the French portrait-sculptors (see 
his monument of Mazarin, p. 112). On the wall to the right, named 
from right to left: Coyzevox, 558. The Rhone, *556. Nymph with a 
shell, 561. Duchess of Burgundy (mother of Louis XV.) as Diaua, 
660. Shepherd playing on the flute ; 556. Venus ; busts. By the 2nd 
window : 554. Le Brun , 659. Marie Serre, mother of the painter Rigaud. 
By the 1st window, *577. Conde (bronze). Between the windows, 686. 
Remains of the old monument to Henri IV. on the Pont Neuf, by 
P. Francheville or Franqueville. On the side next the entrance: 491. 
Mich. Anguier, Amphitrite; 723. Sepulchral statue of the Duchess 
of Retz ; 687. B. Fremin, Flora ; 684. Francheville, David and Goliath ; 
486. Fr. Anguier, Jacques de Souvre"; 701. S. Ouillain, Charlotte 
de la Tremoille, Princess of Conde; 683. Francheville, Orpheus; 
688. Fremin, Diana; 512. Bourdin, Amador de la Porte ; 841. Warin, 
Louis XIII. ; 660. Desjardins, Bust of Mignard ; 736. Bust of Richelieu. 
In the centre : 485. Fr. Anguier, Monument of Due Henri de Longue- 
ville; 699, 700. <?. Quirin, Effigies of the Duke and Duchess of La 
Vieuville. — From this room we pass through theSallePuget to the — 

Salle des Coustou (III), which is named in honour of the 
brothers Nicolas Coustou (1658-1733) and Guillaume Couslou (1677- 
1746), and of the latter's son Guillaume Coustou (1716-77). In the 
centre : 548. Nicolas Coustou, Adonis resting from the fatigues of 
the chase (1710). To the left, 481. L. 8. Adam, Lyric Poetry ; *483, 
484. Allegrain, Venus and Diana bathing; 672. Falconet, Music; 

549. Nie. Coustou, Caesar; 643. Guillaume Coustou the Elder, Marie 
Lesczinska of Poland, queen of Louis XV. (1731) ; 620. Portrait 
bust by Caffleri(f}; no number, Lemoyne, Trudaine. By the first 
window, Bust of N. Coustou by G. Coustou. Between the windows : 
781. Pigalle, Mercury fastening his sandals, a leaden statue formerly 
in the Luxembourg gardens. By the second window, busts: 519. 
Caffieri, Nivelle de laChausse'e, the poet; 785. Pigalle, Gue"rin, the 
surgeon ; 675. Falconet, Cupid ; 672. Lemoyne, Gabriel, the architect ; 

550. Nie. Coustou, Louis XV.; 828. Slodtx, Hannibal. Above, on the 
wall : 653-668. Martin Desjardins, Six bas-reliefs in bronze from 
the pedestal of the statue of Louis XIV. formerly in the Place des 
Victoires. — " Then the — 

Sallb de Houdon (IV), dedicated chiefly to Antoine Houdon 
(Versailles, 1741-1828). By Houdon, in the centre of the room : 
Baedeker. Paris. 15th Edit. g 

114 4 LOUVRE. Ground Floor. 

*716. Bionze statue of the nude Diana, executed first in marble 
for the Empress Catherine II. of Russia (1781). — To the right of 
the entrance, 782. Pigalle, Love and Friendship. In a niche, 509. 
Bouchardon, Cupid carving a bow out of the club of Hercules; 681. 
Francin (after Houdon), Bust of Gluck. — 783. Pigalle, Bust of 
Maurice, Marshal de Saxe; Pajou, *?76. Bacchante, 772. Marie 
Lesczinska as Charity; bet-ween these, 507. Bouchardon, Copy of the 
Barberini Faun. — Houdon, Busts of Lavoisier, Washington (715), 
Rousseau (bronze, 711), Abbe' Aubert (710), Mirabeau (717), Buflon 
(719), Diderot (708), Franklin (713), and Voltaire (bronze, 712). 
Pajou, Busts of Buffon (773) and Lemoyne. On stands, by the 
window: no numbers, *Busts of Louise and Alexandre Brongniart 
(terracotta). Between them, 709. Morpheus. — Opposite the window : 
511. Bouchardon, Model of .the statue of Louis XV- that stood in 
the Place de la Concorde, in bronze. 

The Salle de Chaudet (V) is mainly occupied with works of 
the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th cent., when the ancient 
classical style was revived. To the left : 801. Roland, Bust of Suvee, 
the painter (terracotta); 805. Roman, Innocence; 803. Roland, 
Homer; 648. Debay, Mercury; 538. Cortot, Daphnis and Chloe ; 650. 
Delaistre, Cupid and Psyche ; 804. Roman, Nisus and Euryalus. In 
the centre: 503. Bosio, Aristsus , god of gardens ; 651. Deseine, 
Mucius Scaevola; *524. Canova, Cupid and Psyche ; 748. Julien, Ga- 
nymede; 533. Chaudet, The young (Edipus Tesoued by the shepherd 
Phorbas. — Round the hall, as we return: Corlot, 539. Soldier of 
Marathon, 540. Victory (bronze); 514. Bridan, Epaminondas; *523. 
Canova, Cupid and Psyche. By the window, 667. Dupaty, Biblis 
changed into a fountain ; Chaudet, 534. Cupid with a butterfly, 536. 
Bust of Napoleon I. (bronze); 697. Giraud, Design for a monument 
(wax); 506. Bosio, the Nymph Salmacis; 817. Ruxtiel, Psyche borne 
by Zephyr; 504. Bosio, Hyacinthus. — To the right of the door: 
no number, Lucas de Montigny, Bust of Mirabsau; *777. Pajou, 
Psyche abandoned ; 802. Roland, Bust of Pajou ; 760. Lemire, Cupid; 
750. P. Julien, Amalthea; 537. Clodion, Bacchante. 

The Salle de Rude (VI), named after the sculptor Francois 
Rude (1784-1855), continues the series of works of the 19th century. 
By the entrance are medallions by David d Angers. From right to left: 
678. Foyatier, Spartacus; no number, Duseigneur, Orlando Furioso ; 
above, Preault, Virgil and Dante (bronze medallions); no number. 
Pradier, Son of Niobe; 814. Rude, Crucifixion; 806. Roman, Cato 
of Utica (finished by Rude); no number, David a" Angers, Be'ranger; 
746. Jaley, Prayer; Rude, *811. Maurice, Marshal de Saxe, 815. 
Napoleon I. awakening to immortality (model) ; 747. Jaley, Louis XL ; 
*566. David d' Angers, Philopoemen; no number, by the 1st window, 
Barye, Tiger and crocodile; 787. Pradier, Psyche; 800. Ramey, 
Theseus and the Minotaur ; 7 ?0. Nanteuil, Eurydice ; 495. Barye, 
Jaguar and hare; 567bis. David d' Angers, Child with grapes ; Rude, 


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*813. Joan of Arc, 816. Bust of Mme. Cabet. In the centre: no 
number, Pradier, Atalanta's toilet ; *494. Barye, Centaur and Lapith ; 
Rude, 810. Mercury (bronze), no number, *Young Neapolitan fisher. 

Salle de Carpeaux (VII). From left to right: *670. Buret, 
Fisherman dancing the tarantella, bronze ; *529. Carpeaux, Dance, 
model of the group at the Opera (p. 79) ; *671 . Buret, Neapolitan 
improvisatore, bronze ; no number, Clesinger, Bust of Mme. Sabatier; 
Jouffroy, The first secret; 778. Perraud, Childhood of Bacchus. 
No numbers, Schoenewerk, Girls at a fountain ; Dumont, Genius of 
Liberty, a model of that on the July Column (p. 175); Perraud, 
Farewell (a large relief) ; (2nd window on the right), Pradier, Sappho ; 
Foyatier, Siesta; Begeorge, Infancy of Aristotle. In the centre, *531. 
Carpeaux, Four quarters of the globe supporting the sphere, model 
of the group on the Fontaine de l'Observatoire (p. 317). To the left 
and right, P. Cabet, After the bath ; J. Clesinger, George Sand. Ex- 
cellent busts on the walls. 

To reach the Picture Gallery hence we turn to the right on leaving and 
pass through the first pavilion to the principal entrance of the New 
Louvre, or we ascend the Escalier Henri II (see below), to the left in 
the pavilion. 

For the Graudidier Collection, Collections from the Far East, and the 
Chalcographie, see pp. 165, 166. 


The most important collection on the first floor of the Louvre is 
the Picture Gallery, which occupies nearly the whole of the S. con- 
necting gallery between the Old Louvre and the Tuileries (Qalerie 
du Bord de, together with the whole of the inner gallery of 
the New Louvre parallel to it, and also several saloons in the Old 
Louvre. — The first floor of the Old Louvre also contains the Ancient 
Bronzes (p. 150), the Furniture of the 17th and 18th Cent. (p. 151), 
the Brawings (p. 153), the Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern 
Works of Art (p. 154), the Ancient Vases and the Smaller Asiatic 
and Egyptian Antiquities (pp. 156-162), the Jewels (p. 147), and 
the Oems, Enamels, and Gold and Silver Plate (p. 145). 

The Principal Entrance to the first floor is by the Pavilion 
Benon (p. 95, where sticks, etc., may be left), whence the Escalier 
Baru ascends to the picture-gallery. 

Those who wish may ascend the Escalier Henri II (comp. p. 105), in the 
Pavilion Sully or Pavilion de VBorloge (to the W. of the court; C on the 
Plan), whence they proceed to the right to the Collection La Caze (p. 1411), 
or to the left to the Ancient Bronzes (p. 150) and the Drawings (p. 153). 

The Escalier Daru, the cupola above which is adorned with 
allegorical mosaics representing the principal civilised races of anti- 
quity and the Renaissance, and with medallions of celebrated artists, 
after Lenepveu, is lined with casts of various works found at Delphi 
(see p. 116). In the centre of the staircase: *2369. Nike of Sam o- 


116 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

thrace, on a pedestal representing the prow of a trireme. This figure, 
found in 1863, was originally erected in memory of a naval victory 
won by Demetrius Poliorcetes about 305 B.C. The much mutilated 
statue represents the goddess on the prow of a vessel, in the act of 
sounding the signal for battle upon her trumpet. In dignity of con- 
ception and in the masterly handling of the voluminous drapery, this 
sculpture is perhaps the finest extant work of early-Hellenistic art. — 
In front of the door on the right, Victorious Charioteer, a votive 
offering of Polyzalos, cast from a bronze statue found at Delphi 
(B. C. 478-472). 

The staircase-landings are occupied by a Collection of Casts of sculp- 
tures excavated at Delphi and Delos by ihe Ecole Francaise of Athens 
(1892-98): Friezes from the treasuries of the Sikyonians and theCnidians; 
two Apollos in Ihe archaic style; an Antinous ; a replica of the Diadumenos 
of Polycletus; the curious Sphinx of Naxos; two heads of Caryatides; very 
interesting capitals, etc. 

Thence we may either enter a rotunda (p. 144) by the door to 
the left of the Nike, passing thence into the Saloon of Antique 
Jewelry (p. 147), opposite; or we may pass through the Galerie 
d'Apollon (p. 144), on the right, at the end of which is the Salon 
Carre (p. 121). — The usual order is to begin at the colonnaded 
vestibule (door on the right). 

This Vestibule formed part of a staircase removed when the Louvre was 
extended. Its ceiling is painted by Meynier: France as Minerva receiving 
homage from the Fine Arts. — Photographs of the pictures, drawings, and 
sculptures, by Braun (p. 47), are sold in this vestibule. 

The next room, the Salle Duchdtel (p. 120), is the beginning 
of the picture-gallery. 

**Pictnre Gallery. 

Catalogue Sommaire for the entire musee (1902 ; 1 fr. 20 c), on sale in 
the Galerie d'Apollon (p. 144), etc. 

The Picture Gallery of the Louvre comprises about 2500 works, 
almost every school being represented by numerous masterpieces. 
There are indeed some masters whose acquaintance can be satis- 
factorily made in the Louvre alone. We recommend the visitor to 
read the following general review of the most important works, as 
well as the various incidental notices of particular pictures by the 
late Sir Joseph Crowe and other distinguished authorities, before 
proceeding to view the gallery itself. 

Most visitors to the Louvre will of course be chiefly interested in 
the Italian Paintbbs. The works of the 14-15th cent, are all recent 
acquisitions. Those of the Florentine School first attract our notice. 
The gallery possesses one authentic work of Cimabue (No. 1260) 
and one of Oiotto (No. 1312). An excellent example of the tender 
and saintly style of Fra Angelico da Fiesole is his Coronation of Mary 
(No. 1290), while Benozzo Oozzolis Glory of St. Thomas Aquinas 

Picture Oallery. 4. LOUVRE. 117 

(No. 1319) affords an instance of the persistence with which the 
artists of that age clung to mediaeval ideas. Fra Filippo Lippi is 
admirably represented by a Madonna and Child (No. 1344); and 
Domenico Ghirlandajo by his powerfully conceived Visitation, of 
the year 1491 (No. 1321). Sandro Botticelli is worthily illustrated 
by a charming Madonna of his early period (No. 1296) and by the 
noble frescoes from the Villa Lemmi (Nos. 1247, 1298). The Madonna 
(No. 1263) of Lorenzo di Credi, Verrocchio's great pupil, is regarded 
as his masterpiece. The authenticity of Piero della Francesca's Ma- 
donna (No. 1300a) is contested. The strong and tonic art of his pupil, 
Luca Signorelli, the foremost painter of the Tuscan-Umbrian school, 
may, perhaps, be almost better studied in the fragment of a large 
composition (No. 1527) than in the Adoration of the Magi (No. 1526). 
— Perugino, the chief master of the Umbrian school, is well re- 
presented by an important early work, a round picture of the Madonna 
with SS. Rose and Catharine (No. 1564) , by the Conflict between 
Cupid and Chastity (1505; No. 1567), by the St. Sebastian from the 
Sciarra Gallery (No. 1566 a), and by several other works. — The 
Louvre also possesses several important creations of Andrea Man- 
tegna, a master of Upper Italy : Mt. Parnassus (No. 1375) is perhaps 
the most harmonious of these, but the Victory of Minerva, the Ma- 
donna della Vittoria, and the small Crucifixion (Nos. 1376, 1374, 
1373) deserve careful study. — The evolution of Venetian painting 
may be traced in the San Giovanni Capistrano and St. Bernard of 
Bart. Vivarini and Crivelli (Nos. 1607, 1268), the ably individualized 
Condottiere of Antonello da Messina (No. 1134), the fine double- 
portrait of Giovanni Bellini (No. 1156), the Preaching of St. Stephen 
of Carpaccio (No. 1211), and the Madonna of Cima da Conegliano 
(No. 1259), with its magnificent Alpine landscape. — Among the 
Ferrarese works we note the realistic but deeply felt Pieta of Cosimo 
Tura (No. 1556) and the Court of the Muses by Lorenzo Costa 
(No. 1261). 

In pictures of the greatltalian masters of the 16th cent. ('Cinque- 
cento') the Louvre is richer than any other gallery on this side of the 
Alps. Many of these were acquired by Francis I. In the first place 
stands Leonardo da Vinci, who spent the latter years of his life in 
France (1516-19). It is true that the authenticity of some of the 
works attributed to him here is contested. The small Annunciation 
of his early period (No. 1602 a) is one of these. Others are the 'Vierge 
aux Rochers' (No. 1599) , which many critics hold to be a copy, 
executed under the artist's supervision, of the. picture in London, 
and the portrait known as 'La Belle Ferronnii're' (No. 1600), but 
there is a growing tendency to hold all these works genuine. The 
vigorous St. Anna (No. 1593), which long passed for a cartoon 
executed by a pupil, dates from Leonardo's second sojourn in Florence. 
The great work of Leonardo in the Louvre is, however, his Mona Lisa 
(No. 1601), the most celebrated female portrait in the world, the 

118 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

sphinx-like smile of which has exercised the wits of generations of 
poets and artists and still fascinates in spite of the darkened con- 
dition of the canvas. A characteristic illustration of the state of 
religion in Leonardo's time is afforded hy the fact that he has used 
the same model, and almost in the same attitude, for John the 
Baptist and for Bacchus (Nos. 1597, 1602). — Among the numerous 
excellent pictures of Leonardo's school, Boltraffid 's Madonna of the 
Casio family (No. 1169) and the works of Bernardino Luini (frescoes 
in the Salle Duchatel) and Andrea Solario (Nos. 1530-33) merit 
especial attention. 

No gallery in Europe is so amply supplied with works of Raphael 
as the Louvre, nor affords such an opportunity for studying the various 
phases of his development. To his earlier period, before he had 
shaken off the influence of Perugino's school, belong the charming 
little pictures of St. George and St. Michael (Nos. 1503, 1502); the 
latter is even thought to date from his initial stage with Timoteo Viti. 
A gem of his Florentine period is the 'Belle Jardiniere', painted in 
1507 (No. 1496). The expression of maternal joy, the prevailing 
characteristic of Ms numerous Madonnas , is here most happily 
rendered. To his early Roman period belongs the 'Vierge au Voile' 
(No. 1497). His best period is illustrated by the portrait of Count 
Castiglione (No. 1505), painted in 1616. The Holy Family (No. 1498) 
and the large St. Michael conquering Satan (1518 ; No. 1504) belong 
to Raphael's last period, when he aspired to rival Michael Angelo in 
dramatic conception, relying for his colour-effects on violent con- 
trasts. These two works, however, were executed with considerable 
haste and with the help of pupils. The famous portrait of the beau- 
tiful Johanna of Aragon (No. 1507) appears to have been chiefly 
executed by Giulio Romano. — Andrea del Sarto and Fra Bartolomeo 
are well represented, the former especially by his celebrated Caritas 
(No. 1514), the latter by a large Holy Family (No. 1154). 

Correggio is seen at the Louvre in two works only, but both of 
these are fine : the Marriage of St. Catharine (No. 1117) and Jupiter 
and Antiope (No. 1118). 

Of all the great masters Titian is, perhaps, the most brilliantly 
represented in the Louvre. The religious scenes are the most im- 
portant. The Madonna with the rabbit and the Rest on the Flight 
into Egypt(Nos. 1578, 1580) reveal the artist as a sympathetic delin- 
eator of domestic idylls. The Christ at Emmaus (No. 1581), in the 
genre style, is full of life, while the Entombment (No. 1584), perfect 
alike in lighting and colouring, in grouping and action, and the 
imposing Christ crowned with thorns (No. 1583) are full of the most 
effective and dramatic pathos. A work oveT which the master has 
shed a radiant poetic halo is the Jupiter and Antiope (No. 1587). 
The landscape in the background is most interesting. But to appre- 
ciate fully the genius of Titian, the portraits by him must also 
be considered, e.g. the picture known as Titian and his Mistress 

Picture Gallery 4. LOUVRE. 119 

(No. 1590), representing Alfonso of Ferrara and Laura de' Dianti. 
One of Titian's most curious character-studies is the Portrait of 
Francis I. (No. 1588). The Young man with the glove (No. 1592, 
'L'homme au gant') is another excellent portrait. That of Alfonso 
d'Avalos, Marchese del Vasto, the famous general of Charles V. 
(No. 1589), is allegorical in treatment. — Palma Vecchiois represented 
by a fine Adoration of the Magi (No. 1399). An injustice would be 
done to Giorgione if we judged him by the Rustic Festival (No. 1136), 
highly as this work has been praised. — For the study of Paolo 
Veronese the Louvre is second only to Venice. His large banquet- 
ing scenes and his admirable Christ at Emmaus (No. 1196) greatly 
influenced the work of Delacroix. 

The renown of the Spanish pictures in the Louvre had its origin 
in a time when Spain was seldom visited by travellers, and when 
the treasures which Madrid and Seville possessed weTe known only 
in limited circles. However, the Louvre still contains more Spanish 
works than any other gallery out of Spain. Justi maintains that the 
small sketch (No. 1734) of thirteen figures and the portrait of the 
Infanta Margaret (No. 1731) are the only genuine examples of 
Velazquez in the Louvre, the portrait of Philip IV (No. 1732) being 
merely a copy by a pupil. Murillo, on the other hand, is splendidly 
represented. The most famous of his works in this collection is the 
'Conception' (No. 1709), while the brilliant Nativity of the Virgin 
(No. 1710), the 'Cuisine des Anges' (No. 1716), the Beggar Boy 
(No. 1717), and the Holy Family (No. 1713) are also admirable 
specimens of his power. Ribera is well represented, e.g. No. 1725. 
There is also a fine female portrait by Goya, the greatest of the 
Spanish realists of the early 19th century. 

The Louvre is unusually rich in paintings of the Flemish School, 
mainly of its later period. Among the earlier works the most note- 
worthy is Jan van Eyck's Madonna revered by the Chancellor Rollin 
(No. 1986). With this may be ranked Mending's- large M<tdonna in 
the Duch&tel Collection (No. 2026), a Descent from the Cross by 
Roger van der Weyden (No. 2196), and the Banker and his wife by 
Quinten Matsys (No. 2029). The late-Flemish school is magnificently 
represented by Rubens , by whose brush the gallery possesses 21 
large scenes from the life of Marie de Medicis (p. 131). These 
large decorative works are remarkable for their richness of colour- 
ing, their lifelike vigour, and their strangely effective combina- 
tion of allegory and realism. The other pictures by Rubens, though 
somewhat inferior to those at Antwerp, Munich, and Vienna, afford 
ample opportunity for a study of the great painter. The broad 
humour of his Flemish Fair (No. 2115) exhibits him to us in an 
entirely new light. — The large and splendid portrait of Charles I. 
of England (No. 1967) and that of Francisco de Moncada (1971) are 
the best of the many fine works of Van Dyck which the Louvre 
possesses. — The collection of 34 pictures by the ever-green David 

120 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

Teniers, on whom Louis XIV. looked with contempt , stigmatizing 
his works as daubs ('otez-moi tons ces magots'), now forms one of 
the chief boasts of the gallery. More than half of them were pre- 
sented by La Caze (p. 149) in 1869. — Snyders and Jordaens are 
also well represented. 

The Dutch Masters of the 17th cent, can be thoroughly appre- 
ciated only on their native soil, but the Louvre gallery possesses 
good specimens of the handiwork of all the most celebrated. Rem- 
brandt contributes no fewer than twenty works. The best of the 
religious paintings are the Christ at Emmaus (No. 2539 ; of striking 
power) and the Angel and Tobias (No. 2536), a work of marvellous 
poetry and unexcelled in lighting and harmony of motion. The two 
Philosophers and the 'Carpenter's Family' (Nos. 2540-42) are charm- 
ing interiors; the Bathsheba (No. 2549) is an excellent though 
realistic female study. The portraits are chiefly of his later period, 
the most effective being, perhaps, that of himself, painted in 1660 
(No. 2555). The portraits of a young man and young woman 
(Nos. 2545, 2547) are admirable examples of his later period. — 
The vigorous brush-work of Frans Hals is illustrated in his por- 
traits of theBeresteyn family (Nos. 2386-88), the portrait of Descartes 
(No. 2383), and the Laughing Girl (No. 2384). Van der Heist also is 
well represented by his Guild Masters (No. 2394). — The most 
famous of the small genre pictures are Terburg's Officer and Girl 
(No. 2587), Don's "Woman with the dropsy (No. 2348), and Village 
grocer (No. 2350), Jan Steen's Tavern Festival (No. 2578), A. van 
Ostade's Schoolmaster (No. 2496) , and an Interior by P. de Hoogh 
(No. 2414). — Among the numerous excellent landscapes of the 
Dutch School the palm may be given to J. van Ruysdael's Stormy 
Sea and Sunlight (Nos. 2558, 2560) and Hobbemds Mill (No. 2404). 

The only Early German painter adequately represented in the 
Louvre is Holbein, the best of whose eight portraits are those of 
Kratzer the astronomer (No. 2713), Erasmus (No. 2715), Abp. 
Warham of Canterbury (No. 2714), and Anne of Cleves (No. 2718). 

There aie but twenty British Pictures in the Louvre. The 
attentive student of the landscapes of Wilson, Oainsborough, Con- 
stable, and Bonington, and of the portraits of Raeburn, Hoppner, and 
Lawrence, may nevertheless form an idea of the singular role played 
by this school as in some measure the connecting link between 
French art of the 18th cent, and the school of 1830. 

Our notes on the French School will be found in the Intro- 
duction (p. xxxiii). 

From the Vestibule (p. 116), which is reached by the Escalier 
Daru, we enter (opposite) the — 

Salle, or Salle V. In this room are several frescoes of 
Bernardino Luini, transferred to canvas : 1357, 1358, 1359, *1360, 
*1361. Two boys with vine-foliage (more probably by Bart. Suardi, 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 121 

surnamed Bramantino), Nativity, Adoration of the Shepherds, and 
Christ pronouncing a blessing. Here also are the paintings bequeathed 
by the Oomtesse Duchatel: 421. Ingres, (Edipus solving the riddle 
of the Sphinx (1808) ; *422. Ingres, The Spring, the artist's master- 
piece, finished in 1856 ; *2026. Mending, Madonna and Child, with 
the donors ; *2480, *2481. Ant. Moro (Sir Anthony More), Portraits ; 
three other paintings by Dutch masters; no number, French School 
(15th cent.?), The Empress Helen witnessing the miracle of the true 
Cross. — On our first visit to the gallery it is, however, advisable 
to traverse the Salle Duchatel without stopping and begin our in- 
spection with the — 

'"Salon Carre, or Salle IV, which contains the chief works of 
the Italian, particularly of the Venetian, School and a few celebrated 
masterpieces of the Flemish, Dutch, and French schools. + The ceil- 
ing is richly sculptured by Simart. 

To the right of the entrance: *2113. Rubens, Helena Fourment, 
second wife of the artist, and two of her children (unfinished) ; 
*1505. Raphael, Portrait of Count Baldassare Castiglione (who wrote 
a poem on this picture), painted about 1516, with masterly manage- 
ment of the colour. — **1117. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine 
of Alexandria ; 'so beautiful are the faces that they seem to have 
been painted in Paradise', says Vasari. 

**1601. Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of Mona (Madonna) Lisa, 
wife of the painter's friend Fr. del Giocondo of Florence, and hence 
known as 'La Gioconda'. Leonardo worked four years on this paint- 
ing and then left it unfinished. 

1136. Oiorgione (Barbarelli), Rustic festival : very charming from 
the depth and warmth of the colouring, the golden glow of the flesh 
tones, and the rich treatment of the landscape, in spite of its having 
been freely retouched. *2547. Rembrandt, Portrait of Hendrickje 
Stoffels (1652). 

*1590. Titian, 'La Maitresse du Titien', a girl at a toilet-table, 
with a man behind her with two mirrors, probably Laura de' Dianti 
and Duke Alfonso of Ferrara, painted shortly after 1520. 

'The light is concentrated with unusual force upon the face and bust 
of the girl, whilst the form and features of the man are lost in darkness. 
We pass with surprising rapidity from the most delicate silvery grada- 
tions of sunlit flesh and drapery to the mysterious depth of an almost 
unfathomable gloom , and we stand before a modelled balance of light 
and shade that recalls Da Vinci, entranced by a chord of tonic harmony 
as sweet and as thrilling as was ever struck by any artist of the Vene- 
tian school.' C. & C. 

Above: *1193. Paolo Veronese, Christ in the house of Simon the 
Pharisee, painted in 1570-75. — *1464. Tintoretto (Jac. Robusti), 
Susannah and the Elders. — Above, 1221. Annibale Carracci, Pieta. 

*1498. Raphael, 'Holy Family of Francis I.' (painted at Rome 
in 1518). 

+ A list of the artistsFwith their dates, etc., will be found at p. 436. 

122 4. LOUVRE. first tloor : 

Above, 1453. Ouido Reni, Hercules and Achelous. 

*741. JV. Poussin, Diogenes throwing away his bowl, a serene 
and luminous composition. Above, 1427. Jac. da Ponte (Basiano), 
Descent from the Cross. 

*1731. Velazquez, Infanta Margaret, afterwards wife of Leopold I. 
of Austria. 

**1496. Raphael, Madonna and Child with St. John, usually 
called 'La Belle Jardiniere'; Florence, 1507. 

1644. Italian School (16th cent.), Portrait of a youth, probably 
by Franciabigio . Above, 437. Jouvenetf'le Grand?), Descent from the 
Cross (1697). Above the door: 1150. Barocci, Virgin enthroned. 

*1598. Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Infant Christ with 
St. Anne. 

This cartoon was brought to France by Leonardo and was probably 
executed by himself. It, however, afterwards found its way back to Italy, 
where Kicbelieu bought it in 1629. The drapery of the Madonna has lost 
its colour. — There are several sketches for this picture at Windsor. 

Above, no number, Ouido Reni, Hercules on the funeral pyre. 

*288. J. Fouquet, Portrait of Guillaume Juvenal des Ursins, 
Chancellor of Charles VII. and Louis XL; *1190. Paolo Veronese, 
Holy Family; *743. N. Poussin, Portrait of the artist. Above, 1143. 
Ouercino (Barbieri), Patron-saints of Modena. 

**1192. Paolo Veronese , Marriage at Cana , finished in 1563, 
a perfect 'symphony in colours'. This is the largest picture in the 
collection, being 32 ft. long and 21 ft. high, and occupies nearly 
the whole S. wall. 

In all probability it celebrates the marriage of Eleanor of Austria to 
William Gonzaga in 1561. Hence the numerous portraits, the identity of 
which has been much canvassed. The musicians are portraits of Venetian 
painters of the day. Paolo Veronese himself, in white, plays on the viol, 
behind him Tintoretto with a similar instrument, on the other side Titian 
with a bass-viol, and the elder Bassano with a flute. 

*1592. Titian, Young man in black, holding a glove, or 'L'Homme 
au Gant', an admirable portrait of his middle period (comp. p. 119); 
1354. B. Luini, Infant Christ asleep. *1588. Titian, Portrait of 
Francis I. of France, painted from a medal, and ye^t reproducing the 
characteristically quaint features and royal bearing of that monarch. 
Above, 1219. Annibale Carracci, The Madonna appearing to St. Luke 
and St. Catharine. 

*1504. Raphael, St. Michael the conqueror of Satan, painted in 
1518; a work of sublime poetical character. Above (no number), 
Ouido Reni, Hercules and the Lerntean hydra. 

Above the door to the Galerie d'Apollon (p. 144) : 1242. Pon- 
tormo (Jacopo Carrucci), Visitation. 

**1584. Titian, Entombment of Christ, a picture of marvellous 
effectiveness, painted for the Duke of Mantua about 1523. 

Above, *1198. Paolo Veronese, Jupiter hurling thunderbolts 
against the Crimes, once a ceiling-painting in the assembly-hall of 
the Council of Ten in the Doges' Palace at Venice. 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 123 

To the left, **1583. Titian, Christ crowned with thorns, painted 
about 1560. Above, 1538. L. Spada, Concert. 

*1H8. Correggio , Antiope and Jupiter disguised as a satyr, 
painted about 1518 for the Duchess of Mantua. Above, *1454. 
Outdo Rent, Dejaneira carried off by the Centaur Nessus. — Over 
the entrance to the Salle Duchatel : 723. Nic. Poussin, St. Francis 
Xavier resuscitating a dead woman in Japan, 

We may now pass through the door nearly opposite and enter 
the Grande Galerie (p. 124) ; but in order to obtain a better chrono- 
logical survey of the Italian School, it is advisable to visit next the 
so-called Salle des Primitifs, the first saloon on the right. 

' The Salle des Primitifs Italiens, or Salle VII, contains chiefly 
pictures by Florentine masters of the 14th and 15th centuries. 

To the right of the entrance: 1566. Perugino (Pietro Vannucci), 
St. Paul. — Right wall : 1323. Benedetto Ghirlandajo, Christ on the 
way to Golgotha; *1263. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna and Child with 
saints; 1528. School of Signorelli, Madonna and Child; 1482. Cosimo 
Rosselli(i), Madonna enthroned; Luca Signorelli, *1527. Fragment 
of a larger composition, 1525. Nativity of the Virgin; 1661. Florentine 
School (15th cent), Madonna and saints; 1415 and (farther on) 
1414. Francesco Pesello (Pesellino), Resurrection of Christ, SS. Cos- 
mas and Damian, St. Francis receiving the stigmata. 

•1319. Benozzo Gozzoli, Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas. 

Above is Christ, with Paul, Moses, and the Evangelists. In the centre 
of the glory, St. Thomas Aquinas between Aristotle and Plato ; at his feet, 
overwhelmed by his eloquence, is Guillaume de St. Amour, a professor of 
the Sorbonne; below, an ecclesiastical assembly with Pope Alexander IV. 

Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole , **1290. Coronation of MaTy, 
with predella, 'the colouring worthy of an angel's hand' (Vasari) ; 
1293. Martyrdom of SS. Cosmas and Damian, 1291. Daughter of 
Herodias dancing. Above, 1348. Lorenzo Monaco, SS. Laurence, 
Agnes, and Margaret (triptych); 1640. Italian School (15th cent.), 
St. Louis, bishop of Toulouse; 1279. Gentile da Fabriano (Lorenzo 
di San Severino?), Madonna; 1280. Gentile da Fabriano, Marriage 
of the Virgin, Circumcision, and Presentation in the Temple; *1383. 
(above), Simone Martini, Christ on the. way to Golgotha. 

On the wall at the end (the door, sometimes closed, gives on the 
Escalier Daru and the French rooms on the left): 1151. Bartolo 
(Sienese painter), Presentation in the Temple ; 1302. Taddeo Gaddi, 
Beheading of John the Baptist, Mt. Calvary, Death of a martyr 
(triptych); *1260. Cimabue, Madonna and angels, from San Francesco 
at Pisa (freely restored) ; *1312. Giotto, St. Francis of Assisi receiv- 
ing the stigmata; below, Vision of Innocent III., the same pope 
confirming the statutes of the order of St. Francis, and St. Francis 
preaching to the birds : a genuine, signed picture, painted for San 
Francesco at Pisa. 

On the left wall: 1301. Taddeo Gaddi, Annunciation; 1563. 

124 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

Turino Vanni, "Virgin and Child. Farther on, several interesting 
works of the School of Giotto. Then: 1345. School of Filippo 
Lippi, Virgin and Child; above, 1397. Neri di Bicci, Virgin and 
Child; 1273. Paolo Uccello (diDono), Battle; 1274. Florentine School 
(15th cent.), John the Baptist when a youth; *1272. Paolo Uccello, 
Portraits of Giotto, Uccello, Donatello, Brunelleschi, and Manetti; 
1658. Florentine School (15th cent.), St. Jerome; Fra Filippo IAppi, 
*1344. Madonna and Child with two sainted abbots, *1343. Nativity; 
1300a. Alessio Baldovinetti (not Piero della Francesco.), Madonna; 
Domenico Ghirlandajo, *1321. Visitation, a powerful work (1491), 
1322. Portraits of a man and a boy; 1367a. Bastiano Mainardi, 
Madonna; *1296. Sandro Botticelli, Madonna with the Child and 
John the Baptist (a fine youthful work) ; 1367. Mainardi, Madonna 
and Child; 1663 and (above) 1663a. North Italian School, Portraits; 
1300. Botticelli, Fragment of apredella; 1300a. School of Botticelli, 
Madonna and Child. 

On the entrance- wall : 1295. Botticelli, The Magnificat. Above 
the door : 1512. Lo Spagna (? not Raphael), God the father and two 
angels, fresco removed from the Villa Magliana near Rome. 

The Grande Galerie, or Room VI (comp. Plan, p. 115), is divided 
into six bays ('Travees') marked A, B, C, D, E, F on the dividing 
arches. It contains the remaining works of the Italian Schools, 
and also the Spanish, British, German, and part of the Flemish 
pictures (comp. p. 129). 

Bat A : Italians (continued). 
To the right: 1372. Giannicola di Paolo Manni, Holy Family ; 
Perugino, 1567. Conflict between Cupid and Chastity (see below), 
1565. Holy Family ; Francesco Francia (Raibolini) , *1436. Cruci- 
fixion, 1435. Nativity, 1437. Virgin and Child (school-piece). Above, 
1261. Lorenzo Costa, Court of the Muses, held by Isabella d'Este, an 
attractive allegory. This picture, together with Nos. 1375, 1376, and 
1567, originally hung in the 'Paradiso', Isabella's private suite in 
the Corte Reale at Mantua. — 1241. Pontormo (Jacopo Carrucci), 
Portrait of an engraver; 1417. School of Pinturicchio, Madonna and 
Child; 1422. Oiulio Romano, Portrait; 1556. Cosimo Tura, Pieta, a 
crude work, but charged with feeling; 1167. Francesco Bianchi, Ma- 
donna enthroned, between two saints; 1676. Lodovico Brea (of Nice; 
15th cent.), Annunciation; 1324. Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Coronation 
of the Virgin; Mariotto Albertinelli , *1 114 (above), Madonna and 
Child between two saints, 1115. Christ and the Magdalen; 1608. 
Paolo Zacchiail Vecchio, Portrait of a musician. — Between Nos. 1114 
and 1608, no number, Fr. Francia, Madonna and Child with saints. 
1516. Andrea del Sarto, Holy Family; 1264. Lorenzo di Credi, Christ 
and the Magdalen (Noli me tangere) ; 1651 a. Andrea del Sarto, Por- 
trait of Andrea Fausti, counsellor of the Medici; above, 1603. Copy 
of Leonardo da Vinci's fresco of the Last Supper, probably by his 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 125 

pupil Marco da Oggiono, one-third smaller than the original ; 1240. 
Pontormo, Holy Family; 1174. Bartolomeo Bononi, Virgin and 
Child; *l4l8. Giulio Romano, Nativity. 

To the left, beginning again at the entrance: [1400. Marco 
Palmezzano, Dead Christ; *1526. Luca Signorelli, Adoration of the 
Magi; 1303. Raffaellino del Garho, Coronation of the Virgin; above, 
1517. Andrea del Sarto, Annunciation; 1416. Piero di Cosimo, Co- 
ronation of the Virgin; Fra Bartolomeo, *1154. Holy Family, 1153. 
Annunciation; 1133. Michaelangelo Anselmi, Virgin between St. 
Stephen and St. John; 1515. Andrea del Sarto, Holy Family; Agnolo 
Bronzino, 1184. Portrait of a sculptor, No number, Holy Family ; 1384. 
Massone, Nativity, with saints and donors ; above, 1286. Gaudenzio 
Ferrari, St. Paul. Borgognone, 1181. Presentation in the Temple, 
1182 a. St. Augustine and donor, 1182. St. Peter of Verona and a 
kneeling woman. 1265 (below, no label), Leonardo da Vinci, An- 
nunciation ; *1488. Sacchi, The four Church Fathers (or the Evan- 
gelists?). — Leonardo da Vinci, *1597. John the Baptist (comp. with 
No. 1602). *1599. Holy Family, known as 'LaVierge auxRochers', 
a work of high excellence (the shadows have, unfortunately, become 
very dark), *1600. Female portrait, presumed to be that of Lucrezia 
Crivelli (perhaps by Boltraffio), and formerly called 'La belle Ferron- 
niere' (mistress of Francis I. ; the French name for the ornament she 
wears on her forehead is 'ferronniere'), 1602. Bacchus (school-piece). 
— Andrea Solario, *1632. Crucifixion (1503), fascinating in colour, 
*1531. Portrait of Charles dAmboise, governor of Milan under 
Louis XII., 1530. Madonna with the green cushion (with a beautiful 
landscape), 1533. Head of John the Baptist. Bernardino Luini, 1356. 
Forge of Vulcan, *1355. Daughter of Herodias, 1353. Holy Family. 
1604. School of Leonardo (perhaps Cesare da Sesto), Madonna with 
the scales; *1169. Boltraffio, Madonna of the Casio Family (1500). 

On a stand between the columns of bay B : to the right, 1462. 
Daniele da Volterra, David and Goliath; to the left, the samejsubject 
seen from the other side. 

Bay B : Italians (continued). 
Left wall: *1376. Andrea Mantegna , The Vices banished by 
Wisdom, with charming putti (comp. No. 1261 on p. 124); 1158. 
Giovanni Bellini^), Madonna with SS. Peter and Sebastian (in- 
scription forged ?) ; above , 1268. Carlo Crivelli, St. Bernardino of 
Siena; Andrea Mantegna, *1374. Madonna della Vittoria, one of his 
last works, painted for Giov. Franc. Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, in 
commemoration of the battle of Taro (1495); *1373. Crucifixion, 
one of the predelle of the large altar-piece of San Zeno at Verona 
(1459) ; above, 1607. Bart. Vivarini, San Giovanni da Capistrano ; 
*1375. A. Mantegna, Mount Parnassus (see No. 1261 on p. 124); 
*1156. and no number (above), Gentile Bellini, Portraits; 1157. 
School of Gentile Bellini (more probably by Vincenzo di Biagio, sur- 

126 4. LODVRB. First Floor: 

named Catena), Reception of a Venetian ambassador at Cairo ; *1134. 
Antonello da Messina, Portrait of a man, generally known as the Con- 
dottiere (1475), full of energy; *1211. Vittore Carpaccio, Preaching 
of St. Stephen ; *1259. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna and Child ; 
above, 1351. Lor. Lotto, Holy Family; *1399. Palma Vecchio, 
Adoration of the Shepherds (spoiled) ; 1318. Qirolamo dai Libri, 
Virgin and Child; 1135. Oiorgione (Palma Vecchio ?), Holy Family; 
1673. Venetian School (J6th cent.), Portrait. — Between Nos. 1673 
and 1352 : no number, Vincenzo di Biagio (Catena), Portrait (panel 
with a small fastening). — 1352. Sebastiano del Piombo, The Salu- 
tation (Rome, 1521; unfinished), a most impressive picture ; above, 
1394. Bart. Montagna, Juvenile trio; 1350. Lor. Lotto, St. Jerome, 
in a beautiful rocky landscape, a youthful work (1500); *1577. Titian, 
Madonna and Child with saints; above, Alejandro Bonvicino, sur- 
named Moretto, 1176. SS. Bonaventura and Anthony of Padua, 1175. 
SS. Bernardino of Siena and Louis of Toulouse. 

Still on the left, a farther series of excellent works of the Venetian 
school. — Titian, 1579. Holy Family (perhaps not entirely by the 
master's own hand), *1580. Holy Family, *1581. Christ and the 
two disciples at the Supper of Emmaus, painted about 1547, *1578. 
'La Madonna del Coniglio', or the Virgin with the rabbit, painted 
in 1530. — Above, 1179. Bordone, Portrait; Titian, *1589. Allegory, 
painted for Alfonso dAvalos, Marchese del Vasto (d. 1546), repre- 
senting that general taking leave of his wife, sister of Johanna of 
Aragon, when summoned by the emperor to Vienna in 1532 to 
fight against the Turks, *1593. Portrait. 1674d. Bonifazio, Madonna 
with SS. John, Paul, Joseph, and Ursula. 

*1196. Paolo Veronese, Christ at Emmaus (to the right, por- 
traits of the painter, his wife, and his brother) ; *1591. Titian, Por- 
trait of a man in black; above, 1674 e. Venetian School (16th cent.; 
Tintoretto?), Madonna enthroned in clouds; 158S. Titian, Council 
of Trent; Tintoretto, 1467. Portrait, *1 465. Paradise ; above, 1170. 
Bonifazio, Resurrection of Lazarus. Paolo Veronese, 1199. Young 
mother, 1195. Golgotha; 1185. Johann von Calcar, Portrait of a 
young man; above, 1180. Bordone, Man and child. 

To the right (beginning at the end of Bay A) : Paolo Veronese, 
1187. Destruction of Sodom, 1194. Bearing of the Cross (unfinished), 
1188 (above), Susannah and. the Elders. Titian, 1585. St. Jerome, 
in a fine moonlit landscape, 1582. Christ on the way to Golgotha. 
1349. Lor. Lotto, Christ and the adulteress. 

**1587. Titfan, Jupiter and Antiope, known as the 'Venus del 
Pardo', painted in 1574. Comp. p. 118. 

'Though injured by fire, travels, cleaning, and restoring, the master* 
piece still exhibits Titian in possession of all the energy of his youth, 
and leads us back involuntarily to the days when he composed the 
Bacchanals. The same beauties of arrangement, form, light, and shade, 
and some of the earlier charms of colour are here united to a new scale 
of effectiveness due to experience and a magic readiness of hand. . . . The 

Picture Gallery. 4 LOUVRE. 127 

shape of Antiope is modelled with a purity of colour and softness of 
rounding hardly surpassed in the Parian marble of the ancients.' 

C. & C. 

1171. Bonifazio, Holy Family; 1547. lie-polo , Last Supper. 
Above, 1413. Ant. Pellegrini, Allegory. Ouardi, 1331, 1333, and 
(farther on) 1334, 1330. Venetian fetes. *1203. Canaletto (Antonio 
Canale), Grand Canal at Venice. Above, 1425. Bassano (Jacopo 
da Ponte), "Wedding at Cana. 

1328, 1332, 1329. Ouardi, Views in Venice; 1189. Paolo 
Veronese, Swoon of Esther (very lifelike and dramatic). 

Farther on, to the right, beyond the door of Room V11I (p. 143): 
1197. Paolo Veronese, St. Mark crowning the three theological virtues, 
probably intended for a ceiling. Panini, 1403. Interior of St. Peter's 
at Rome, 1409. Concert at Rome; 1149. Barocci, Circumcision; 
Annibale Carracci, 1233. Hunting, 1232. Fishing ; Ouido Reni, 1450. 
St. Sebastian, 1439. David with the head of Goliath; *1613. Domeni- 
chino (Zampieri), St. Cecilia; 1163. Pietro da Cortona, Madonna; 
above, 1139. Guercino, Raising of Lazarus; 1288. Feti, Melancholy. 

Bat C: Italians (Raphael). 

To the right: 1564. Perugino, Madomu and Child; 'an early 
work, remarkable for clearness of outline, pure and rich brilliancy of 
colour, and soft, pale yellow flash tone' (C. & C"). — 1566a. Perugino, 
St. Sebastian; above, 1511. School of Raphael, St. Catharine of 
Alexandria; 1539. Lo Spagna, Nativity. 

To the left: 1513b. Raphael (?), Madonna with the carnation; 
above, 1513 a. Raphael (f), Vision of Ezekiel (God the Father above 
the symbols of the Evangelists); Raphael, 1508. Portraits, 1500 
(above), John the Baptist in the wilderness, probably genuine, bat 
completely ruined; 1668a. Umbrian School, St. Sebastian; above, 
1509bis. Raphael(J), Head of St. Elizabeth; *1506. Raphael, Portrait 
of a young man, painted after 1515 (long erroneously regarded as 
a portrait of himself); *1509. Perugino (not Raphael), Apollo and 
Marsyas. Raphael, *1497. Madonna with the veil, also called the 
Virgin with the blue diadem, *1501 (above), St. Margaret, painted, 
according to Vasari, almost entirely by Giulio Romano (spoiled), 
1503. St. George, *1507. Portrait of Johanna of Aragon, painted in 
1518 (the head only, according to Vasari, by Raphael, the rest by 
Giulio Romano), 1502. St. Michael. Above, 1420. Giulio Romano, 
Triumph of Titus and Vespasian. 

Bat D : Italian, Spanish, British, and German Masters. 
To the right: Caravaggio, 1122. Fortune-teller, *1124. Portrait 
of Alof de Wignacourt (1601), 1123. Concert, *1121. Death of the 
Virgin; 1368. Manfredi, Fortune-teller; Salvator Rosa, 1430. Scene 
in the Abruzzi, with soldiers, 1478. Saul and the Witch of Endor, 
•1479. Cavalry engagement, 'a work of rare energy and singular 
beauty'. — There are a few more Italian pictures in RoomIX(p. 138). 

128 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

Beyond the door of Room IX begins the Spanish School. 1703. 
Collantes, Moses and the Burning Bush; *1716. MuriUo, Miracle of 
St. Diego, known as the 'Cuisine des Anges' (a poor convent pro- 
vided with food by angels), a singular mixture of mysticism and 
realism; no number, Ribera(j>), Pieta. 

To the left (beginning over again) : 1706. Herrera the Elder, 
St. Basil expounding his doctrines ; Ribera, *1723. St. Paul the 
Hermit, 1722. Entombment, *1721. Adoration of the Shepherds. 
MuriUo, 1712. Madonna with the rosary, 1714. Jesus in Gethsemane, 
1715. Scourging of Christ; *1734. Velazquez, Thirteen cavaliers; 
*1708. MuriUo, Immaculate Conception. 

**1709. MuriUo, The Immaculate Conception, one of his greatest 
works (1678), pervaded with an intense sentiment of religious en- 
thusiasm. As usual in the Spanish School, the master has drawn 
his inspiration from the 'woman clothed with the sun, and the moon 
under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars (Rev. 
xii. 1). The picture was bought in 1852 from Marshal Soult for 
615,300 fr. (24,6000- — MuriUo, **1710. Birth of the Virgin, *1717. 
Beggar-boy 'cherchant a de"truire ce qui l'incommode' (the intent ex- 
pression is full of life and the light admirable), *1713. Holy Family 
(the light and the harmonious colouring are of great beauty). — 
1732. Velazquez, Philip IV of Spain; *1738, 1739. Zurbaran, Two 
scenes from the legend of St. Bonaventura (1629); *Ooya, 1704 a. 
Lady with a fan, 1704. Guillemardet, French ambassador at Madrid, 
1705. Portrait of a woman. 

British School. To the right, beyond the window (covered in 
winter with a green curtain) : 1817a. Raeburn, Portrait; 1816a. 
Phillips, Portrait of Lamartine; *1804, 1805. Bonington, Views of 
Versailles and Venice; 1818. Allan Ramsay, Charlotte Sophia, 
Princess of Wales; 1812bis. Hoppner, Countess of Oxford; above, 
1816. Opie, The woman in white ; 1817. Raeburn, Naval pensioner 
1805bis. Bonington, The old governess; above, 1813. Lawrence, Lord 
Whitworth. To the left, beginning over again: 1803. Bonington, 
Card. Mazarin and Anne of Austria; 1809. Constable, Hampstead 
Heath; above, 1802. Bonington, Francis I. and the Duchesse 
d'Etampes; 1818a. Romney, Sir John Stanley; no number, Hopp- 
ner, Portraits of a young man and woman ; above, no number, Rae- 
burn, Portrait of Mrs. Maconichie with her child; *1819. Wilson, 
Landscape; 1813a. Lawrence, Portrait of Jules Angerstein and 
hiswife (1792); Constable, 1810. The Glebe Farm (spoiled), 1807. 
The rainbow; 1801. Beechey, Brother and sister; *1814. Morland, 
The halt ; Constable, 1806. The village , No number, The mill. 

German School. To the right: 2706. Denner, Old woman; 
2712. Heinsius, Princess Victoire, daughter of Louis XV. ; 2751, 
2752. Melchior Wyrsch (Swiss), Man and wife; *2722. Angelica 
Kauffmann, Portraits of Baroness Krudener and of her daughter; 
2708. Dietrich, Woman taken in adultery; 2723. Raphael Mengs, 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 129 

Queen Maria Amalia Christina of Spain ; 2738. Master of the Death 
of the Virgin (Cologne; 16th cent.), Last Supper, Preparation for 
the Entombment, and St. Francis receiving the stigmata ; 2736a. 
German School (15th cent.), Madonna; no number, German School, 
St. Adrian; Diirer, *2709. Head of an old man, 2709a. Head of a 
child. 2738 d. (above) and 2738c. (farther on), Master of St. Severin, 
Scenes from the life of St. Ursula; *2724. Mignon, Chaffinch's nest; 
2745. German School (16th cent.), Judgment of Paris; 2705. Lucas 
Cranach, Portrait. 

To the left, beginning again: Holbein the Younger, *2713. Portrait 
of Nic. Kratzer of Munich, astronomer to Henry VIII. of England, 
dated 1528, 2719. Portrait of Sir Richard Southwell, a replica, or 
perhaps a skilful copy of the picture at Florence , *2718. Anne of 
Cleves, fourth wife of Henry VIII., *2715. Erasmus of Rotterdam 
(1523), exceedingly lifelike and admirably executed, with mar- 
vellously expressive hands (replicas at Longford Castle and Bale) , 
*2714. William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, at the age of 
seventy, dated 1528. 2710. Ad. Elsheimer, Rest on the flight into 
Egypt; 2732. Rottenhammer, Death of Adonis, a very dramatic work; 
*2737. Cologne School (15th cent.), Descent from the Cross; 2741. 
German School (16th cent.), Portrait; 2703. Lucas Cranach, Venus 
in a landscape. 

In the centre of the room : 2701. Hans Sebald Beham, Table-top 
painted with four scenes from the life of David (1534). 

Bat E: Flemish School. 

To the right : 1960. Fr. Duchatel, Portrait. A. F. van der Meulen, 
2033, 2032, 2040, 2045, 2047, 2049, 2031, 2037, 2039, 2035, 
2044. Pictures relating chiefly to the campaigns in the Nether- 
lands under Louis XIV.; 1903a. V. Boucquet, Standard-bearer; 
2083. Rubens, Triumph of Religion, painted, like the companion 
picture (2076) opposite, in 1628 for the convent of Loeches near 
Madrid; above, 2068. Pourbus, Last Supper. Phil, de Champaigne, 
1947. Portrait of himself, *1394. The nuns Catherine Agnes Arnauld 
and Catherine de Ste. Suzanne (the painter's daughter) praying for 
the recovery of the latter from paralysis at the abbey of Port-Royal, 
1941. Young girl, 1928. Last Supper, 1932. Pieta, 1927. Christ at 
the house of Simon the Pharisee, 1939. Robert Arnauld d'Andilly 

To the left, beginning again: 1921. Jan Brueghel (Velvet 
Brueghel), Battle of Arbela; Jan Meel or Miel, 2022. Halt, 2023. 
Travellers' meal; 1989. Francken the Elder, Story of Esther; above, 
2030a. Jan Metsys, David and Bathsheba (1562) ; 2165. David Tenters 
the Younger, Smoker; 2072. Pourbus, Marie de Me'dicis; 1991. 
Francken the Younger, Passion; Jan Brueghel, 1920. Air (1621), 
1919. Earth, or the Terrestrial Paradise(1611); 2074. Pourbus, Guil- 
laume du Vair, keeper of the Great Seal ; above, 2191. Otho van 

BAEDEKER Pfl- ! ° <R<h V.M* Q 

130 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

Veen or Venius , The artist and his family ; 1952. Gonzales Coqucs, 
Family portraits ; *2076. Rubens, Elijah in the wilderness (see p. 129; 
No. 208^). — David Teniers the Younger, *2156. The Prodigal Son 
(1644) , *2158. Temptation of St. Anthony , 2 I63bis, *2162. Tavern- 
scenes , *2155. Peter's Denial (among the soldiers at the table is the 
artist himself), 2163. Tavern-scene , 2160. Tavern by a brook, 2161. 
Rustic dance, 2166. Knife-grinder, *2159. Village-fete, 2168. 
Portrait of an old man, 2167. Bagpipe-player, *2157. The Works of 
Mercy, 2164. Hawking. 

Above, 1930. Phil, de Champaigne, Crucifixion; Snyders, 2144. 
Boar-hunt, 2141. Earthly Paradise; between these, 1953. G. de 
Crayer, Ecstasy of St. Augustine ; 2079. Rubens, Madonna in a gar- 
land of flowers; 2137. D. Ryckaert, The artist's studio; *1992. 
Fyt, Game and fruit ; 2140 a. Jan Siberechts, Pastoral scene ; above, 
2169. Teniers the Younger, Blowing soap-bubbles ; 2369. Sir Peter 
Lely(T), Portrait of the Duchess of Bedford, after Van Dyck; 2147. 
Snyders, Fruit and animals. 

Bat F: Flemish School (continued). 

To the right: Jordaens , 2013. Infancy of Jupiter , 2012. The 
Evangelists, *2015. Concert after supper, 2011. Christ driving the 
money-changers out of the Temple, somewhat trivial in composition 
but masterly in its realistic vigour , *2014. Twelfth night. Above, 
2145. Snyders, Fishmongers; 2005, 2004. C. Huysmans, Landscapes ; 
2011a. Jordaens, Last Judgment. 

To the left, beginning again: Rubens, 2112. Elisabeth of France, 
daughter of Henri IV., *2075. Flight of Lot (1625), 2080. Flight 
into Egypt (sketch), 2078. Madonna, 2117. Landscape, 2081. Raising 
of Lazarus. — : *1966. A. van Dyck, Rinaldo and Armida ; *1985. 
Van Dyck or Rubens (?), J. G. Richardot; *2077. Rubens, Adoration 
of the Magi (about 1612); *1975. Van Dyck, Duke of Richmond; 
Rubens, *2114. Portrait of a lady, *2115. Flemish Fair (ca. 1634?; 
see p. 119). 

"We now enter the — 

Salle Van Dyck. To the right, three pictures by "Rubens, belonging 
to the series mentioned on p. 131 : 2087. The education of Marie de 
MeMicis, conducted by Apollo (playing the violoncello), Minerva, and 
Mercury; on the right, the Graces ; 2096. Regency of the queen under 
the protection of Olympus : Mars, Apollo, and Minerva drive away 
the hostile powers ; Juno and Jupiter cause the chariot of France to 
be drawn by gentle doves ; 2086. Birth of Marie (1573, at Florence) : 
Lucina, the goddess of births, is present with her torch; Florentia, 
the goddess of the city, holds the new-born infant; on the right is 
the river-god of the Arno. ■ — 1983. Van Dyck, Portrait of the artist; 
*2116. Rubens, Tournament at sunset, a spirited sketch; above, 
2130. Rubens (f), Diogenes searching for a man. — Van Dyck, 1972. 
Half-length portrait of the Spanish general Francisco de Moncada, 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 131 

commander in the Netherlands , 1973. Portraits of a man and a child, 
1977. Portrait, 1964 (above), St. Sebastian, **1967. Portrait of 
Charles I. of England, with his horse held by an equerry : a truly 
kingly portrait, executed with 'respectful familiarity' and marked 
by aristocratic bearing , unselfconsciousness , beauty , and the most 
refined 'joie de vivre' (ca. 1635); 1976. Portrait, 1965. Tenus 
demanding arms for jEneas from Vulcan , *1974. Lady and her 
daughter , *1969. Duke Charles Louis of Bavaria (full-face) and his 
brother Robert, Duke of Cumberland, 1961. Madonna, *1971. 
Equestrian portrait of Francisco de Moncada (see above), *1962. 
Virgin and donors. 

Beyond the entrance to the Rubens Gallery (see below) : *2084. 
Rubens, Tomyris, Queen of the Scythians, causing the head of 
Cyrus to be dipped in a vessel full of blood ; *1954. O. de Crayer, 
Equestrian portrait of Ferdinand of Austria, Stadtholder of the 
Netherlands; 2108. Rubens, Marie de Me'dicis as Bellona; 1938. 
Phil, de Champaigns, Card. Richelieu. Rubens, *2111. Baron Henri 
de Vicq, Netherlandish ambassador at the French court , 2082. Cru- 
cifixion , above, 2106. Grand-Duke Francis of Tuscany, father of 
Marie de Me'dicis, 2107. Johanna of Austria, his wife. *2016. Jor- 
daens, Portrait ; *1937. Phil, de Chanvpaigne, Louis XIII. crowned by 
Victory; 21 10. Rubens, Sketches for Nos. 2085 and 2105 (see below). 

"We now descend the stairs to the — 

Rubens Gallery, t e former 'Salle des Etats', which was built at 
the end of the Second Empire but remained unfinished until recently. 
It contains a series of **Eighteen large paintings by Rubens. These 
were ordered by Marie de Medicis, widow of Henri IV., for the 
Luxembourg Palace (p. 307). Rubens came to Paris in 1622, where 
he painted the sketches, after which he returned to Antwerp and 
executed the pictures there with the aid of his pupils. In 1625 the 
completed works were brought to Paris, where they received a few 
final touches from Rubens himself. The effect of the paintings has 
been considerably enhanced by the tasteful decoration of the room 
and the favourable lighting from above. 

The scenes are as follows, enumerated from the entrance, al- 
ternately left and right. — Left, 2085. The Fates spin the for- 
tunes of Marie de Me'dicis. — Right , 2105. The God of Time 
brings the truth to light; above is the king giving his mother a 
chaplet of peace. — On the walls. Left, 2088. Henri IV. receives 
the portrait of the princess ; above are Jupiter and Juno ; beside the 
king appears Gallia. — Right, 2089. The marriage by proxy (1600). 
— Left, 2090. The queen lands at Marseilles (1600). — Right, 
2091. Wedding-festival at Lyons; Henri IV. in- the character of 
Jupiter, and Marie de Me'dicis in that of Juno ; in the chariot in 
front the patron-goddess of Lyons. — Left, 2092. Birth of Louis XIII. 
at Fontainebleau (1601); behind the queen is Fortuna; the infant 


132 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

is in the arms of the genius of Health. — Right, 2093. Henri IV., 
starting on his campaign against Austria (1610), entrusts the queen 
■with the regency. — Left, 2094. Coronation of the queen by Cardinal 
de Joyeuse at St. Denis ; the king is observed in a gallery above. — 
Right, 2095. Apotheosis of Henri IV. ; below are Victoria, in a yellow 
robe, and Bellona with a trophy; on the right is enthroned the 
mourning queen between Minerva and Wisdom; at the feet are 
Gallia and noblemen. — Left, 2097. The queen in the field during 
the civil war. — Right, 2098. Treaty between France (on the right) 
and Spain (left) ; princesses of the allied courts are mutually destined 
to marry the heirs to the two thrones. — Left, 2099. Prosperity 
prevails during the regency ; the queen enthroned bears the scales 
of justice; on the right are Minerva, Fortuna, and Abundantia; on 
the left Gallia and Time; below are Envy, Hatred, and Malice. — 
Right, 2100. The queen commits the rudder of the ship of the state, 
rowed by the virtues, to Louis XIII. on his majority. — Left, 2101. 
Flight of the queen from the Chlteau of Blois (1619). — Right, 
2102. Reconciliation of the queen with Louis XIII. — Left, 2103. 
Peace. — Right, 2104. Marie de Me"dicis and Louis XIII. in Olympus ; 
below is the dragon of rebellion. 

We return to the entrance, ascend the steps, and then descend 
again to the right. In the passage (XXI), to the left, 2327. Abr. 
Bloemaert, Nativity. 

A series of Smaller Booms, adjoining the Rubens Gallery, and 
bearing the names of the masters chiefly represented in them, con- 
tain the rest of the Flemish and the Dutch pictures. 

Sallb Van Eyck (XX). — Opposite, in the centre, *1986. Jan 
van Eyck, The Chancellor Rollin revering the Virgin, with a beauti- 
fully-executed landscape. 

The spare and big-toned head of the chancellor is one of the most 
fascinating of Van Eyck's male portraits. The Virgin possesses neither youth 
nor beauty, and yet there is about her \ solemn and even imposing air. 

To the right and left : Hans Memling, *2027. Betrothal of St. 
Catharine, 2027a. John the Baptist and the donor, 2028a. (left), 
Portrait of a monk, *2024. John the Baptist, *2025. Magdalen. — ■ 
To the right, *2196. Roger van der Weyden, Descent from the 
Cross; to the left (above), *2205. Flemish School (16th cent.), 
Portrait; 2030. Quinten Matsys or Metsys, Christ blessing. — On 
the right wall, beginning again: above, 1951. Fitter Claeyssins, 
Head of Mary; *2202b. Flemish School (early 16th cent.), Madonna 
with donors (triptych); *2202. Flemish School (15th cent.), The 
Salutation ; 1999. Mabuse(Jan Gossaert), A Benedictine. Inthemiddle 
of the wall, 1957. Gerard David (?), Marriage at Cana. Above, 2201. 
Flemish School (16th cent.), Mater Dolorosa; 2200. Flemish School 
(15th cent.), Christ. — Left wall: Flemish School (15th cent.), *2298a. 
Last Judgment (perhaps the right wing of D. Bout's Resurrection at 
Lille), 2197. Holy Family ; Flemish School, 2205b. Charles V.; *2028. 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 133 

Mending, Triptych, with the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, Resurrec- 
tion, and. Ascension ; no number, Flemish School , Adam and Eve 
(1507), 2716. Philip le Bel; 1997, 1998. Mabuse (Gossaert), 
Diptych , with the Madonna and Child and a portrait of Joh. 
Carondelet, Chancellor of Flanders; 2203. Flemish School, Pieta; 
*2198. Flemish School (15th cent.), Pastoral instruction; 2204a. 
Flemish School (16th cent.), Portrait of an old man. 

Salle Anthonib Mob. (XXI). To the right: 2300. Dutch School 
(16th cent.), Abraham's sacrifice; 1917. Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 
The beggars ; above, 2641b. Dutch School (16th cent.), Portrait; No 
number, Brueghel the Elder, Parable of the-Seven Blind Men; above, 
2640. L. F. Zustris or Suster, Venus and Cupid; Dutch School 
(16th cent): 2641d. Portrait; no number, Lot and his daughters ; 
above, 2641. Girl reading. At the end (in the middle): No number, 
Oeertgen van St. Jans (Haarlem School, 15th cent.), Raising of La- 
zarus; above, 2001. Jan van Hemessen, Tobias restoring his father's 
sight (1555). 2029. Quinten Matsys, Banker and his wife. Above, 
no numbers , Flemish School (1507), Adam , Eve. 2299. Aertgen 
van Ley den (1498-1564), The way to Calvary; above, 2500a. P. 
Aertsen, surnamed Cabel (1586-1636), Fishermen. To the left: Sir 
Anthony More{f), 2481a. Edward VI. of England (?), *2479. Court- 
dwarf of Charles V., 2478. Portrait; 2601. Adr. van de Venne, Fete 
champetre, given in honour of the peace concluded in 1609 between 
the Spanish (under the Archduke Albert) and the Dutch. 

Salle Feans Hals (XXII). On the rear wall : Frans Hals, 
*2388, Portraits of the Van Beresteyn family of Haarlem ; to the left, 
F. Hals, *2386, *2387, Portraits of Nicolas van Beresteyn and his wife, 
founders of a beguinage at Haarlem, where these pictures were pre- 
served until 1881; between them, *2283. Portrait of Descartes, the 
philosopher (1655). Above the door: Honthorst, 2110, 2411. Elector 
Charles Louis of the Palatinate and his brother Rupert of Bavaria, 
Duke of Cumberland ; to the right and left : Honthorst, 2409. Con- 
cert, 2408. Pilate washing his hands. Farther on , to the right, 
2166, 2467. Mierevelt, Portraits; 2642. Dutch School of the 17th 
cent., Literary society ('Rederijkamer') ; on the rear wall, 2339a. 
Pieter Codde, The toilet; 1912. Adr. Brouwer, Dutch tavern; 2525. 
Hendrik Pot, Charles I. of England. 

Sallb Van Goten (XXIII). To the right : 2483. Aert van der 
Neer, Dutch canal; no number, Dutch School (1627), Portrait; Corn, 
van Poelenburgh, 2519. Pasture, 2520, 2521. "Women bathing, 2522. 
Ruins of the imperial palaces on the Palatine and of the Temple 
of Minerva Medica at Rome; 2604. Simon de Vlieger, Calm sea; 
above, 2332. Jan Both, Landscape; 2376. Jan van Qoyen, Dutch 
canal; 2465. Mierevelt, Portrait of Oldenbarnevelt. — On the rear 
wall: 2561b. Sal. Ruysdael (?) , The ferry; 2576. Gerard Sprong, 
Portrait; 2605. Hendrik van Vliet, Portrait of a young man; 2375. 

134 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

J. van Ooyen, Dutch river-scene ; 2636. Wynants, Edge of a forest, 
■with accessories by A. van de Velde; 2327a. P. Bloot, The ferry; 
2438. A. de Keyset, Portrait; no number, H. van Vliet, Portrait. — 
To the left: *2389. Dirk Hals, Rustic festival (early work; ca. 1616); 
2586a. A. van den Tempel, Portrait; 2377. Van Ooyen, River-scene; 
*2392. I. D. de Heem, Frait and table- equipage ; 2340. Craesbeeck, 
The artist painting a portrait; 2315a. A. Palamedes, Portrait. Above 
the door: 2581. Hendr. Steenwyck the Younger, Christ at the house 
of Lazarus (1620). 

Salle Van Ostadb (XXIV). To the right: 2378. J. van Ooyen, 
Dutch scene; 2338. J. van- Cetilen, Portrait; 2510. Isaac van Ostade, 
Ice-bound canal; 2629. Philip Wouverman, Cavalry-charge; *2508. 
Is. van Ostade, Travellers halting; 2451. J. van Loo, Portrait of 
Michel Corneille, the painter. — *2484. Aert van der Neer, Village- 
street by moonlight ; *2495. Adr. van Ostade, The painter's family (?) ; 
2635. Ph. Wouverman, Tour de Nesle at Paris about 1664; 2490. 
Is. van Nickelen, Vestibule of a palace ; 2298. W. van Aelst, Grapes 
and peaches. — 2509. Is. van Ostade, Travellers halting; Adr. van 
Ostade, 2500. Smoker, 2501. Drinker; 2511. 7*. van Ostade, Ice- 
bound canal; Adr. van Ostade, *2498. Interior of a hut, *2497. Fish- 
market; above, 2395, 2396. Barth. van der Heist, Portraits; 2321. 
Berchem, Landscape with cattle. Over the entrance - door , 2223. 
Ph. Wouverman, Starting for the chase. Over the exit, Berchem, Ferry. 

Sallb Ruysdabl (XXV). To the right: *2559. J. van Ruysdael, 
Thicket; 2436. Kalf, Interior of a peasant's hut; 2590. Terburg, 
Assembly of ecclesiastics during the congress at Miinster; 2499. 
Adr. van Ostade, Merchant in his cabinet; *2394. Barth. van der 
Heist, Masters of the Guild of St. Sebastian, a smaller and well 
preserved replica of the Amsterdam painting (1653); above, 2365. 
A. van Everdingen, Landscape; 2561. J. van Ruysdael, Landscape; 
2562. Corn. Saftleven, Portrait of a painter ; *2561bis. J. van Ruys- 
dael, Margin of a wood. — 2401. J. van der Heyden, Dutch village; 
2391 . De Heem, Fruit and table-equipage ; above, 2302. J. Asselyn, 
Landscape; *2558. J. van Ruysdael, Stormy sea on the Dutch coast, 
a work of rare perfection; above, *2611. Jon Weenix, Spoils of the 
chase; 2400. Van der Heyden, View in a Dutch town. 2464a. G. Metsu, 
Still-life ; 2303. J. Asselyn , Landscape (companion to No. 2302, 
see above). — *2588. Terburg, The music-lesson (a work of very 
delicate characterisation; 1660); 2571. H. M. Sorgh, Kitchen; 
Gabriel Metsu, 2463. Dutch cook, 2461. Chemist; *2560. J. van 
Ruysdael, Sunbeam effect (figures by Ph. Wouverman; poetically 
rendered and masterly in its silvery greenish-grey tone), *2667 
(above), River in a wood (figures by Berchem), an important work of 
the master's best period; G. Metsu, 2460. Music-lesson, 2462. Dutch 
woman, 2458. Vegetable-market at Amsterdam ; above, 2436a. Kalf, 
Still-life. Above the door, 2306. L. Bakhuisen, Sea-piece. 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 135 

Salle Hobbema (XXVI). Paul Potter, 2529. The Bosch at the 
Hague, 2526. Horses, *2527. Cows (1652), 2528. Grey horse. 2430. 
K. du Jardin, "Wood ; above, *2360. Jan le Ducq, Guard - room (his 
masterpiece); 2457. O. Metsu, Christ and the adulteress (1653); 
2453. Aert van Maas, Guard-room. — *2589. 0. Terburg, Concert; 
2315. Nic. Berchem, Ford ; 2598. Adr. van de Velde, "Winter scene 
(1668); 2638. Wynants, Landscape; 2404. Hobbema, Mill; 2594. 
A. van de Velde, Landscape with cattle; 2432. K. du Jardin, same 
subject; 2361. J. le Ducq, Marauders; 2626. Wouverman, Riding 
school ; above, 2305. Bakhuisen, Sea-piece. — 2429. K. du Jardin, 
Pasture; 2600. _ "JV. van de Velde, Sea-piece; *2403. Hobbema, 
Forest-scene ;'24o2. Jak. van Loo, Study of a woman; 2593. Adr. 
van de Velde, Beach at Scheveningen (1660); 2427. K. du Jardin, 
Italian jugglers; 2310. Beerstraaten, The old harbour of Genoa. 

Corner Room (XXVII). — To the right : 2346. Decker, Land- 
scape; Philip van Dyck, 2363. Abraham dismissing Hagar and Ish- 
mael, 2362. Sarah, Abraham, and Hagar; 2448. Lingelbach, Italian 
seaport; above, 2304. Bakhuisen, Port of Amsterdam. — To the left, 
Nic. Berchem, 2313. Environs of Nice, 2318. Landscape with cattle; 
2493. J. van Os, Flowers. 

The opposite Corner Room (XXVIII) also contains Dutch 
pictures, mostly of a later period, by Lingelbach (2447. Vegetable- 
market at Rome), Van der Wer/f, Verkolje, etc., and a few small 
pictures by Ph. Wouverman (2630. Cavalry halt). To the left : 2612. 
Jan Weenix, Seaport (1701) ; to the right, above, 2405bis. Honde- 
coeter, Eagles in a poultry-yard. 

Salle Jan Steen (XXIX). On the rear wall : Jan Steen, 
*2578. Merry company (1674; rich in happy motives and full of 
humour), to the left, 2580. Bad company. Then, to the right : 2456. 
J. van der Meer ( Vermeer) of Delft, Lace-maker. *2587. O. Terburg, 
The gallant (admirably drawn, and of a delicately-blended silvery 
tone, one of Ms finest works). Above, 2610. Jan Weenix, Game and 
hunting-gear; 2399. J. van der Heyden, Town Hall at Amsterdam; 
2328. Ferd. Bol, Philosopher in meditation; 2602. Verkolje, In- 
terior; 2568. Slingelandt'; Dutch family; 2612bis. Jan Weenix, 
Game. — 2312. Cornells Bega, Rustic interior; 2471. Fr. van Mieris 
the Elder, Tea-party ; 2345. Alb. Cuyp, Sea-piece; 2606. Ary de Vois, 
Portrait; *2475. W. van Mieris, Cook. — 2022. J. van der Meer, 
Tavern; Netscher, 2487. Lesson on the bass-viol, 2486. Singing- 
lesson ; 2459. Oabr. Metsu , Officer saluting a young lady, a grace- 
fully conceived and delicately coloured woTk ; above , 2370. Jan 
Fictoor (Victors), Isaac blessing Jacob ; 2425bis, 2424. J: van Huy- 
sum, Flowers. 

Salle Albert Cuyp (XXX). — Cuyp, *2343. The promenade, 
*2341. Landscape, 2344. Portraits of children , *2342. Two riders. 
Then, from right to left: Pieter de Hooch, 2414, 241 5. Dutch interiors; 

136 4. LOUVRE. First Floor : 

above, 2595, *2596. Adr. van de Velde, Landscapes with cattle; at 
the back, to the right, 2637. Wynants, Landscape, with figures by 
Adr. van de Velde. 

The First Rembrandt Room (XXXI) contains seven pictures 
by Rembrandt (R. Harmenss van Ryn). On the rear wall, 2554, 
2552. Two portraits of himself, of 1637 and 1632. — *2540, *2541. 
Philosophers in profound meditation. 

'The venerable countenance of the old man, the faded colour of his gar- 
ments, the reverential atmosphere, the gentle light, and the transparency 
of the shadows all combine to shed an inexpressible poetic radiance over 
this picture.' (E. Michel.) 

2546. Portrait of a man (ca. 1656). — To the !,<$: *2545. Por- 
trait of a young man (1658). u r ' '," '' 

*2542. Holy Family at Nazareth, known as the 'Carpenter's 
Family', signed 1640. 

This family scene is one of those idyllic pieces by means of which 
Rembrandt and other Dutch masters endeavoured to familiarise the spec- 
tator with incidents from the Old and New Testament by transplanting 
them to the present. The simplicity and depth of sentiment which per- 
vade the picture may be regarded as the badge of the Protestant spirit 
of the 16th and 17th centuries. 

This room also contains a number of other excellent pictures. 
To the left, as we retrace our steps: *2348. Oerard Dou, The 
dropsical woman, one of his greatest works: a successful com- 
position, in which the grief of the daughter is touchingly portrayed ; 
most elaborately finished, although unusually large for this master 
(1663); Q. Dou, 2356. Reading the Bible, 2359. Portrait of the 
artist, 2350. Village -grocer, 2352. Dutch cook, *2353. Girl 
hanging up a cock at a window, 2351. Trumpeter, *2355. Dentist, 
2354. Weighing gold. — *2496. Adr. van Ostade, The School- 
master (the dramatic force and warm golden tone are characteristic 
of the master's most finished style); 2564. Dirck van /Sandwort, 
Christ at Emmaus; 2364. 0. van den Eeckhout, Hannah dedicating 
her son Samuel to the Lord; 2530. Pynaclcer, Tavern; Gov. Flinck, 
*2373. Child's portrait (1641), 2372. Annunciation to the Shepherds; 
Ferd. Bol, *2330. Mathematician, 2331 (above), Portrait; 2426. 
K. du Jardin, Golgotha; 2371. Fictoor (Victors), Girl's portrait 
(1640). Above the entrance door, No number, Cornelius Drosl 
(17th cent.), Bathsheba (in a black frame of carved wood); above 
the exit-door, 2349. 0. Dou, Silver ewer (spoiled). 

The Second Rembrandt Room (XXXII) is one of the choicest 
in the Louvre, containing as it does nine pictures by Rembrandt : 
*2553. Portrait of himself (1634) ; *2548. Carcase in a butcher's 
shop (1655) ; 2544. Portrait of an old man (1633). 

*2539. The Supper at Emmaus, dated 1648, from the collection 
of his friend the Burgomaster Six. As in the picture of Tobias, a 
subdued red is here the predominating colour, and the whole work 
is pervaded with a warm and hazy glow (Vosmaer). 

*2537. The Good Samaritan fdated 1648"). — *2536. Family of 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 137 

Tobias revering the departing angel, painted in 1637 ; very character- 
istic of the master's easy and genial mode of rendering Bible scenes, 
and admirable for its warm and harmonious colouring and its poetry 
of chiaroscuro. — 2543. Venus and Cupid (portraits), a late work 
(c. 1661); 2538. St. Matthew (1661); *2555. Portrait of himself at 
an advanced age (1660). — No number (to the left of 2544), The 
Supper at Emmaus, attributed to Bembrandt. 

The following three rooms contain the Dutch and Flemish pic- 
tures formerly in the Collection La Caze (for the French pictures of 
this collection, see p. 149). 

Fib,stDutchRoom(XXXIII). *2591. 0. Terburg, Reading-lesson 
2513. Isaac van Ostade, Pig-sty; 2507. Adr. van Ostade, School- 
teaching; 2437. Willem Kalf, Still- life; 2468. Mierevelt, Portrait 
above, 2406. Hondecoeter, The white turkey; 2557. G. Dou, Old 
man reading; 2599. Adr. van de Velde, Landscape with cattle 
2503. A. van Ostade, The newspaper; 2309. Bakhuisen, Sea-piece. 
— Bembrandt, *2550. Woman bathing (1647), *2549. Woman after 
the bath (so-called Bathsheba ; 1651); 2337. Brekelenkam, Consulta- 
tion. — 2208. Flemish or Dutch School (1 7th cent), Old woman ; 2393. 
Heemskerck, Interior. Above, 2517. E. van der Poel, The hut; 2506. 

A. van Ostade, Tavern ; 2579. Jan Steen, The repast ; 2454. Nic. Maes, 
Saying grace ; 2551.fiem6ra«dt,Portrait(1651); above, 2407. Honde- 
coeter, Poultry. Above the exit-door, 2553. Pynacker, Landscape. 

Second Dutch Room (XXXIV; pictures of the Collection La 
Caze, see above). 2573. Hendr. Mart. SorghQ), Tavern interior; 
1914. Adr. Brouwer, The writer ; 2515. Is. van Ostade, Winter-land- 
scape; 2535. Bavesteyn, Portrait; 2382. J. van der Hagen, Plain of 
Haarlem; *1916. Adr. Brouwer, The smoker; above, 2339. Van 
Ceulen, Portrait; 2634. Phil. Wouverman, Pilgrims; 2435. K. du 
Jardin, Landscape; 2572. Sorgh, Flemish interior. — 2502. Adr. 
van Ostade, The drinker; 2379. J. van Goyen, Dutch canal; 2397. 

B. van der HelstQf), Portraits of a lady and a dignitary; 2503. Adr. 
van Ostade, The reader; 2366. Allartvan Everdingen, Landscape. — 
2534. Bavesteyn, Portrait; 1913. Adr. Brouwer, Tavern-scene; 2512. 
Is. van Ostade, Interior; *2384. Frans Hals, Laughing gipsy ('La 
Bohemienne' ; ca. 1630) ; 2489. C. Netscher, Princess ; 1915. Adr. 
Brouwer, The operation; 2504. Adr. van Ostade, The reader; 238). 
Frans Hals, Portrait. 

Flemish Room (XXXV ; pictures of the Collection La Caze, see 
above). — David Teniers the Younger, 2179. The alms-collector, 
2173. Interior (grisaille); 1892. A. van Dyck, Portrait (grisaille); 
2055. Pieter van Mol, Head of a young man ; 1925. Jan Brueghel 
(Velvet Brueghel), The bridge ofTalavera; above, 1995. Jan Fyt, 
Game and hunting - gear ; 2184. Teniers the Younger, Chimney- 
sweep; 1926. Jan Brueghel, Landscape; above, Teniers the 
Younger, 2170. Village fair (inscription forged?), 2177. Tavern; 

138 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

•1979. A.vanDyck, Head of an old man; 2174. Tenters the Younger, 
Village fete; above, 2152. Snyder), Fruit. — Rubens, 2109. Marie 
de MeMicis ; to the left and right, 2120. Abraham's sacrifice, 2121. 
Melchisedech and Abraham (sketches). 2193. Cornells de Vos(f), 
Portrait ; 2l32. School of Rubens, Lute-player. — To the left a series 
of smaller pictures by Teniers the Younger (2176. Temptation of St. 
Anthony), and several sketches: 2119. Rubens, Landscape; 1981. A. 
van Byck, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian. 

In the passage (XXXVI) : no number, 6. de Crayer, Adoration 
of the Magi; 2067. J. van Oost the Elder, San Carlo Borromeo ad- 
ministering extreme unction to the plague-stricken. 

Passing through the Salle van Dyok (on the left), we return to the 
Grande Galerie and by the door to the left in Bay D enter — 

Room IX, the first of the Petites Salles, which contains a number 
of late-Italian works, in continuation of those on the adjacent wall 
in Bay D of the Grande Galerie (see p. 127). To the left of 
the entrance: 1401. Bom. Panetti , Nativity; 1553. Oarofalo, 
Holy Child asleep; 1386, 1385. Parmigianino (Franc. Mazzola), 
Holy Families. — On the end-wall, Guido Reni, 1448. Magdalen, 
1447. Ecce Homo; 1237. Bom. Feti, Country life; 1562. Franc. 
Vanni, Martyrdom of St. Irene ; above, 1252. Castiglione, Animals. — 
Above, 1560. Turchi, Death of Cleopatra. — - To the left of the 
window, 1379. Carlo Maratta, Portrait of Maria Maddalena Rospi- 
gliosi. "We now enter the — 

French Rooms. French art is represented by more than 1000 
pictures, which havebeen arranged in eight rooms. The chronological 
order begins in Room X, which adjoins Room IX (see above). The 
most direct approach to these rooms is by the Escalier Mollien (E. 
on the Plan, p. 115), to the right of the 'vestiaire' in the Pavilion 
Denon (p. 95), and through the Galerie Mollien (comp. p. 96). 

Room X. Earliest Feench Schools (Primitifs Francais). — To 
the left: 995. Attributed to J. Malouel and II. Bellechost (1415-16), 
Martyrdom of St. Denis. — 1003. Burgundian School (15th cent), 
Portrait of Philip the Good ; 996. Jean Malouel (?), Dead Christ. 
French School (15th cent.), 997. Entombment, 998a. Pieta, 1049. 
Crucifixion and saints. Between the windows (left): 1032. French 
School (16th cent), Henri III. On the other wall: 126. Jean Clouet(f), 
Francis I. French School (16th cent), 1022. Duke Francis of Alengon 
when a child; French School (15th cent), 1004, 1005. SS. Peter 
and John the Evangelist, with Peter, Duke of Bourbon (1404) and 
Anne of Burgundy (1488), 1006. Praying abbess; *1048. For- 
merly ascribed to Jean Perrial, Madonna with donors ; 1012. French 
School, Baron de Montmorency (ca. 1525-31). — *289. Jean 
Fouquet, Charles VII. of France, a highly suggestive portrait 
(ca. 1450). 999. French School (16th cent), Portraits of President 
J. J. des Ursins (d. 1431) and his family. 304bis. Nic. Froment, 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 139 

King Rene" and Ms second wife. 998. French School (15th cent.), 
Descent from the Cross. 

Room XI. Fhenoh Schools of the 16th Century. To the left, 
several portraits in the manner of the Clouets (p. xl), including 1030. 
Catherine de Mtfdicis, and 1015. Francis of Guise, Duke of Lorraine. 
1035. Unknown Artist, Ball at the court of Henri III. on the wedding 
of the Due de Joyeuse with Margaret of Lorraine in 1581 ; 1485. 
Bosso (p. xl), Pieta. — 155. Jean Cousin, Last Judgment (p. xl); 
ahove, 1433. After Primaticcio, Concert; 1007. French School, 
Francis I. — By the windows, on the left, 304. Martin Freminet, 
Mercury charging jEneas to abandon Dido. 1014t>is. School of 
Fontainebleau, Toilette of Venus. —131, 130. Fr. Clouet(f), Duke 
Francis of Guise and King Henri II. ; 128, *129. Fr. Clouet, Char- 
les IX. of France and his wife Elizabeth of Austria. Above, French 
School, 1036. Ball at the court of Henri III., 1034. Henri III. 
kneeling before the Cross. — By the windows on the right, School 
of Fontainebleau, 1014. Continence of Scipio, 1013. Diana. 

RoomXII. Paintings by LeSueur, particularly a series of 21 scenes 
from the life of St. Bruno, painted in 1645-48; the best is 584. 
Death of St. Bruno. 

'The light of a single candle falls on the white cowls, which resemble 
grave-clothes, and on the walls, which are white as those of a tomb. An 
inexpressible sadness streams from this almost monochrome painting.' 


Room XIII. On the left, 586. Le Sueur, St. Bruno and his 
companions giving their substance to the poor. Above, 3. E. Allegrain, 
Landscape. 547. The Brothers Lenain, Denial of St. Peter ; above, 976. 
S.Vouet, Louis XIII. On the principal wall, 545. Lenain, Henri II., 
Duke of Montmorency; 544 (V Lenain), Church procession; Lenain, 
543. Portraits (1647), 546. A game at cards, 543a. Family circle, 
542. Haymakers, 540 (to the left of the entrance), The blacksmith, 
539. Nativity. Above, from left to right, Le Sueur, 554. Departure 
of Tobias, 590. Company of artists, 562. St. Scholastica appearing 
to St. Benedict. To the right of the widow, 154. J. Courtois, sur- 
named Le Bourguignon, Battle. To the left, J. de Boulongne (Le 
Valentin), 61. Fortune-teller, 63 (above the exit), Topers. 

We now cross the landing of the staircase leading to the French 
Rooms mentioned at p. 115. On the right wall, 58. Le Valentin, 
'Render unto Caesar' ; F. Gerard, 331. History of Poetry, 330. Victory 
and Fame; 161. N. Coypel, Cain; 62. Le Valentin, Tavern. — We 
enter, on the right, the — 

Galerie Francaise du XVII 6 Siecle, or Galerie Mollien (Room 
XIV), containing the masters of the 17th century. 

To the right : 715. Nicholas Poussin, The blind beggars of Jericho 

(1651); Le Valentin, 67. Judgment of Solomon , 56. Acquittal of 

Susannah; 742. Poussin, Apollo and Daphne, unfinished; *321 

Claude Lcrrain (QtlUe), Landscape ; Sibastien Bcurdon, 76. Gipsies 

140 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

76. Beggars; 513. Charles Le Brun, Entry of Alexander the Great 
into Babylon, painted, like Nos. 509-12 (see below), as designs for 
Gobelins tapestry (comp. p. xliv); 562. Le Sueur, Christ appearing 
to the Magdalen; Nic. Poussin, 718. Assumption, 713. Holy Family; 
556. Le Sueur, Bearing of the Cross, 'touching in its sweet and 
profound melancholy'; Nic. Poussin, *740. Landscape with Orpheus 
and Eurydice (1659), 709. The Israelites gathering manna in 
the wilderness (Rome, 1639), 710. The Philistines struck with 
pestilence (1630), 706. Moses in the ark of bulrushes; 434. 
Jouvenet, Raising of Lazarus (1706); *660. Le Sueur, St. Paul 
preaching at Ephesus , the principal figure after Raphael (1649) ; 
511. Le Brun, The tent of Darius, one of the series mentioned 
above. Claude Lorrain, *313. Harbour at sunset, 312. Village 
Fete; 59. Le Valentin, Concert; Poussin, 726. Rescue of the 
young Pyrrhus, 730. Adoration of the Magi; 433. Jouvenet, 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes; 724. Poussin, Rape of the Sabines ; 
529. Claude Lefebvre, Master and pupil. Claude Lorrain, 323. Mouth 
of a harbour, 315. Anointing of King David ; 456. Laurent de Lahire, 
Pope Nicholas V. at the tomb of St. Francis of Assisi ; *317. Claude 
Lorrain, Harbour, of great vigour and depth of colouring; 790 
Rigaud, Robert de Cotte, the architect; *557. Le Sueur, Descent 
from the Cross; *510. Le Brun, Battle of Arbela; 322. Claude Lor- 
rain, Ford. 

Between the doors: 52. Bon Boulogne, St. Benedict resuscitat- 
ing a child; 555. Le Sueur, The Salutation. 

On the left wall, as we continue : 318. Claude Lorrain, Seaport ; 
736. Poussin, Spring, or the earthly paradise; *784 (above), 
Rigaud, Two portraits of Marie Serre, mother of the painter, 780. 
Presentation in the Temple , of great vigour of colouring (the 
painter's last work, 1743). Nic. Poussin, 737. Summer, or Ruth 
and Boaz, 729. Bacchanal. Claude Lorrain, 325. Louis XIII. 
forcing the pass of Susa, near Turin, in 1629, 324. Siege of La Ro- 
chelle by Louis XIII. in 1628. Poussin, 738. Autumn, or the Spies 
returning with grapes from the Promised Land; 727 (above), Mars 
and Venus, *739. Winter, or the Deluge, 731. Echo and Narcissus. 
Above, 512. Le Brun, Alexander and Porus. Poussin, 722. Vision 
of St. Paul, 720. Death of Sapphira. Rigaud, 788 (above 722), 
Portrait-group, 782. Philip V. of Spain; Poussin, 716. The Woman 
taken in adultery, 714. Holy Family; above , 515. Le Brun, 
Death of Meleager; 977. Simon Vouet, Wealth; *314. Claude 
Lorrain, Mark Antony receiving Cleopatra at Tarsus ; 735. Poussin, 
Time delivering Truth from the attacks of Envy and Discord; 
*31G. Claude Lorrain, Ulysses restoring Chryseis to her father, 
with figures by Fil. Lauri. 979 (above 316), Vouet, Faith (companion- 
picture to 977). Poussin, *734. Arcadian shepherds, *711. Judgment 
of Solomon, a celebrated work full of expression, 705. Moses in the 
ark of bulrushes. *781. Rigaud, Louis XIV.. an excellent portrait; 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 141 

452. L. de Lahire, Madonna and Child ; above, 630. Mignard, Fran- 
chise d'Aubigne, Marquise de Maintenon ; above, 559. Le Sueur, 
SS. Gervasius and Protasius refusing to sacrifice to Jupiter; LeBrun, 
514. Hunt of Meleager and Atalanta, 496. Holy Family, 498. 
Christ entering Jerusalem. *628. Mignard, Madonna (Vierge a la 
Grappe); 971. Vouet, Presentation in the Temple; 183. Rigaud, 
Bossuet; 630. Lefebvre, Portrait (1667); 695. F. Perrier, Orpheus 
before Pluto; 153. Le Bourguignon, Skirmish between cuiiassiers 
and Turkish cavalry; 66. S. Bourdon, Adoration of the Magi; 311. 
Claude Lorrain, Campo Vaccino at Rome; 732. Poussin, Triumph 
of Flora ; *310. Claude Lorrain, Harbour at sunrise ; Mignard, 634. 
St. Cecilia, 630. Christ on the -way to Calvary ; 509. Le Brun, 
Alexander crossing the Granicus; *483. Largilliere, Count de la 
Chatre ; *704. Poussin, Eleazer and Rebecca. 
The gallery is adjoined by the — 

Salle des Portraits, or Room XV., surmounted by a lofty cupola, 
and containing a collection of Portraits of Artists, most of which are 
of little value save for their historical interest. They all bear in- 
scriptions. The ceiling is embellished with paintings by Charles 
Mutter illustrative of French periods of art : under St. Louis, Francis I. , 
Louis XIV., and Napoleon I.. The walls are hung with eight beautiful 
Gobelins tapestries. In the centre of the room is a fine Sevres vase. 

The most interesting portraits are as follows, from right to left: 373. 
El. Jeaural, by Greuse; 640. P. Mignard, by himself; 525. Jos. Vernet, by 
Mme. Lebrun; 214. Delacroix, by himself; no number, Bon Boulogne, by 
G. Allou ; 476. David, by Langlois ; 1148. Guercino, 778. Ricard, by them- 
selves ; 482. Le Brun, by Largilliere; 760. P. Puget, by Fr. l J uget; 37>j. 
Giricault, presumed portrait; "521. Mme. Lebrun, with her daughter, by 
herself; 821. M. and Mme. Vien (Marie Reboul), by Eoslin. 796. H. Rigaud, 
302. Fragonard, 904. L. M. Van Loo, 1380. Maratta, 166. N. Coypel, 519. 
Le Brun, all by themselves. 272. T. Rousseau, by E. Dubufe; 533. Ifalle, 
by J. Legros. £02. Sovfflol, the architect (with two of lii« drawings), by 
L. M. Van Loo; 68. /. B. Greuze, by himself: 492. -Ate. Coustou. by Lar- 
gilliere; 958a. /. B. Isabey, by H. Vernet; 407. Mme. C. A. Haudebourg 
{Lescot), by herself; 778bis. Heilbuth, by Ricard. 

Before visiting the large Room VIII. (Modern Works; on the 
right), we proceed straight on to the — 

Galerie Francaise du XVIIIe Siecle or Oalerie Daru (Room XVI). 
To the right: 180. Charles Antoine Coypel, Perseus delivering 
Andromeda; Desportes, 232, 235. Sporting-dogs and feathered game, 
224. Sportsman, "226. (above), Boar-hunt, 731. Louis XlV.'s dogs. 
811. Hubert Robert, Landscape; Lancret, 467. The nest, 466. Turtle- 
doves; 172. A. Coypel, Young girl; 249. Desportes, Portrait of him- 
self; 290. J. H. Fragonard, The high priest Coresus giving his life 
for Callirrhoe; 869. Tocque, Supposed portrait of Mme. de Graf- 
figny; 170. A. Coypel, Esther before Ahasuerus; 402, 465-462. 
Lancret, The Seasons; 374, 375. Greuze. Girls' heads; 897. C. A. 
Van Loo, Marriage of the Virgin; 689. Pater, Fete champetrt; 
183. A. Coyptl, Portrait of himself; 855. Subleyras , Martyrdom 

142 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

of St. Hippolytus; 935, 936. Jos. Vernet, Castle of Sant' Angelo 
and Ponte Rotto at Rome; 896. J. B. van Loo, Diana and Endy- 
mion; 865. L. Tocque, Marie Lesczinska, Queen of France; 
Boucher, 33. Bag-piper, 30. Diana quitting her bath, 31. Venus 
begging Vulcan for arms for ^Eneas, 32. Sleeping shepherdess; 291. 
J. H. Fragonard, Music-lesson; 221. De Marne, Road; 99. J. B. S. 
Chardin, Housekeeper ; Hubert Robert, 809. Landscape, 797. Ancient 
ruins at Orange and St. Remy; 666, 671. Oudry, Dogs; Chardin, 
97. The antiquarian ape, 94. Dead hare; 863. Taraval, Triumph of 
Amphitrite ; 668. Oudry, Dog and game ; 651bis, 651 . L. G. Moreau (?), 
Landscapes; 28. Boilly, Arrival of the diligence; 959. A. Vestier, 
Portrait of his wife ; 222. De Marne, Fair ; 913. J. Vernet, Moonlight 
scene; 766. Raoux, Pygmalion and Galatea ; 261. Drolling, Kitchen. 

Rear-wall: 194. David, Paris and Helen (early work; 1788); 
beyond the door, Greuze, 370. The father's curse, 371. The repentant 
son; 448. Lagrenie, Rape of Dejaneira. 

Left wall, as we return : 373a. Oreuze, Portrait];°.BoMc/ier, 34, *35. 
Pastoral scenes; above, 965. J. M . Vien, Sleeping hermit ;T * 369. 
Qreuze, The marriage - contract , exceedingly popular in, its time; 
Lancret, 469. Innocence, 468. Music-lesson; 'Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, 
520. Peace with Abundance, 526. Mme. Molay-Raymond , 522. 
Portrait of the artist and her daughter; 884. J. F. de Troy, 
Esther's toilet. Below , two Chardins and 373b. Oreuze , Portrait 
of Dr. Duval. 678. J. Parrocel, Louis XIV. crossing the Rhine 
(1672); H. Robert, 799. So-called temple of Diana at Nimes, 
807. Ruined portico ; *372. Greuze, The broken pitcher, his best- 
known work; 899. C. A. Van Loo, Huntsmen resting; 372a. Greuze, 
Milkmaid; *982. A. Watteau, Embarking for Cythera, 'tender and 
ideal in colouring, a typical dream of youth and happiness'. Boucher, 
38. Oephalus and Aurora, 37. Vertumnus and Pomona ; 39. Boucher, 
Rape of Europa; 698. Peronneau , Oudry, the painter; 9. Aved, 
Mirabeau; 535. Le Moyne, Olympus (sketch for a ceiling) ; 665. Ollivier, 
Tea at the prince of Oonti's ; Chardin, *92. Grace, his finest work 
(1740), 91. The industrious mother. 923. J. Vernet, Landscape ; 638. 
Mignard, The Grand Dauphin, son of Louis XIV., and his family; 
*50a. Boucher, Interior; J. Vernet, 921. Women bathing, 932 (above), 
Setting sun; Chardin, 89. Kitchen, 90. Animals and fruit; 36. 
Boucher, Vulcan presenting Venus with arms for iEneas; 806. 
H. Robert, Ancient ruins ; 177. N. Coypel, Innocence and Love ; 868. 
Tocque, Louis of France, son of Louis XV. ; above, 885. J. F. Troy, 
Swoon of Esther (design for tapestry); 661a. J. M. Nattier, Portrait; 
above, 764. J. Raoux, Telemachus recounting Ms adventures to Ca- 
lypso; P. Desportes, 237. Poultry, 245. Game, 229. Vegetables, 230. 
Flowers and fruit, 220. Dogs; 670. Oudry, Farm. 

Between the doors, 835. J. B. Santerre, Susannah ; 938. J. Vernet, 
Sea-piece ; 853. P. Subleyras , Ma gdalen. 

Picture Gallery. 4. LOUVRE. 143 

The door opens on the upper landing of the Escalier Daru 
(p. 115), where a few pictures by early Italian masters are hung: 
Botticelli, *1297, 1298. Frescoes from the Villa Lemmi near Flo- 
rence, said to have been painted for the nuptials of Lorenzo Albizzi 
and Giannina Tornabuoni, and representing Giannina with the Graces 
and Lorenzo with the Arts and Sciences; *1294. Fra Angelico, Cruci- 
fixion, from the former Dominican monastery at Fiesole. Here, also, 
are antiquities found at Delphi, etc. — The paintings which follow 
in chronological order will be found in the Salle des Sept Oheminees 
(p. 148). We now re-enter the Salle des Portraits, and turn to the 
left into the — 

Salle Francaise du XIXe Siecle or Room VIII, situated between 
the Salle des Portraits and the Grande Gallerie. This was formerly 
a Salle des Etats or States Assembly Room. We begin to the right 
of the entrance from the Salle des Portraits (p. 141). — 425. Ingres, 
Portrait of M. Cordier; 185. Daubigny, Spring; 428. Ingres, Por- 
trait; above, 200. E. Delacroix, Revolution of July 28th, 1830 ; above, 
625. A. Michallon, Landscape; *207. Delacroix, Dante and Virgil 
in Hades, 'aTdent and sombre, pervaded by an infernal glow'. Above, 
771. G. H. Regnault, Execution at Granada. — Wall on the right, 
817. L. Robert, Return from the pilgrimage to Santa Maria dell' Arco 
at Naples; Th. Rousseau, 829. Landscape (Fontainebleau), 830. 
Marshes in the Landes ; 390. Ores, Francis I. and Charles V. at the 
tombs of St. Denis; above, *156. Th. Couture, Romans of the deca- 
dence; 414. Huet, Silvan solitude; 816. L. Robert, Harvesters in 
the Pontine Marshes; 702. Pits, Rouget de l'lsle singing the Marseil- 
laise; 66. 0. Courbet, Stream of the 'Puits Noit'; 208. Meissonier, 
Young woman singing; *200a. David, Mother and daughters ; 643. 
Millet, Spring; 406. Hamon, The human comedy; 189. David, Oath 
of the Horatii; 197. Levy, Portrait; *417. Ingres, Apotheosis of 
Homer (for a ceiling; 1827). Above, 145. Courbet, Stags fighting; 
*644. Millet, The reapers, in the same realistic and. poetic style as 
the more famous Angelus of this tardily appreciated master; 842. 
A. Scheffer, Portrait; 428. Ingres, Woman bathing; *363. Gleyre, 
Lost illusions; above, 191. David, Lictors bringing to Brutus the 
bodies of his two sons; 138. Corot, Morning. Ingres, No number, 
Mile. Riviere, 426. M. Riviere; 283. H. Flandrin, Study; *889. 
Troyon, Oxen on their way to the plough, a masterly work; 610. 
Lethiere, Death of Virginia; Ingres, *427. Mme. Riviere, 416. Ma- 
donna with the host, 419. Ruggiero delivering Angelica, 420. Joan 
of Arc atRheims. — Rear-wall : *184. Daubigny, Vintage in Burgundy; 
*230. E. Deveria, Birth of Henri IV., 'the dawn of a colourist who 
did not live till day'. Above the door, 748. Prud'hon, Meeting of 
Napoleon I. and Francis II. after the battle of Austerlitz. 

On the other side of the door of the Grande Galerie, to the left 
as we face it; 412. Huet, Floods at St. Cloud; *216. P. Dela- 

144 4. LOUVRE. First Floor : 

roche, Death of Queen Elizabeth of England, painted in 1828. — 
Ingres, *922b. Recumbent odalisque (early work; 1814), 415. Christ 
handing St. Peter the keys of Paradise, *428b. M. Bertin, founder 
of the Journal des De'bats (1832); *890. Troyon, Returning to the 
farm; 609. Lethiere, Brutus condemning his sons to death; 418. 
Ingres, Cherubini; 615. Marilhat, Ruined mosque of Caliph el- 
Hakim, at Cairo ; 306. Fromentin, Arab camp. 274. Tassaert, Dis- 
tressed family; 2. C. d'Aligny, Italian villa; 84. Brion , End of 
the Deluge; 147. Courbet, The wave; 842b. A. Scheffer, Lamen- 
nais; 50bis. Bouehot, Fall of the Directory (Nov. 9th, 1799); *213. 
Delacroix, Taking of Constantinople by the Crusaders ; above, 843. 
Schnelz, The vow; *827. Th. Rousseau, Border of the forest at 
Fontainebleau ; above, 842 a. A. Scheffer, Portrait of Villemain; 
847. Sigalon, Courtesan; 408. Heim, Scene from Jewish history ; 
B. Flandrin, 285, 284. Mother and daughter; 838. A. Scheffer, 
Death of Ge'ricault; 211. Delacroix, Jewish wedding in Morocco; 
841. A. Scheffer, SS. Augustine and Monica ; 409. Heim, Charles X. 
distributing prizes to the artists of the 1824 Exhibition; 147. 
O. Courbet, Deer in cover; *389. Gros, Napoleon I. at Eylau; 212. 
Delacroix, The shipwreck of Don Juan (Byron); 957. H. Vernet, 
Judith and Holophernes; *208. Delacroix, Scene from the mas- 
sacres at Chios; 1. D'Aligny, Prometheus. — Above the entrance, 
770. Begnault, General Prim (1868). 

From the Escalier Daru we pass through the door to the left 
of the Nike of Samothrace (p. 115) into the — 

Rotonde d'Apollon (XXXH), adorned with ceiling-paintings by 
Blondel (Fall of Icarus), Couder (the Four Elements), and Mauzaisse. 
In the centre is a handsome marble vase, imitated from an antique 
vase in the Vatican, and surrounded with a modern mosaic by 
F. Belloni. On the left of the entrance is a fragment of a fresco 
from Bosco Reale (p. 147). To the right and left of the central 
window, and farther on to the left are other fragments of the same. 
— Facing us is the Salle des Bijoux Antiques (p. 147). — A fine 
wrought-iron door of the 17th cent, on the right leads to the — 

*Galerie d'Apollon. This saloon, which is over 200ft. in 
length, was constructed in the reign of Henri IV., burned down 
under Louis XIV. in 1661, and rebuilt from designs by Charles Le 
Brun, who ieft the decoration unfinished. It was then entirely 
neglected for a century and a half, but was at length completed in 
1848-51 by Felix Duban. It is the most beautiful hall in the Louvre, 
and is considered one of the finest in the world. The name dates 
from the time of Le Brun, who had intended a figure of Apollo to be 
the central point of his decorations, in honour of the 'Roi Soleil', but the 
celebrated *Ceiling-painting, representing Apollo's Victory over the 
Python, was not executed uniiLl849. bv Eua. Delacroix. The vault 

Galerie d'Apollon. 4. LOUVRE. 145 

is divided into five large fields depicting the periods of the day. 
Surrounding it are four other paintings representing the seasons 
(second half of the 18th cent.), while the twelve medallions in 
grisaille portray the months. The principal subjects are: Aurora 
or Dawn, by Ch. Mullet, after Le Brun ; Castor or the Morning Star 
by A. Renou ; then, beyond the Apollo (which represents Noon), 
Morpheus or Evening, Night or Diana, both by Le Brun. On the 
vaulting above the entrance is the Triumph of the Earth, by J. Oui- 
ehard, after LeBrun. In the vaulting over the window, Triumph of 
the Waters (Neptune and Amphitrite), by Le Brun. The panels of 
the walls are adorned with portraits of twenty-eight French kings 
and artists, in Gobelins tapestry (see p. 323). — Fine view from 
the windows. The door at the end on the right opens into the Salon 
Carre (p. 121). 

The beautiful tables and other furniture in this room date 
chiefly from the reign of Louis XIV. The glass-cases contain 
Oems, Trinkets, Enamels, and Plate. No catalogue. 

Tabus I. "Reliquary of St. [otentian, a German work of the 12th century. 

Case I. (in the centre). On the top shelf : at each end, enamelled Ven- 
etian basins ; reliquary (12th cent. ; German) for an arm of Charlemagne ; 
casket known as the 'coffret de St. Louis', from the abbey of Lys 
(Limoges ; 13th cent.) 5 enamelled brass casket of the 14th cent. ; 'Amazon on 
horseback, Centaur carrying off a woman, in silver-gilt of the 16th century. 
— On the middle shelf: next the windows. Enamelled croziers of the 
middle ages ; silver crucifix (Italian ; end of 15th or beginning of 16th cent.) ; 
engraved rock-crystal pax of the late 15th cent. (German) ; another, in enamel 
(Virgin and Child), by Jean II. Penicaud (Limoges ; 16th cent.) ; two reli- 
quaries in the form of Madonnas (15th cent.) ; scyphus or ciborium (13th cent.j ; 
reliquary-cross of St. Vincent of Laon (French; end of 12th cent.); copper- 
gilt crozier (Limoges; 14th cent.); rock-crystal cross mounted in silver-gilt 
(Italian ; early 14th cent.) ; pax^ bronze and niello work (Italian ; 15th cent.); 
copper-gilt crozier (Limoges; 13th cent.); reliquary of St. Francis of Assisi 
(French; 13th cent.). — Lower shelf: at the right end and opposite the 
window, two reliquaries in the form of angels, and other objects, from the 
Chapel of the Order of the Holy Ghost in the Louvre, but dating from 
tho 15th cent, and therefore anterior to the founding of the order by 
Henri III. (1579); small Romanesque enamelled reliquaries; chalices, in- 
cluding one of the 13th cent. ; holy-water basin in agate and silver-gilt 
(16th cent.); reliquary in the form of a statuette lying on a gridiron 
(French; 15th cent.). — On the other side of the case are enamelled vases, 
reliquaries, Polish goblet, rock-crystal vases, etc. — At the left end, 'Reli- 
quary for an arm of St. Louis of Toulouse, in silver-gilt and enamel, with 
a sapphire-ring on the hand; reliquary from the Chapel of the Holy Ghost 
(French or Flemish ; 15th cent.). 

Case II. Chiefly objects of the 16th century. *Pax, with enamels 
and rabies, from the Chapel of the lloly Ghost; two urns in basalt and agate, 
formerly in the possession of Cardinal Mazarin; "Ciborium of crystal, 
with silver-gilt base and cover, adorned with chasing, cameos, and gems ; 
'llings; cups of sardonyx; rock-crystal vessel, shaped like a chimaera. 

Case III. Similar objects. On the top shelf : 'Epergne of the time of 
Louis XIV., consisting of a boat in lapis-lazuli mounted in gold and enamel ; 
Goblett in rock-crystal and *Ewers, beautifully chased (translucent, best 
seen from the other side; the handle of one is set with enamels and rubies) ; 
sweetmeat dishes of Hungarian jade. — On the middle shelf, returning : 
•Ewer of sardonyx, with enamelled mounting ; busts of Emperors, the heads 
of precious stones ; "Agate cup, with cameos ; cups of various kinds, richly 
mounted. — Below: 'Vessels of agate; goblet of sardonyx, with enamel 

Baedekeu. Paris. 15th Edit. 10 

146 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

mounting; perfume-burner tf green jasper adorned with enamels ; vase of 
red jasper, with dragons as handles, attributed to Benvenuto Cellini 
(10th cent.); more busts of Emperors with Leads of precious stones; at the 
end, antique *Vase, beautifully mounted as a ewer; to the right, *Cvp of 
sardonyx, the handle in the shape of a dragon studded wUh diamonds, 
rubies, and opals; to the left, another cup, with a sea-horse and lizard. 
At the r'gbt end, ba'in for a ewer, by Wenzel Jamnitze (Nuremberg; 
16th cent.). — More beautiful vases on the other side. 

Case IV contains the Crown Jewels retained when the rest were 
sold in 1887. Among these are : the "Regent, perhaps the finest diamond 
in the world, weighing 136 carats and worth 12-15 million francs (50-60, COOL) ; 
to the right, the Mazarin, another huge diamond, named also 'Fleur de Pecber' 
on account of i's rosy glow; tetween ihem, the 'CWte de Bretagne\ a large 
ruby n the shape of a dragon. Then, a grotto work brooch, by A. Bapst 
(1856). In front, sword of ClarlesX., executed by F. Bapst, and set with 
gems (on the scabbard, the let'er N, for Napoleon). — Behind: to the 
right, facsimile of the Crown of Louis XV. (false jewels), to the left, Crovn 
of Napoleon I., in imitation of Charlemagne's crown (with antique jewels); 
belween these, Plaque commemorating the Peace of Tesr.hen (1779), an inter- 
esting Cerman work. In front, watch laken from the Dey of Algiers in 
1830 ; pearl dragon-brooch and elephant of the Danish order of the Elephan*. 
— To the left, Chatelaine of Catherine de Midicis, set with diamonds. 

Case V. Objects of the 16-17th centuries. — On the top shelf: Vases of 
rock-crystal and pietra dura set in go'd. — On the middle shelf and below: 
Cups and ewers of sardonyx, agate, and jasper, with enamels, etc. — In 
the centre: 'Scourging of Christ, a statuette in blood jasper, on a richly 
ornamented pedestal. 

Case VI, behind, to the left. — To the left, silver plaque (repousse' 
work), representing the holy women at the Sepulchre, from the abbey of 
St. Denis (Byz; ntine; lllh cent); behind, picture reliquary of the 13th cent, 
(imitation Byzantine work) r.nd a repousse relief in silver (12th cent ) — 
In the middle, antique vases in por[hyry and sardonyx, remounted in the 
12th cent. ; Vase of Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of Louis VII. of France and 
afterwards of Henry II. of England (12th cent.), in antique rcck-crystal, 
remounted in the 12th cent.; in front, chalice in enamelled silver with the 
arms of the Guzmans (Hi pano-Flcnvsh; 14th cent.), and Paten of the Abbot 
Si ger of St. Denis in rerpentire (12th cent.); repousse silver lid of a 
reliquary from the abbey of St. Denis (Byzan'ine; 10th cent); *Case for 
an evangelistary from the same (French ; 11th cent ) ; to the right, chalice of 
the abbot Pelagius (Spanish; 13 h cent.); reliquary of St. Henry (12th cent.). 

Case VII, behind, to the right. Gold casket once belonging to Anne 
of Austria; vases, basins, and utensils from the above-mentioned Chapel 
of the Holy Ghost. 

In front of the end -window, under glass, 'Madonna in silver -gilt 
presented to tie abbey of St. Denis by Queen Jeanne d'Evreux (French; 
early 14th cent.). 

The glass-cases along the wall opposite the windows and in front of 
the windows chiefly contain Enamels. The Louvre collection is considered 
the finest in Europe. The MrsCe de Clnny (p. 269) also contains a very 
rich collection. 

In strict accuracy Enamel is a fusible preparation of gl ss, coloured 
by metallic oxides, u r ed to decorate plates of metal. It may be either 
transparent or opaque. The decorated plates, however, also are known 
as Enamels. — Enamels are termed Cloisonne's when the coloured vitreous 
glaze is deposited in compartments formed by thin metal partitions (cloisons) 
following the outlines of the design on the surface of the plate; Champlevfs 
when the compartments are sunk into the thickness of the plate; Trans- 
lucides or Transparent! when the design i9 incised on the plate and covered 
with transparent enamel; and Painted (peints) when the entire surface of 
the plate is covered with coloured enamel. Cloisonne and champleve 
enamels were made by Byzantine and mediaeval artists, but the translucent 
process was not invented until the 15th century. The art of painting on 
enamel was practised in France, more especially at Limoges, as early as 

Salle des Bijoux. 4. LOUVRE. 147 

the 12lh century. It culminated in the 16th, and died out in the 18th century. 
The most famous artists in enamel were Nardon Pinicaud, Lionard Limosin, 
Jean and Pierre Courteys, and Pierre Reymond (see also p. 269). 

By the Fikst Window, near the entrance: Transparent enamels of 
the 14-15th cent.; small reliquary of thread-like glass (French ; 15th cent. I; 
portrait of the painter Jean Fouquet (French; 15th cent.); French, Italiani 
and Byzantine enamels of the 14-16 th centuries. — Second Window ; 
Champlevi Enamels of the 12-13th cent. (Rhenish and Limoges work), 
Crucifix in gilt bronze, chased (Romanesque style; 12th cent.). — Third 
and Fourth Windows: 'Enamels ('Emaux Peints') by the Pinicauds 
(16th cent.). — Fifth Window: 'Goldsmiths' work: caskets, etuis, medallions 
with miniatures, rings, chains, crosses, pendants, and other ornaments 
enamelled or set with pearls and gems; ring of Muurice de Sully, Bishop 
of Paris (12th cent.); cameos; intaglios. — Sixth Window: Limoges 
Enamels (16th cent. ; from the Leroux bequest, 1896). — Seventh Window : 
Articles used at the coronation of the French kings : sword of the end 
of the 12th cent.; buckle (14th cent.); gold spurs (12th cent.); *Sceptre of 
Charles V. (14th cent.); 'Hand of Justice' of the kings of the 3rd dynasty; 
ring of St. Louis, from the abbey of St. Denis. — Book of hours of Catherine 
de Me'dicis (end of 16th cent.); mirror and sconces of Marie de Me'dicis, set 
with sardonyx and cut and engraved agates, presented to the queen by 
the Venetian Republic; poniard of the grandmaster of the Order of Malta 
(German; 2nd half of the 16th cent.). — Eighth to Twelfth Windows: 
Limoges enamels of the 16-17th cent. ; fine green and white draught-board 
(11th window). 

Cases XIII-XVII, opposite the windows, contain enamels by P. Rey- 
mond, P. Courteys, and L. Limosin (in the 2nd and 3rd), and other Limoges 
enamels. In the 2nd: L. Limosin, Portraits of Melanchthon, Francis of 
Lorraine, a Rhinegrave, Francis II. and Henri II. of France, and Limosin 
himself; in the 3rd: Portrait of Constable Anne de Montmorency. In the 
last case also is goldsmiths work: "Shield end "Helmet of Charles IX. 
(d. 1574) in gold and enamel; silver ewer and platter in repousse" and chased 
work, representing the expedition of Emp. Charles V. against Tunis in 15o6. 

We return to the Rotonde and thence (right) enter the — 

Salle des Bijoux Antiques , which is adorned with a ceiling- 
painting by Mausaisse, representing Time showing the ruins that he 
causes and the works of ait he brings to light; below, Seasons, 
Elements, etc. The Ancient Ornaments exhibited here show the 
perfection to which the goldsmiths' and silversmiths' art of that period 
had attained. 

In the cases to the right and left are flbulce, bracelets, rings, necklaces, 
and earrings. 

1st Central Case. At the top : Three gold crowns, including a Graeco- 
Etruscan 'Diadem, 'considered to be a unique and perhaps inimitable 
specimen'. Gilded iron helmet (Gallo -Roman), with enamel ornamentation 
(found in the Seine near Rouen) ; conical Etruscan helmet, with golden 
circlet and wings; golden quiver. Below are golden crowns, necklaces of 
gold, silver, enamel, and pietra dura, some with delicate and artistic 
pendants. Side next the Seine: "198. (5th division, 2nd row) Golden 
Etruscan necklace adorned with a head of Bacchus (?) with the horns 
and ears of a bull. — 2nd Central Case. "Treasure of Bosco Reale tnear 
Pompeii), consisting of 94 silver articles discovered in 1895 on the site of 
a house destroyed by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. These objects 
are Alexandrian, Greek, and Roman works of the 1st cent., though some 
are in such admirable preservation (hat one is almo't tempted to believe 
they are not antique. They were presented to the Louvre by Baron E. de 
Rothchild. Reproductions, see p. 45. — Wall Case. Greek and Roman 
rings; earrings and other Etruscan gold ornaments from Vohinii (B'. laena); 
Fortuna, of bronze plated with silver, found at St. Puits (Yonue); iron 
foldiog-s'ool with silver plates, etc. 


148 4. LOUVKE. First Floor: 

Side next the Seine. 1st Case. Intaglios. Gold and bronze rings; 
bracelets. — 2nd Case. Cameos ; intaglios ; 'phalerse' or ornaments for 
horses, etc. — 3rd Case. More objects found at Boseo Eeale, silver plate, 
and gold jewelry. — 4th Case. Gold necklaces ; plaques of beaten gold ; 
silver work; statuettes. — 5th Case. Silver vessels found at Notre-Dame- 
d'Alencon, near Brissac (1836). 

Proceeding in a straight direction, we next enter the — 

Salle des Sept Cheminees, or Room III, containing pictures of 
French masters of the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th 
century, as represented by Jacques Louis David, his pupils, and 

Beginning on the left : David, *188. The Sabine women inter- 
posing between the Romans and the Sabines (one of his finest 
works; 1799), *199. Mme. Recamier , to the left and right .(no 
numbers), Portraits. Above, to the left and right : Gericault, 339. 
Officer of chasseurs, 341. Wounded cuirassier. — 360 (above the 
door), Girodet-Trioson, The Deluge (1814). Prud'hon, 744. Cruci- 
fixion, 751. Empress Josephine, 747. Crime pursued by Justice and 
Divine Vengeance (1808), 759, 753. Portraits. *338. Gericault, 
Wreck of the Medusa, a French frigate which went down with 400 
men on board, of whom only five were saved on a raft (1819; this 
painting created a great sensation); 392. Gros, General Fournier- 
Sarloveze; 746. Prud'hon, Assumption; 779. Riesener, Portrait; 
*202bis. David, Coronation of Napoleon I., ordered by the Emperor, 
who paid 3000 I. for it (1807); 391. Gros, Bonaparte at Arcole; 
David, *198. Portrait of Pope Pius VII. (1805), 202. Portrait of 
himself; Gericault, 348. Epsom Races in 1821, 343. Carabineer; 
*337. Gerard, Portrait of the Marchesa Visconti. 

*328. Gerard, Cupid and Psyche ; 391a. Gros, Christine Boyer, 
first wife of Lucien Bonaparte; 393. Guerin, Return of Marcus 
Sextus (an imaginary incident; 1799); *756. Prud'hon, Rape of 
Psyche, a work to which the artist largely owes his title of 'the 
French Correggio'; 362. Girodet-Trioson, Burial of Atala (from a 
story by Chateaubriand; 1808); *388. Gros, Bonaparte in the 
plague-hospital at Jaffa (1804); 523. Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Giov. 
Paesiello,the musician; 332. Gerard, Portraits of Isabey, the painter, 
and his daughter (1795). Above the door, 396. Guerin, Pyrrhus 
taking Andromache and Astyanax under his protection (1810). This 
room also contains numerous small portraits by David, Gerard, 
Prud'hon, Ingres, etc. 

Passing through the door to the left of the entrance (or to the 
right if we face the entrance), we reach the small — 

Salle Henri Deux, or Room II, a badly-lighted room, with a ceil- 
ing-painting by Blondel, representirtg the strife of Minerva and 
Neptune, Mars, and Peace. This room, also, contains works by French 
painters of the 19th century. 

To the right: 834. St. Jean, Fruit-gathering; 143. Courbet, The 
burial at Ornans; 17. Benouville, The dying St. Francis of Assisi 

Collection La Caze. 4. LOUVRE. 149 

carried to Santa Maria degli Angeli (1853); 866. L. C. Timbal, 
Muse and poet. — Rear wall: 955. C. Vernet, Charles X. hunting; 
934. J. Vernet, Environs of Marseilles ; 20. Bidauld, Landscape; 
275. Winterhalter, Portrait; no number, St. Jean, Flowers; 121. 
Chasseriau, Susannah ; no number, G. Rouget, Portraits ; 214. St. Jean, 
Flowers. — To the left of the entrance to the following room : no 
number, P. Delaroche, Youthful martyr; 83. Brascassat, Landscape 
with cattle; 429. Jacobber, Flowers; 399. Guerin, Aurora and 
Cephalus; 192. David, Belisarius asking for alms; 430. Jacobber, 
Fruit ; 329. Gerard, Daphnis and Chloe. — A fine view is obtained 
from the neighbouring window. To the right of the window : 
Ge.ricav.ll, 345. Horse, 349. The race. To the right of the door: 347. 
Gericault, Horses; 361. Girodet-Trioson, The sleeping Endymion 
visited by Diana in the form of a moon-ray. 

Collection La Caze (Room I). This collection, which was be- 
queathed to the museum in 1869 by Dr. La Caze, chiefly comprises 
French paintings of the time of Louis XIV. (Rigaud, Largilliere), 
and of the rococo period (Watteau, Lancret, Pater, Boucher) and 
realistic school (Chardin) of the 18th century. There are also several 
paintings by Tintoretto, Velazquez, and Ribera. 

Beginning on the right: 48. Fr. Boucher, The artist in his 
studio ; 1548. G. B. Tiepolo, Virgin appearing to St. Jerome. On 
the right wall: 47. Boucher, The Graces; 826. A. Roslin, Por.'rait; 
Largilliere, 488. Portrait of President de Laage, 490. A magistrate, 
*49i. Portraits of the painter and his wife and daughter, No number, 
Portrait, 485. Young lady as Diana, 484. Portrait, 487. A magistrate, 
486. Portrait. Above, 1468. Tintoretto , Susannah and the elders. 
Beside No. 488 and farther on, Vestier, 961, 960. Portraits; above, 
335. F. Gerard, Empress Marie Louise; *1725. Ribera, The club-foot 
(1652) ; 1736. Velazquez, Portrait; *2707. Dinner, Portrait of an old 
woman, executed with great delicacy; 1735. Velazquez, The Infanta 
Maria Theresa; 1249. V. Castelli (above), Moses smiting the rock ; 
887. De Troy, Portrait; 537. Lemoyne, Hercules and Omphale; 174. 
A. Coypel, Dempcritus; 794. Rigaud, Portrait of an old man; 1946. 
Ph. de Champaigne, Portrait (1653) ; 326: CI. Lorrain, Landscape ; 
above, 2194. P. de Vos, Stricken deer; 548. Lenain, Rustic meal 
(1642); above, 1311. Luca Giordano, Death of Seneca; 77. Bourdon, 
Interior; Rigaud, *792. Due de Lesdiguieres as a child, *793. 
President de Be'rulle , 791. Cardinal de Polignac; 1945. Ph. de 
Champaigne, Mayor and syndics of Paris; above, Tintoretto, 1469. 
Virgin and saints, 1472, 1470. Portraits. 1310. Luca Giordano 
(above), Tarquinius and Lucretia; above the exit, 2748. German 
School (18th cent.), Woman as Flora. 

To the left, beginning again : Greuze, 378. Portrait, 379, Fabre 
d'Eglantine, the poet, executed under the Terror, 382. Portrait 
of the artist, 376. Girl's head; 49. Boucher, Forge of Vulcan; 
J. B. Pater, 690, Actors in a park, 693. Woman bathing; Lancret, 

150 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

472. The cage, 473. Conversation; 988. Watteau, Judgment of 
Paris ; Fragonard, 292. Pastoral scene, 297. Study, 298. Inspiration ; 
2135. School of Rubens, Horse attacked by wolves ; *659. Nattier, 
Portrait of Mile, de Lambesc as Minerva, with the young Count de 
Brionne (1732); above, 769. J. B. Regnault, The Three Graces; 
Lancret, 471. Boldness rebuked, from Lafontaine, 470. Actor of 
the Italian comedy; 765. Raoux, Girl reading a letter; above, 1702. 
Juan Carreno, St. Ambrose distributing alms; Nattier, 660. Knight 
of St. John, 661. Daughter of Louis XV. as Vestal; Walteau, 985. 
'Slyboots' ('La Finette'), 984. Indifference, 986. Gay company in 
a park , *983. Gilles and other characters of the Italian comedy, 
987. Conjurer, 991. Jupiter and Antiope; Pater, 691. The toilette, 
692. Group in a park; 117. Chardin (?), The return from school; 
*1041. French School (18th cent.), Portrait; Chardin, 104. Monkey 
as painter, 103. The house of cards, 93. Grace (inferior replica of 
the picture mentioned at p. 142), 114. Kitchen-table, 105-116. Still- 
life; above, 888. De Troy, Portrait; Snyders, 2148. Fishmonger, 
2149. Game-dealer. 46. Boucher, Venus and Vulcan ; Largilliire, 
No number and 490. Portraits. Above, 2136. School of Rubens, Fight 
between bears and tigers; 1980. Van Dyck, Head of St. Joseph; 
Casanova, 1247, 1248. Horsemen; 1724. Ribera, Madonna; 1733. 
Velazquez, Philip IV. ; 1471. Tintoretto, Venetian senator; 1596. 
School of Titian, Holy Family; 1674. Venetian School (16th cent.), 
Portrait. — By the rear wall at the exit, two large bronze candelabra. 

The exit leads to the staircase (Escalier Henri Deux, p. 105) of 
the Pavilion de l'Horloge or Pavilion Sully, through which we may 
quit the Louvre, and where a bust of President Loubet, by D. Puech 
(1901), is placed. Beyond this staircase, to the left, is the — 

Saloon of the Ancient Bronzes. The saloon (open from 12.30 ; 
1 p.m. in summer), which has a fine iron door, contains a valuable 
collection of implements, weapons, etc. 

In the vestibule, in front of the window, is a lifesize gilded bronze Statue 
of Apollo, in good preservation, found near Lillebonne, in Normandy. On 
the right and left are antique busts; opposite are a chair, a tripod, and 
two glass-cases with large vases. On either side of the 1st window, bronze 
busts of Lin'a and Octavia. 

Central Glass Case : Etrnscan cists, the largest of which were found 
at Palestrina, near Rome; buckles, keys, collars, and bracelets ; surgical and 
mathematical instruments; Greek mirrors, etc. — By the Windows: in 
the centre, Archaic Apollo, an excellent work of great historical interest ; 
glass-case containing busts and statuettes of Greek origin, including one 
iifDionysos; on the other side, a curious crested boar (from Luxembourg); 
Gallic wresller (Aulun); fine figure of a bull charging (Autun); Athlete of 
the school of Polycletus; on the window-side, Winged deity on a chariot 
drawn by stags (Lake of Nemi). The large statues are placed on pedestals 
beside the windows. By the middle window, Admirable head of a youth, 
found at Benevento (a Greek work; the eyes were inlaid). Glass-cases with 
Greek and Etruscan mirrors. — Glass Cases to the Right, as we return: 
Statuettes and busts, chiefly of deities. — Wall Cabinets, beginning on 
the same side: Mounts, handles, vases in the shape of heads, domestic 
implements, antique candelabra of every type, lamps, etc. ; then weapons, 
fragments of statues, gladiator's armour from Pompeii, animals (bull, boar, 

Furniture. 4. LOUVRE. 151 

cook), helmets. On the cabinets are placed buits. — Glasj Case to the 
Left, as we return: Greek mirrors with supports, statuettes of female 
divinities, Cupids, etc. 

The staircase to the left beyond this hall leads to the second 

floor (p. 162; Thomy-Thie'ry Collection, Mase"e de Marine, etc.). 

*Furniture of the 17th and 18th Centuries. The rooms con- 
taining this collection were formerly used for the meetings of the 
Council of State, and are decorated with ceiling-paintings. Changes 
in the arrangement are very frequent. 

I. Salle Louis XIV. On the entrance-wall, Gobelins tapestry 
representing Parnassus, after Raphael (end of 17th cent.). In the left 
corner, *Oabinet inlaid with tortoise-shell and brass (early Louis XIV. 
period). Left wall, in the centre, on a column, Porphyry bust of 
Alexander, by Oirardon. To the left, Lower part of an armoire, with 
Apollo and Marsyas (marquetry) ; to the right, another, with Apollo 
and Daphne, both by Boulle. On the exit-side, another piece of 
tapestry: Visit of Louis XIV. to the Gobelins Manufactory (end of 
17th cent.), after Le Brun. On the floor is a carpet from the Savonnerie, 
intended for the Galerie d'Apollon (p. 144). To the right, on a painted 
wooden console (Louis XV. style) : Rape of Dejaneira by Nessus, in 
bronze, by Oiov. da Bologna, and a fine bronze bust of Cupid (Italian; 
17th cent.); in the centre, a table of oriental porphyry and carved 
wood, from the Chateau de Vaux. By the wall, two commodes and 
two armoires, in the style of Boulle ; large console of carved and 
gilded wood, after Robert de Cotte, the architect. At the end: Ebony 
cabinet (Louis XIV.), and a commode inlaid with brass, tortoise-shell, 
and ebony. — The ceiling-painting represents France victorious at 
Bouvines(1214), by Blondel. — The paintings above the doors are by 
Belin de Fontenny and Le Sueur. The red velvet curtains are bordered 
with Gobelins tapestry (17th cent.). 

II. Salle Louis XV. A large carpet from the Savonnerie (see 
above) covers the floor. In the middle, Statue of Cupid, attributed 
to Oillet. *Bureauof Louis XV. by CEben, the cabinet-work by Riesener 
and the bronze work by Duplessis ; other pieces of Louis XV. furniture. 
Beside the entrance , 658. J. M. Nattier, Portrait of Mme. Adelaide 
de France; below, on the chimney-piece, Pajou, Bust of Mme. 
Dubarry (1773). By the 3rd window of the left wall, on a Louis XV. 
commode, Child with a cage, in marble, by Pigalle. By the exit, 
900. C. A. Van Loo, Marie Lesczinska, queen of France. Hung on 
the walls are four Gobelins tapestries with a rose-coloured back- 
ground, by Neilson (after Boucher and Teissier), executed in 1757 
for the Salle du Conseil in the chateau of Compiegne ; four others 
represent the story of Rinaldo and Armida (below, a commode in 
the grotto-work style) and the myth of Cupid and Pysche, after 
Coypel. The paintings above the doors are by Boucher and Chardin. 
In this room are articles of furniture, bronzes, sculptures, and the 
Lenoir collection (snuff-boxes, 3rd window on the right). In the 

152 4. LOUVRE. First Moor: 

glass-case by the 2nd window, Vases and a Bacchante with a child, 
by Clodion. — On the ceiling, France receiving the charter from the 
hands of Louis XVIII., by Slondel. 

III. Salle Louis XVI. By the entrance, 820. Roslin, Love's 
homage; Nuptials of Angelica and Medoro, by Coypel; below, 316. 
Commode by Riesener. Bear wall, Cavalry engagement, after Casa- 
nova (Beauvais tapestry in a gilt Louis XV. frame). Exit-side, Two 
Gobelins hangings ('Les Mois Lucas'; 18th cent.). Commodes by 
Riesener. 382. Two magnificent cabinets by <?. Bennemann, with 
medallions in Sevres porcelain. Busts. In a glass-case in the middle 
of the room, works by Goulhiere and Thomyre, Sevres porcelain, 
ewer and basin owned by Mme. Dubarry, etc. Above the doors, 242, 
234, 241, 247. Dogs and still- life, by Desportes. Drawings by 
Fragonard, Lancret, Pater, etc. — Ceiling-painting: Triumph of 
Justice, by Drolling. 

IV. Salle Louis XVI. Carpet like that in Boom II. Two Go- 
belins tapestries, with arabesques ('Les Mois Arabesques'; end of 
17th cent.). Opposite the right door, Beauvais tapestry (Diana's 
curtain), after Oudry (18th cent.). Opposite the left door, Gobelins 
tapestry (Arms of France),. afteT Le Brun (17th cent.). Flanking the 
central door are two sphinxes in terracotta with heads of ladies of 
fashion (Louis XV.). Above the doors, 655. Pierre, Juno ; 654. 
Natoire, Venus. Drawings by Fragonard, Lancret, etc. To the right 
and left of the chimneypiece, 815. Qutntin de la Tour, Louis of 
France, son of Louis XV. ; 672. J. Boze, Duke of Angouleme (pastels). 
The bronze candelabra on the chimneypiece (Faun and Bacchante) 
are by Clodion. In front of the left window is a furnished room; the 
bed, of carved wood and adorned with silk embroidery, designed by 
Phil, de la Salle (Louis XVI. period); 320. Table attributed to 
Riesener and Gouthiere, 'made and presented to the queen by M. de 
Fontanien, chief superintendent of the crown-furniture in 1781'. 
On the right of the window , 802. H. Robert, Portico of Marcus 
Aurelius ; in the corner, 1317. J.Vivien, Maximilian Emmanuel, Duke 
and Elector of Bavaria. In the centre, some fine Louis XV. cabinets 
from the Thomy-Thiery collection (p. 162), temporarily placed here. — 
Ceiling-painting: Divine "Wisdom dictating laws to kings and legis- 
lators, by Mauzaisse. 

V. Salle Louis XVI, with a similar carpet (Savonnerie). 
Magnificent Sevres vase, with bronze mountings, by Bohot and 
Thomyre. On the walls, Gobelins tapestries of the so-called Baphael 
Cartoon series, the border by Lemoine-Lorain (late 17th cent.): 
Homage to Mercury, Bath of Psyche and Cupid, Dancing in couples, 
Round dance, Musicians (by the door on the left). Furniture by 
Bennemann, M. Carlin, Lorta, and Riesener. Bureau by Levasseur, 
with bronze statuettes of Voltaire and Rousseau. Above the doors, No 
number, Huet, Dog attacking geese; 893, 894. Anne Vallayer- Coster, 
Attributes of Painting, Sculpture, and Music. To the right of the 

Drawings. 4. LOUVRE. 153 

exit, 805. H. Robert, View of a park. Busts; porcelain. — On the 
ceiling, Triumph of Marie de Me"dicis, by Carolus-Duran. 

We may now either pass through the door to the left, and enter 
the gallery (Rue de Rivoli side) which contains the His de la Salle 
Collection of upwards of 300 drawings hy old masters, or we may 
enter (door to the right) the — 

* Collection of Drawings (Musee des Bessins), which occupies 
most of the N. side of the first floor of the Old Louvre, and rivals 
the great Florentine collection in the Ufflzi, numbering 37,000 in 
all. Only about 2300 of these drawings are exhibited, under glass. 
A few oil-paintings and some interesting tables (18th cent.) and small 
bronzes have recently been added. Changes are frequently made. 

I. Room (PI. 6) or Vestibule. To the left of the exit, No number, 
J. Boze, Portrait (pastel). 1400, 1957. French School (18th cent.), Female 
portraits. To the left and right of the windows, 1407, 1406. French School 
(18th and 17ih cent.), Female portraits. Two cabinets (ISth cent.). Ceiling- 
painting : Venus and Juno, by H. Leroux. — II. Room (PI. 7). Early Italian 
Masters : Mantegna, "Lorenzo di Credi, * Signorelli, Pinturicchio, Perugino, 
Pollajuolo, F. Lippi, T. Gaddi. Gobelins tapestries. On the upper part of the 
walls: Italian Schools (15th cent.), 1638. Arisioile, 1629. P. Apponius, 1637, 
Plato, 1653. Solon. — III. Room (PI. 8). Italian Masters. Drawings by the 
most celebrated artists: Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angela, and Raphael. 
Gobelins tapestries with the story of Moses. — IV. Room (PI. 9). Italian 
Masters. Drawings by Correggio, B. Bandinelli, Andrea delSarto, Sodoma, Fra 
Bartolomeo, M. Albertintlli, Bromine, and Baroccio. To the left of and opposite 
the entrance, Correggio, 18, 17. Vice and Virtue. Gobelins tapestry on the rear 
wall : Moses in the bulrushes. Left wall, above : Albani, 1109- Cupids disarmed, 
1110 (opposite), Venus and Adonis. — V. Room (PI. 10). Venetian Masters: 
Titian, Tintoretto, Canaletto, Carpaccio, L. da Vinci, Pontorrno, Montagna. 
To the right as we enter: *459. Velazquez, Sketch for the picture of the 
Lances, and other drawings by Velazquez and Murillo. Gobelins tapestry 
on the rear wall. — VI. Room (PI. 11). Flemish Artists of the 15ih, 16th, 
and 18th cents. : B. van Orley, Brueghel the Elder, Ph. de Champaigne, "Rubens, 
Teniers, Van Dyck, H. Bosch. Left wall (above) : A. F. van der Meulen, 2042, 
Taking of Valenciennes by Louis XIV. in 1677, 2043 (opposite), View of 
Luxembourg (1684). 

VII. Room (PI. 12). Flemish School. Jordaens, Ph. de Champaigne, Van 
Dyck, Rubens, Teniers, J. Brueghel. Tapestry on the left wall : Susannah 
and the elders. Above, M. Bril, 1E06, 1907. Deer-hunting. 

VIII. Room (PI. 13). Dutch Masters: "Rembrandt, C. de Vischer, Van 
Mieris (530), A. Cuyp, G. Don, Van Ostade, P. Potter, Lucas van Leyder.. Left 
wall, above, If. Coypel, 162. Hercules and Achelous, 163. (opposite), Hercules, 
Dejaneira, and Nessus. 

IX. Room (PI. 14). Pastels. Left wall : *819. Q. de la Tour, Mme. de 
Pompadour; Rosalba Carriera, Venetian painter (185, 187). Right wall: Reg- 
nault (1910) ; Chardin (678, 679, Caricature of himself); Q. de la Tour (823. 
Portrait of himself); Vivien (1320); Mme. Gugard; Perronneau, etc. Tn the 
middle of the room, Table of the Directory period. — X. Room (PI. 15). 
German Masters : Hans Baldting Grien, A. Dilrer, "Master E. S. (1466), M. 
Schongauer, Mair de Land shut. On the walls, above, Landscapes by Lemaire- 
Poitssin. — We return through Room IX and enter the — 

Collection Thiers, a collection of works of art bequeathed to the 
Museum by the ex-president of the Republic and his widow, wlich occupies 
the two following rooms. Of the 1470 very miscellaneous objects the 
majority are small, and few are of much importance. Catalogues provided. 
In the first room is a portrait of Thiers, by Bonnat. The second room is 
principally devoted to porcelain. 

Continuation of the Drawings. — XI. Room (PI. 17). French Artists (19th 
cent.): David, Girard, Giricault, Grot, Prucfhon; on the right, 735. Girodet- 

154 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

Trioson, Portrait of Canova — XIT. Room (PI. 18) French Artists (19th cent.) : 
Glricault, Ingres, liabey, Delacroix, Decamps, Charlet, Qranet, Millet, Hutt, 

A. de Neuville (at the end, to the left, Flaj of tru:e in 1870), Belly, Bida, etc. 
Also, Bonmjton. By the 1st and 2nd windows : J. P. Mene, The kill, Terriers 
(groups in waf). 

We retrace our steps to Room X and enter the adjoining — 

* Collection of Smaller Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern 
Objects of Art (Musse des objets d'art du Moyen Age, de la Renais- 
sance et des Temps Modernes), -which may also be reached by a stair- 
case ascending from the 4th room of the Asiatic Museum (p. 106). 

I. Room (PL 16). * Ivory Carvings of the 6-19th cent., some very 
valuable (catalogue by Molinier, 1896; 5 fr.). 

In the cabinets round the room: 197 (on the left as we enter), 
Bacchanal by 0. van Opstal ; religious objects; caskets (one of the 
9th cent.) ; diptychs an 1 triptych s, including a B yzantine example of the 
10th or 11th cent, and (*No. 141) a Florentine specimen of the 15th 
cent.; book-bindiugs; tablets; chessmen and draughtsmen; hunting- 
horns (Nos. 21, 22); mirror-cases; fans; loving-cups ('vidrecomes') ; 
powder-flasks, etc. In the central glass-case : ! 16. Ivory harp (Franco- 
Flemish ; 15-16th cent.), perhaps once in the possession of Duchess 
Yolande of Savoy ; 244. Descent from the Cross (13th cent.) ; 39, 62. 
Saddle-bow and cantle (Ital. ; 13th cent.), the former with figures of 
women upon horses and camels; *53. Madonna and Child, from the 
Sainte Chapelle (French; 14th cent); *50. Coronation of the Virgin 
(late 13th cent); 12. Byzantine triptych (10th cent.). Between the 
windows : 112. Altar-Piece of Poissy, about 7 ft. in height, an Italian 
work of the end of the 14th cent., in bone and mosaic, with 7l different 
reliefs : in the centre Is the history of Christ, on the left that of John 
the Baptist, on the right that of St. John the Evangelist, below, the 
Apostles. On the walls, from left to right, Flemish tapestries: Christ 
appearing to Mary Magdalen (16th cent); Resurrection (15th cent.); 
Courtship (15th cent.); below, *Design for a silk antependium 
presented to the cathedral of Narbonne by Charles V. (14th cent.); 
Adoration of the Magi (Italian tapestry; 16th cent.). 

In Rooms II, III, and IV are more drawings of the French School. 

Room II (PI. 3). Sixteenth Cent. : F. Clouet, Lagneau, Daniel de Moustiers. 
Central case : Albums of drawings by "Jacques Gallot and Lagneau. Above, 
to the right and left, Pictures by Le Sueur, for the Hotel Lambert (p. 262). 
— Room III (PI. A) Seventeenth Cent. : Cot/pel, de Troy, Grardon, Jouvenei, 
Poussin, CI. Lorrain, etc. Above, right and left, Le Sueur, Paintings for the 
Hotel Lambert. Central case : Enamels by "PMtot (Louis XIV., Mme. 
de Main'enon, Mme. de Ssvigne', etc.); Bauer, 461. Cavalcade of the Pope, 
4 ; i2. Profession. — Room IV (PL 5). Eighteenth Cent. : "Boucher, Greuze, 
Chard'n, Fragonari, Lancrel, Leprince, MoreJu le Jeune, Pater, St. Aubin, 
Watteau- Above (left), 872. L. Tocqui, J. L. Lemoyne, the sculptor; 798. 

B. Robert, The Maison Carree at Kimes ; 970. J. Voiriot, J. B. M. Pierre, 
the painter. — Rear wall, 963, F. H. Drouais, G. Coustou, the sculptor; 275. 
J. Dumonl (le Romain), Mme. Merrier, nurse of Louis XV. ; 276. J. C. Duplessis, 
Allegrain, the sculptor. On the right, 877. Roslin, Jeaurat ; 800. H. Robert, 
The Pont du Gard; 903 L. M. Van Loo, Portrait of himself. Cases by the 
walls (right and left) : Miniatures (Lenoir Collection). Between the windows : 
797. H. Robert, Triumphal arch at Orange. Over the doors, Dogs and Still 
life, by Desportes. 

Donation Rothschild. 4. LOUVRE. 155 

V. Room (PI. 6). *Donation Rothschild, valued at 800,000 1. The 
donor, M. Adolphe de Rothschild, also bequeathed 10,000J. for the 
decoration and appointments of the sumptuous little saloon, which 
has red velvet hangings, a rich parqueted floor, and a splendid gilded 
and coffered Venetian ceiling of the 15th century. 

Left wall. In a glass-case : Religious objects: box for an Agnus Dei 
(German; 15th cent.); two paxes (German and Italian; 16th cent); 
curious knife (Flemish; early 16th cent.); reliquary (Flemish; 16th 
cent.). Below (farther on), pendants (France; 16th cent.); *Agatc 
rosary with Teliefs in enamelled gold (France; 16th cent.); reliquary- 
jewel (Spain; 16th cent.). In the centre (beginning again): mon- 
strance-reliquary (Venice; 15th cent.); *Cross - reliquary in gold 
(France; 15th cent); censer (Venice; 15th cent.). Above (beginning 
again): *Holy-water stoup (France ; 13th cent); *Aspersorium (Italy; 
late 15th cent); Madonna and Child (German; 15th cent.); *Orozier 
(Spain; 16th cent); monstrance-reliquary (Spain; 16th cent). — 
Farther on, by the wall: 20. Sepulchral brass (Flanders; 1455); 
76. Madonna and Child (relief; German: 16th cent). — At the end: 
Flemish tapestry: Miracle of the loaves and fishes (15th cent). In a 
glass-case in front, triptych-reliquary from the abbey of Floreffe 
(Flanders; 16th cent); on a cabinet to the left, St. Catharine of 
Alexandria (French; 16th cent); on the right, *Madonna and Child, 
relief by Agostino di Duccio (1418-81; Florence). 

Right wall. In the glass-case: Religious objects continued (from 
left to right). Below, two amulet - chains (Spain; 16th cent.); 
*Enamelled gold necklace with a scene from the Passion on each 
link (German; 16th cent); portable reliquary (Spain; 16th cent.); 
incense-spoon (France; late 15th cent.); *Rosary of carved wood 
(Flanders; early 16th cent); large bead, of a rosary carved with a 
number of small figures (Flanders; early 16th cent.); In the centre 
(beginning again) : Reliquary o f the Flagellation (Venice ; 1 5th cent.) ; 
St. Catharine (German; early 16th cent); gold monstrance (Venice; 
16th cent). 

VI. Room (PI. 7). Oriental Fayence. Central case, 2nd row: 
Round casket made for Almogueira, son of Abd-er-Rahman III., 
Prince of Cordova in 967. Above, Lamp from a mosque (1347-61). 
Below, Persian fayence, engraved gold earring (Byzantine). On the 
left, Bronze aquamanale (Siculo - Arabian ; ll-12th cent). On the 
right, Ivory plaque and comb (Indian). On the wall are oriental arms. 
Glass-case by the 2nd window : Bronzes, including the *'Barborini 
Vase', with the name of Abdul Mozhaffer Yusuf, sultan of Aleppo 
(1236-60). Case by the right wall : in the centre, Large damascened 
copper vase, known as the 'Font of St. Louis' (Arabian; 13th cent.); 
basin from Mossul (14th cent); copper ewer with silver incrustations 
(Mossul; 13th cent); koursi-tray (Cairo; 14th cent). 

Vestibule. Case on the left, Large ewer from Turkestan(15th cent); 
copper Arabian dish (14th cent). 

156 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

The small staircase to the left as we leave the vestibule ascends to 
the 2nd floor (p. 162). — For the Remainder of the Renaissance and Modern 
Objects of Art, see below. 

Leaving Room VIII by the door at the end we reach the top 
of the staircase leading to the Asiatic Museum (p. 106). We turn 
to the right and enter the rooms of the East Wing. 

Salles de la Colonnade , three rooms containing Asiatic Anti- 
quities, from Susiana and Chaldaea. Illustrated catalogue of the 
Ohaldsean antiquities, by L. Heuzey (1902; 6 fr.). 

I. Room. Small antiquities. Assyrian tiles; Grceco-Babylonian and 
Syro-Chaldsean statuettes and other sculptures ; inscriptions ; cylinders, 
engraved gems, and seals of great delicacy. Also, in the separate first case to 
the right, Reliefs excavated recently by M. de Sar/.ec, and in the second case 
to the right, the silver vase of Entemema, with engravings, dating from 
before the 30th cent. B.C., from the excavations of Sarzec at Tello (Chaldffia). 
In the second case to the left: Grseco-Parthian gold ornaments from Cyprus; 
African lamps (from Lixus) ; Asiatic weights (Syria). 1st case (left) : Phoenic- 
ian glass, rhyta, Babylonian statuettes; Phoenician jewelry, Assyrian in- 
scriptions of the reign of Sargon. Central case: 'Achsemenian jewelry, from 
a bronze sarcophagus (4th cent. B.C.); statuettes from Susa. 1st window 
on the right : Chaldeean plans, tablets, and impressions (Sarzec expedition) ; 
between the windows on the right, Achsemenian bronze lion (6-4th cent. B.C.). 
By the second window on the left : fine Assyrian bronze lion, with a ring 
in its back (Khorsabad). In the adjoining cabinets: Glazed tiles from 
Babylon; fragments of bronzes; Chaldsean antiquities, etc. 

II. Room. 1st Section: in the middle, plans of the tumuli where the 
antiquities were found by M. Dieulafoy (1881-86); on the entrance-wall, 
magnificent -Frieze of glazed and painted terracotta, representing the 
archers of the 'immortal guard' of Darius ; to the left, stair-railing from 
the palace of Artaxerxes Mnemon, also in terracotta; on the partition- 
wall, the crowning-ornaments of the pylons of this palace, with lions in 
the same material; on the right side, fragments of a bath. Right-hand case: 
Persian pottery; Achsemenian vases; mask of the Parthian period. — 
2nd Section: At the back, "Two-headed capital of one of the 36 columns 
(each 68 ft. high) which supported the roof of the throne-room of Arta- 
xerxes Mnemon (B. C. 404) ; in the cabinets, fragments of the frieze of 
archers, etc. In the flat case by the 1st window to the right: Sassanide 
or Arab pottery (8-9th cent.); vases and spoons used in the cult of Mazda 
(Sassanide period). By the second window, large funeral urn. Case to the 
right, coming from the entrance: cylinders from Susa, Chaldsea, and 
Assyria ; terracottas ; glass ; seals (Sassanide and in the Greek style ; Parthian 
period). 1st case on the left: Egyptian amulets, statuettes of Anaita, Acha- 
menian die. 2nd case on the left: Facing of a door from the acropolis 
of Susa ; Parthian, Sassanide, and Arabian coins ; bronzes from Susa. Left 
window : large tiles from the palace of Artaxerxes. 

III. Room. Continuation of the above collection. Reproduction of the 
throne-room of Artaxerxes Mnemon, which covered an area of 11,000 square 
yards. By the second window is a 'Bust of a Greeco-Iberian woman, found 
in Spain in 1897. On the right and left of the room : Winged bulls of the 
time of Darius I. On the walls is displayed a panorama of the region 
where the excavations at Susa were carried out. 

IV. -VIII. Rooms. Continuation of the Mediaeval, Renaissance 
and Modem Objects of Art (see p. 154). 

IV. Room or Salle do Dome. Case to the left of the entrance: Bronzes 
by Barye; farther on, "Armour of Henri II. of France. On the rear wall: 
Flemish tapestries: Last judgment, and St. Luke painting the Virgin Mary 
16th cent.; after the picture by Roger van der Weyden in the Pinikothek 
at Munich). Case on the left of the exit: Caskets, ecclesiastical bronzes, 
statuettes, pewter dishes (some by F. Briot), etc. Opposite: Shields, 

Renaissance Objects. 4. LOUVRE. 157 

swords, etc. In the other cabinets are Renaissance furniture. Glass-case 
opposite the 3rd window : Bronzes by Giov. da Bologna (Geometry ; Venus) 
and others. Other bronzes (by Barye, etc.) in the 4th case. — In the 
glass cases by the 3rd window: Arms and armour; French and German 
medals. By the 1st window: Bronze statuettes of the Italian Renaissance: 
II RicciOy Arion and St. Sebastian, Bust of himself; School of Donatello, 
John the Baptist; Savelli (surnamed Sperandio), Equestrian statuette of 
G. F. Gonzaga. By the 2nd window : Cutting weapons of the 15-16th cent. 
and a hunting-horn of Francis I. By the 1st window, Italian medals. — 
Glass-case on the left: Head of a satyr, in bronze (Italian; 16th cent.); 
below, P. Vischer, Bust of himself (16th cent.) ; other Italian and Flemish 
bronzes. — In the glass-cases in the centre: reliefs in metal; paxes; locks, 
keys, etc.; cutlery, spoons, etc.; medallions in coloured wax; watches 
(16-18th cent). 

V. Room. Italian Majolica or Fayence. The finest specimens, dating 
from the 16th cent., were made at Deruta, Faenza, Forll, Venice, Gubbio, 
Pesaro, Urbino, and Castel Durante. In the centre is a fine Renaissance chest. 

VI. Room. Fine wood-carving from the Salle des Sept Chemine'es. 
This specimen and that in the next room are the only carvings of the 
royal apartments now extant. Silk tapestry of the 16th cent. ; portrait of 
Henri II., opposite the window; in front, Emp. Charles V., a painted high- 
relief (German ; 16th cent.), on a fine cabinet. By the left wall is an alabaster 
bust of Otto Heinrich I., Count-Palatine of the Rhine. — In the central 
cases : fayence from Lyons (16th cent.), Rouen (18th cent.), and Moustiers 
(18th cent.). — Glass-cases at the windows: medallions and other carvings 
in box-wood, very delicately executed; carvings in other substances, in- 
cluding a relief in lithographic stone by Aldegrever, representing the Duke 
of Bavaria and Agnes Bernauer of Augsburg. On the walls are more 
carvings, and inlaid panels. In the cabinets are caskets and statuettes. 

VII. Room, with alcove (to the left of the entrance) in which Henri IV. 
breathed his last. The Venetian state-bed (16th cent.) did not originally 
belong to this room. The wood-carving is from the rooms of Henri II. 
in the Louvre, and was restored under Louis XIV. Fine cabinets. On the 
end-wall is a portrait of Marie de M^dicis, facing which is one of Henri IV. 
In the central case : 'Large dishes by Bernard Palissy. In the other cases : 
Salt-cellars, etc., by the same artist; fayence from Nevers, Beauvais, etc. 

VIII. Room. Two large Sevres vases. 1st window on the left: Casket 
presented by the city of St. Petersburg 'a la nation amie', on a table of 
Florentine mosaic. 2nd window, Mosaic map of France. To the left of 
the exit: Map of France in pietra dura, from the imperial gem-cutting 
works at Ekaterinburg (presented by the Russian government, 1900). 1st case 
(centre): tazze and other Venetian glass. 2nd case (centre): Pottery from 
Cologne, Nuremberg, and Nassau (16th cent.). Portraits of Louis XIII. and 
his queen Anne of Austria, by Phil, de Champaigne (?), and furniture. 

On leaving Boom VIII we find ourselves at the top of the stair- 
case of the Muse"e Egyptien, which is continued on the landing and 
in the rooms to the right (comp. Plan of first floor, p. 115). 

Egyptian Museum (continued). — The rooms to the right con- 
tain the smaller Egyptian antiquities. Considerations of space and 
other reasons have made it necessary to place certain of the exhibits 
in rooms to -which they do not properly belong. 

Staircase. Above, two cases containing furniture, musical instruments, 
hunting implements, etc. 1st landing (as we descend): Tissues, distaffs, 
sandals, etc. 2nd landing: Figurines, models of buildings and boats, mat- 
work, baskets, etc. 

I. Salle Histobique , with a ceiling-painting by Oros, repre- 
senting the Genius of France encouraging the arts and protecting 
mankind (1827-31). 

158 4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

The objects here are mainly of historical value. At the entrance : 
Grouching dog, in black granite; bronze statuette (under glass). In the 
centre, on a pedestal surrounded by an octagonal glass-case, bronze statu- 
ette. Behind, bronze statuette of Amnion, richly damascened. — Glass- 
cases: sepulchral statuettes, partly covered with beauliful blue enamel; 
scarabsei, very often emblematical of the sun-god (royal names <n many 
of them); golden "Ornaments coated with coloured vitreous paste. Case 
by the left wall: Go'den masks of mummies; sepulchral "head-rests in 
alabaster. On the chimneypiece are canopies. To the r'ght of the exit, 
under glass: Head of Psammelieh III. (,26th Dyn.). By the 1st window: 
Portrait of Cbampollion, the Egyptologist, by L. Cogniel (1831). 

II. Salle Ciyile, at present occupied by exhibits of industrial 
art, with a ceiling-painting by H. Vernet: Bramante, Raphael, and 
Michael Angelo before Pope Julius II. (1827). 

Central case: "Vases in alabaster, pietra dura, and eaithtnware of the 
remotest epochs; pottery. Wallc;ses: Pottery and vases in pietra dura. 
To the right of the entrance: Ivories, e'tu's, statuettes, toilet articles, mirror- 
handles, castanets. To the left of the entrance: Specimens of pietra dura, 
amulets, scarabsei, vases, necklaces. To the right of the exit: Objects in 
wood, toilet articles ("Two spoons in the form of a swimming nymph 
holding a duck), boxes for games. To the left of the exit: pottery, terracotta 
and enamel v<ses, etc., goblets with fish and lotus-Power ornamentations, 
necklaces, rings, amulets. By the 1st window: Objects in bronze and wood 
covered with gold-!eaf. By the 2nd window: Rings, scarabfei, ornaments, etc. 

III. Salle Funekairt, interesting as illustrating the Egyptian 
worship of the dead, the belief in the immortality of the soul being 
a fundamental dogma of the ancient religion. — The ceiling-painting, 
by Abel de Pujol, represents Joseph as the saviour of Egypt (1827). 

The belief in immortality explains the extreme care which tte Egyptians 
took to preserve tbeir dead, the time (as much as 70 days) bestowed on 
the embalming, and their spacious and magnificerit tombs. Our information 
regarding the Egyptian notions of the soul's condition after death is chiefly 
derived from the Book of the Dead', a copy of which was laid beside each 
body. This work contains hymns, prayers, and instructions as to the 
behaviour of the deceased in the next world, what answers they are to 
make to the judges, etc. The papyri hung on the walls contain a number 
of these passages, sometimes illustrated by paintings in wonderfully good 
preservation. — At the entrance is a painted statue of a woman presenting 
an offering to the dead. Left wall: Papyri with texts from the Book of the 
Dead. Atove the tire-place: Mural and other paintings of the 2nd Theban 
epoch. In front, under glass, Statuette in polished acacia-wood. To the 
right and left of the lire-place; 3072-3. 'Fragments of a> royal papyrus, a 
magnificent specimen in linear bierosil.'iphics of the Book of the Dead, 26 ft. 
in length, and although upwards of 3000 years old in remarkable preservation. 
In the middle of tbe room: "Statuette of an Egyptian scribe, painted red, 
with eyes inserted (5th or 6th Dyn.; 18th cent. B.C.), probably the best 
example of ancient Egyptian sculpture (found at Sakkara). The octagonal 
case round it contains ink-horns and palettes, weights, Egjptian measures 
(with hieroglyphics), etc. Cases on the right and left: Well-executed statuettes ; 
sculptured fragments in stone and wood of various periods; reliefs. To 
the right (from the entrance): Sculptors' mode?s of the Sai'lic period. To the 
left (from the en f ran e): Statuettes, ttc. (Jlemphian and first Thelan periods). 
By the 1st window: Sepulchral statuettes in wood. Right wall, two cabine's 
with mummy cases and cartonnages covered with pain'ing. The flat cases 
contain amulets. In the left corner (from the entrance): Wooden statuette 
of a functionary. In front of the 2nd window, "Slatuet'e of Tui, priestess 
of Min, god of Coptos (Ttebes), of delicate workmanship (acacia-wood) and 
admirably preserved (20th Dyn. ; ca. 12th cent. B. C). In front of the exit, 
Statuette in bronze of tbe hawk-headed Horus, offering a libation to his 
fa'her Osir's (vase missing). On the right and left of the. exit: Statuettes 

Egyptian Museum. 4. LOUVRE. 159 

and reliefs of tie second Theban period. Flanking the door are figures of 

IV. Salle des Dieux, with a ceiling-painting by Picot (1827), 
representing Study and Genius revealing Egypt to Greece. This 
room is devoted to objects illustrating Egyptian mythology : statuettes 
and attributes of the gods (mostly in bronze), etc. 

In a line with the door, on a pedestal, Bronze statuette of Queen 
Karomama (Bubastic dynasty; Thebes), richly damascened (restored). To 
the right and left, as we enter, Statuettes of diviniiies in bronze, stone, etc. 
In the Pat cases: 1st window, Bronze attributes of deities, sistra, sceptres, etc.; 
2nd window, arms and implements. Between the window. , Mummy-cases 
(one entirely gilded). Left wall: 1st case, Statuettes of Ra, Selk, Sekh- 
met, etc.; 2nd case, Os'ris, Isis. To the right and left of the exit: Horus 
(light), Thotk (lefr), and other dei'ies. In front of ihe exit, bron:e 
slatuet'e of Mesu, dating perhaps from the ancient empire. The central 
* Glass-case contains a magnil'cent collection of gold jewels and ornamen's, 
sta'ue tes in gold and enamel, a goblet, a chain, boa's, gems, glass-paste, 
and particularly, on the wir. dow-side, a 'Cold group of Osiris, Isis, and 
Horus (22nd dyn.). Above the fire-place, Sekhme*, and Isis nursing Horus. 

V. Salle des Colonnep, or Salle des Dieux et Monuments Divers, 
adorned with an allegorical ceiling- painting by Gros (in the centre, 
True Glory leaning upon Virtue ; to the left, Mars crowned by Victory 
and restrained by Moderation; to the right, Time placing Truth 
under the protection of Wisdom). This room contains various objects 
for which a place could not be found in the preceding rooms. 

Wooden mummy-cases, covered with paintings. In the glass-cases to 
the r. and 1. of the entrance are a cartulary of Arsinoitic, Arabian and Greek 
papyri. In the right corner (by the winc'ow), Sta'uet'es of the god Bes. 
In the left corner are hawks with human heads (prototypes cf the Greek 
harpy), symbolical < f the soul. The case on the right wall contains another 
cartulary of Arsinoilic and Arabian papyri. Jn front of tie 2nd window: 
cynocephali; talirmana with mythical designs placed under the heads of 
mummies; swathing-bands, etc. To the right and 'eft of the exit are papyri 
in demotic characters. In ihe right corner, bronze deities. In the left 
corner, sacred emblems, sceptre , attributes of deities, in bronze. Left 
wall: Classic Greek papyri. On a table in the middle is the funeral 
casket of the scribe Houi; Canopic vases of painted wood. 

Collection of Antique Pottery (Musee de la Ceramique Antique). 
— This collection, the nucleus of which was the Campana Collection, 
purchased from the papal government in 1861, is one of the most 
complete of its kind and affords an admirable survey of the develop- 
ment of vase-painting among the ancients. Arranged chronologi- 
cally, the earliest specimens are in the room entered from the Salle 
des SeptCheminees through the door to theiight(ccmp. Plan, p. 115). 
Explanatory catalogue of the antique figurines by L. Heuzey (1£01 ; 
1 fr.). — The ceiling-paintings datefrom the middleof the 19thcent., 
when the paintings of the French School were still exhibited here. 

I. Room or Salle A. Ceiling-painting by Alaux: Poussin teirg pre- 
fen'ed to Louis XIII. — Original s'a^es of the art in Phoenii ia, the Troad, 
Cyprus, Rhodes, Attica, Bceotia; earliest representations of Greek art 
(6ih cent. B. C). Rec< nstruction of a large amphora and a large archaic 
vessel. Central cases: Gold jewellery, terracottas, vases, and cuneiform 
inscriptions. Tie other cases contain a rich collecticn of very curious 
terracottas (figurires i f Deme er and Core uni'ed, sitting, or s'anding) from 
Phoenicia, Carthage, iisia Minor, Cyprus, Crele, etc.; vases of the geome'rical 


4. LOUVRE. First Floor: 

ty^e, interosting for tbeir primitive linear ornamenta'ion; vases from the 
Troad (25th or perhaps 3Jtti cent. B.C.). Then, a long series of warriors' 
heads, from Cyprus, in the Phcenician-Greek style, interesting from their 
resemblance to archaic Greek types. Flat cases: by the 1st window, en- 
graved vases and stones in the so-called Mycenian style (15-12th cent. B.C.); 
2nd window, fragments of vases of the Attic Dipylon ; 3rd window, anti- 
quities from Sardes (Lydia). 

II. Room (B). Ceiling-painting by Steuben : Battle of Ivry, with Henri IV. 
as a magnanimous victor. Terracottas (ca. 5th cent. B. C.) from Myrina, 
Athens, and Magna Grsecia, some of great artistic value. Very important 
collection of figurines and other objects found in the necropolis of Myrina, 
to the N. of Smyrna, by the French archaeological school at Athens. Left 
wall: 'Figurines of Greek women, some with hats, some seated, mostly 
elegant and graceful in bearing. Among the bas-reliefs are several vintage 
scenes and a 'Bacchic dance. — Rear wall: Cinerary urns with painted 
reliefs. In the centre of the glass-case by the exit-wall, Two warriors 
arming, with a mother and child between them. 

III. Room (C). Ceiling-painting by Deviria: Paget presenting his marble 
group of the Milo of Croton (p. 112) to Louis XIV. — Etruican Pottery 
of the earliest type, nearly all black; some with engraved designs; earliest 
attempts at reliefs (found in tombs). On a stand in the centre: Jars and 
dishes from Csere (see below), belonging rather to the series in the 
next room. 

IV. Room (D). Ceiling-painting by Fragonard: Francis I. receiving pic- 
tures and statues brought by Primaticcio from Italy. — Greek and Etruscan 
Antiquities found at Cervetri, the Caere of the ancient Etruscans, more 
especially a 'Sarcophagus, on which are two painted lifesize figures of a 
man and woman on a couch, clumsy in execution, but not without a cer- 
tain naive grace. The woman wears curious shoes with turned up ends. — 
Left wall: in front, Athena and Hercules (painted relief); 'funeral couches' 
and reliefs representing funeral rites. — Rear wall: Vases with painted 
figures and geometrical ornamentation. — Exit-wall: Fragment of a mural 
painting, representing the gods, etc., in the most artless fashion. 

In th£ adjoining passage are antefixse, heads, and vases. 

V. Room (E). Ceiling-painting by Heim: The Renaissance in France. — 
Vases in the Corinthian Style, found in Greek islands and in Italy (see also 
below). To the left of the central door, Vase with the mourning for 
Achilles (643). In the glass-case on the same side, Jewels from the excava- 
tions at Curium (Cyprus), from Phoenicia, and from Carthage. — By the 
central window: Painted sarcophagus in te 'racotta from Clazomense (Asia 
Minor), in the Ionian style of the 6th cent. B.C. To the left of the exit, 
s Jewels (some of gold) from Lydia, Sardes, MoUs (Myrina), Spain (Caceres), 
Rhodes, etc. — To the right of the exit, Perseus slaying the Gorgon. 

Another short passage, with archaic Greek vases and a sarcophagus 
similar to the one just described leads to the — 

VI. Room (F). Ceiling-painting by Fragonard: Francis I. knighted by 
Bayard. — Attic Vases with Black Figures, found in Italy and Sicily. In the 
centre of the room are some bearing the name of Nicosthenes. In the small 
case in front are wine-vessels (oinochoes) signed Ezekias, Theozotos, and 
Arnasis. Vases with white background; below, black vase with white figures. 
Most of the scenes are from the myths relating to Hercules and Theseus. 
The types of the gods differ greatly from tho-e of the classic period. In the 
case on the left are the oldest known representations of the Judgment of Paris. 

VII. Room (G). Ceiling-painting by Schnetz: Charlemagne and Alcuin, 
the founder of the university of Paris. — Attic Vases with Red Figures, found 
in Italy, the finest in the collection, many with the name of the maker, 
In the centre, *104. Goblet with Theseus, Amphitrite, and Athena, by 
Euphro(nios) ; 159. Goblet with Briseis and a Phoenix. In the middle of the 
rear wall, a little to the left, "228. Sphinx, with meditating Greeks. Bac- 
chic scenes. The subjects of the large vases in the central case are: Death 
of the Children of Niobe (Orvieto) ; ^pollo slaying the giant Tityos ; Hercules 
and Antreus; "Mourning of Achilles. 

VIII. Room (H). Ceiling-painting by Drolling: Louis XII. hailed as 

Antique Pottery. 4. LOUVRE. 161 

father of the people by the Estates at Tours (1506). — Vases with Reliefs, 
found in Italy, some of them belonging to the series in the preceding room. 
In the centre are rhyta, or goblets, in the form of horns, with heads anil 
other ornaments. Left wall: Arezzo ware, of purely archaeological interest, 
and a few Greek vases of the decadence. 

IX. Room. Ceiling-painting by Lion Cogniel: Bonaparte in Egypt. — Mural 
Painting! from Herculaneum and Pompeii; Glass. To the left, on a gold 
ground, Apollo and the Muses; large frescoes: Two women and a goat; 
River-god between two Naiads. — Rear wall (left): Landscape with archi- 
tecture; Sea-piece, both from Bosco Eeale (1900). — Beyond the door: 
Frescoes and mural decorations from Borne and Tusculum; Roman Patron 
with his clients; Man and woman; Bacchus crowned with ivy. To the left 
of the exit are antiquities found in Egypt, especially at Alexandria; "- Greeco- 
Egyptian portraits on wood; 'Plaster busts (painted); Greek steles. To the 
right of the exit, 'Family of twelve persons, with names in Greek characters. 
— In the glass-cases in the centre: very interesting collection of Ancient 
Glass. — By the windows are more frescoes. 

The exit-door leads to the rooms containing the small Egyptian an- 
tiquities (p. 15T), whence we reach the nearest staircase to the second floor 
by re-traversing the rooms to the left (p. 162). 

To conclude our inspection of the collection of pottery, we retrace 
our steps to Salle E, whence we pass through the Salle des Colonnes 
(p. 159), to the left, to the adjoining rooms on the side next the court. 

Room M. Ceiling-painting by Picot: Cybele saving Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum from total destruction. — Greek Pottery found in Asia Minor, the 
Crimea, Cyrenaica, Egypt; terracottas of the Hellenistic period. Vases with 
black and violet painting. In the central case: Terracotta heads from 
Tarsus in Cilicia and Smyrna ; fine head of Jupiter. The most ancient Greek 
Vases (up to about the 6th cent.) have black figures on a light red or yellow- 
ish back-ground; those with red figures on a black ground are later. These 
vases were executed not by trained artists but by ordinary craftsmen, who, 
whether they took their subjects from mythology or from everyday life, 
endowed them with so much life and poetry, infused such expression, and 
frequently such grace into their drawings, that they testify in the most 
striking manner to the cult of the beautiful which was f o deeply implanted 
in the ancient Athenians. — The large vases are Panathenaic amphorae, 
which were given, filled with oil, to the victors in the Panathensean games 
or festivals of Athena. — Wall- cabinets : Vases and Greek figurines in terra- 
cotta, from Cyrenaica, Lower Egypt, and Priene. — On the chimneypiece: 
rich collection of terracottas with grotesque types from Smyrna ; other terra- 
cottas in the cabinet by the right wall and at the windows. 

Room L. Ceiling-painting by Meynier : The Nymphs of Parthenope (Naples) 
arriving at the Seine. — Greek Pottery found in Greece. Admirable terra- 
cotta figurines of the 4th cent. B. C. Wall Cabinets : Greek terracottas 
from Tanagra in B(Eotia: to the right of the entrance, 'Dancing Cupids; 
'Figures of women, with red hair; half-length figure of a veiled woman 
(Demeter springing from the ground). On each side of the chimney-piece, 
Athenian lecythi or perfume-vases. In the case over the fire-place, lecythi; 
'Statuette of a pedagogue (terracotta). The central octagonal glass -ca=e 
contains an 'Amphora with the contest of the gods and the giants ; Tanagra 
figurines in painted terracotta (placed in tombs to accompany the departed) : 
charming "'Group of girls at play (by the windows) and "Six figurines 
representing Music and Dancing (on the other side); in front of these are 
toys, counters,, and other objects found in a child's tomb; Venus in the 
shell; Satyr with a cantharus; tablets in painted terracotta, representing 
well-known scenes, etc. 

Room K. Ceiling-painting by Heim: Jupiter delivering to Vesuvius the 
fire for the destruction of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabise. — Italic Pottery, 
from Apulia, Campania, Lucania, and Etruria (3rd cent., B.C.). Vases with 
red figures (labelled), several of large size, on a marble table. Case by 
the central window : Goblets and dishes ornamented with fishes, polypi, etc. 

Baedeker. Paris — 1flth Edit. H 

162 4. LOUVRE. Second Floor. 

Salle de Clakac (XXXIII). Ceiling-painting after Ingres: Apotheosis 
of Homer (original, see p. 143). Small sculptures and fragments of others. 
In the left corner window, draped figure of a girl (mutilated). In the cen- 
tral case : Antique ivory carvings; Greek terracottas and wood-carvings, etc. 
Above the fire-place, Barberini ivory binding (6th cent.), with the image 
of an emperor; pyxis of carved bone (Birth of Latona's children); carved 
leaves of diptychs ; handles in the forms of gladiators, girls, etc. 

The door of exit leads into the Salle del Sept-Cheminees (p. 148). 


The second floor of the Louvre, which contains the new rooms of the 
French School of the ISfh century and the Thorny- ThUry Collection (see below), 
and also the Marine and the Ethnographical Museums , is open to the 
public after 11 a.m. There are two public staircases ascending to the 
second floor : a small one (PI. A) from the 8th room of the collection of 
smaller Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern Objects (p. 156), which is 
reached from the groundfloor by a staircase near the Asiatic Museum, 
and a large one (PI. B), in the Pavilion de l'Horloge (see p. 115), beside 
the Salle des Bronzes. We ascend the small staircase (A). 

French School of the 19th Century. — Vestibule. Opposite the 
staircase, J. N. Robert-Fleury , 255. Christopher Columbus received 
by Ferdinand and Isabella, 254. Galileo arraigned by the Inquisition. 
At the back of the staircase, 624. A. E. Michallon, Death of Roland. 
To the right of the door, 2. C. d'Aligny, Italian landscape. — Room I. 
On the left, Cabat, 48. Autumn evening, 47. Landscape ; no number, 
Daumier, Portrait of Th. Rousseau, the painter; 251. Diaz de laPefia, 
Pyrenees; 442. De la Berge, Landscape; 551. Le Prince, Shipping 
cattle; 133. J. Gigoux, Portrait. Above, 939. Isabey, Low tide; 204. 
A. G. Decamps, Draught-horses; 45. A. Dauzats, Landscape. Left 
wall, *98. J. Dupre, Morning; *141bis. Corot, Castel Gandolfo; 210. 
Delacroix, Algerian women; 141. Corot, Landscape; above (no 
number), Daubigny, *The pond; 627. G. Michel, Landscape; 99. 
J. Dupre, Evening. Rear wall, 831. Th. Rousseau, By the river; 
703. Poterlet, Dispute between Trissotin and Vadius (from 'Les 
Femmes Savantes') ; 123. Chintreuil, Space ; 832. Rousseau, Land- 
scape ; 14. J. H. Belloc, Portrait of the artist and his wife ; Corot, 140. 
The Colosseum, 139. Forum Romanum; 761bis. Raffet, A soldier 
(1st Republic); 253. Robert-Fleury, Conference of Poissy (1561); 
125. Chintreuil, Rain and sunshine. Right wall, 237. G. Ricard, Paul 
de Musset (brother of Alfred) ; 74. Daumier, The thieves and the 
donkey; 200. Decamps, Bulldog and terrier; 119a. Charlet, The 
grumbler ; 257. Diaz de la Pefia, Don't come in ; 162. Isabey, Admiral 
de Ruyter and Cornelius de "Wit embarking ; 205. Decamps, Caravan 
(sketch); no number, Charlet, Halt at a village ; 131. Gigoux, General 
Dwernicki; 413. P. Huet, Calm of morning. 

Thomy-Thiery Collection (see p. 95), bequeathed to the Louvre 
in 1903 by M. Thomy-Thie'ry. — Room II. To the left, a series of 
pictures by Decamps, skilful in conception and wittily realistic in 
execution; among others: 28 34. The rat in retirement ; 2840. El- 


R u 

d e 

R i v o 1 i 

3Iusec (; tit'leneoes pirogues ^_^ 

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'M a'r i tv "e ' 

A.. C . Pet its esealiers ■ 


B. GrtmcL escaLier 

French School. 4. LOUVRE. 163 

ephant and tiger drinking; 2832. Bell-ringers ; *2836. Beggars ; 2835. 
Catalans; 2827. Street in Smyrna; *2838. Dogs' toilet; 2826. Monkey 
painting ; *2831. Knife-grinder. Beginning again from the left : 2881 
(above), Isabey, The duel ; 2808 (above), Corot, The entrance to the 
village; 2858. Diaz de la Pena, Venus and Adonis; 2913. Troyon, 
Goose-girl; *2904. Th. Rousseau. The little fisherman. — Left wall: 
J. Dupre, 2873. Oak, 2864. Pond, 2871. In the Laudes, ="2874. 
Setting sun. Troyon, 2915. Cattle meeting sheep, 2912. At the ford, 
2906. Cattle drinking, *2916 (farther on), Heights of Suresnes, 2911. 
Small herd, *2914. The barrier. Corot, 2806. Souvenir of Italy, 2812. 
Eclogue, *2807. The pond, *2810. Road to Arras, of marvellous deli- 
cacy; 2878. Isabey, Wedding at the church of Delft. Delacroix, 2852. 
Medea, 2850. Rape of Rebecca. Daubigny, 2818. The sluice, 2825. 
The pond. Th. Rousseau, *2900. Oaks, 2902. Village amid trees. — 
Rear wall: Rousseau, *2901. Plain in the Pyrenees , 2903. Spring. 
Millet, 2090. Woman burning herbs, *2892. Binding sheaves, 2894. 
Maternal precaution. Rousseau, 2899. Landscape, '2896. Banks of 
the Loire; 2813. Daubigny, A corner in Normandy. J. Dupre, *2875. 
Sunset after storm, 2869. Landscape, 2868. Pasture (Normandy), 
2867. The pool, 2872. By the river. Corot, *2805. Willow-grove, 
2803. Road to Sevres, 2801. A dale, 2809. Huts. Delacroix, 2846. 
Lion and boar, 2848. Lion and rabbit. 2800. Barye, Lions near 
their den. — Right wall (returning). Daubigny, 2817. Beach of 
Villerville, 2825. Banks of the Oise, 2815. Storks, *2821. Thames 
atErith, *2824. Morning, *2822. Mill, 2816. Sunset. Fromentin 
2876. Falconry, 2877. Riders halting. Diaz de la Pena, 2855. 
Bathers, 2860. 1 he rivals. Meissonier, 2888. Orderlies, 2886. Smokers, 
2885. The reader, *2887. Flautist. J. Dupre, 2866. Autumn, 2870. 
Cows drinking. Delacroix, *2849. Crucifixion, 2844. Death of Ophelia, 
*2851. Hamlet andHoratio, 2847. Lion and crocodile, *2845. Ruggiero 
delivering Angelica , 2853. Lioness about to spring. Troyon , 2907. 
Chickens feeding, *2909. Morning, 2908. Sheep. Corot, *2804. 
Shepherds of Sorrento dancing, *2811. Evening, 2802. Gate of 
Amiens. Millet, *2893. Thresher, *2891. Washing linen. Isabey, 
2880. On the beach at Scheveningen, 2883. Procession, 2879. Baptism 
at Le Tre"port, 2882. Visit to the chateau, 2884 (farther on, above). 
Louis XIII. at the castle of Blois. Rousseau, 2905. Pond, 2897. 
Ferryman, 2898. Hill-slope. — Sculptures : in front of the window, 
on the right, Bust of M. Thomy-Thie'ry, by Desvergnes. In the three 
central glass-cases are 130 small bronzes by Barye (see p. 176). 

Room III. (French School of the 19th cent, continued). — On the 
left, 286. C.Fler*, Landscape; above, 897. Tournemine, Elephants; 
no number, Dehodencq, Portrait of the artist; 205a. Decamps, Land- 
scape; 926. J. Dupre, Portrait of the artist; 442. De la Berge, Arrival 
of the diligence (Normandy) ; 828. Th. Rousseau, Margin of a forest ; 
214 Delacroix, Portrait of himself ; 477. Lanoue, Pine-wood; no 
^number, Huet, Landscape. Left wall : Meissonier, no number, The 


164 4. LOUVRE. Second Floor: 

Madonna del Baccio, 954. A. Dumas the Younger; 14. Belly, Pilgrims 
bound for Mecca; no number, L. Ricard, Study of a woman; 880. 
Tournemine, Turkish dwellings. — At the end : 239. Riesener, Woman 
and panther; Meissonier, no number, Samson; *205. Napoleon HI. 
at Solferino ; no numbers, Ruins of the Tuileries, (farther on), *Por(rait 
of himself; 953. Portrait; no number, Paris (1871). Courbet, 140. 
Deer in a forest, *147. Portrait of the artist ('The man with the 
leather belt'), *144. Wounded man; 124. Chinlreuil, Deer and land- 
scapes; no number, Cals, Still-life; 778. Ricard, Portrait of himself; 
Ml. Millet, Church of Gre'ville ; no number, F. Trutat, Woman on 
a tiger&kin. Isabey, 163. The bridge, 164. Harbour. — Eight wall: 
Meissonier, 211. Studies of cuirassiers and horses; 206. Napoleon III. 
and his staff; *207. Waiting, 'expressive and full of sun' ; 209. Study 
for a landscape; no number, Young couple; 1012. Venice; *210. 
Laundress at Antibes. Fromentin, 307. Egyptian women on the Nile, 
305. Hawking in Algeria. 140. Belly, Nile scene; *12a. H. Bellangi 
and Dauzats , Napoleon I. reviewing troups (1810); 772. Regnault, 
Portrait; no number, Courbet, Portrait; 120. Chasseriau, Tepidarium; 
809. Marilhat, Landscape. 

Returning to the vestibule (through the last three rooms), we 
enter on the left the — 

Musee de Marine, a very valuable collection of objects and 
models connected with ship -building and navigation: models of 
ships and machinery, plans in relief of harbours, drawings, armour, 
and historical objects. Most of the exhibits have full descriptive 
labels. This museum is to be transferred to the Invalides (p. 296). 

The first Cobeidok, behind the staircase, contains a small Gallery of 
Merchant Shipping. — Room I (PI. XIII). Models representing the taking 
down and embarkation of the obelisk of Luxor (p. 64) and its erection 
in the Place de la Concorde. Marine steam-engines. — Room II (PI. XII). 
Models of sailing-ships. Busts of the famous seamen Ducoue'dic, Tour- 
ville, and Forbin. Two marine paintings by Qudin. — Room III (PI. XI). 
Models of steam-packets. Model of the 'Fram' and of various objects from 
Nansen's polar expedition (1893-96); the 'Lion' (1782), and the 'Rivoli', 
resting on the pontoons from which she was launched , fully equipped, 
from the port of Venice. — Room IV (PI. X). Fire-arms of various calibres. 
— Room V (PI. IX). Fire-arms continued. Three marine paintings by Jot. 
Vernet. — Room VI (PI. VIII). Pyramid composed of relics of the frigates 
'Boussole' and 'Astrolabe', which had been sent on a voyage of discovery 
under Captain de Laptroutt in 1788. and foundered at sea. Bust of Lape 1 - 
rouse. Model of a monument erected to the memory of Laperouse at Port 
Jackson, with English and French inscriptions. Beacons ; buoys ; Whitehead 
torpedo; floating and submersible torpedoes. Relief-plan of the island of 
Vanicoro or Laperouse. Fourteen marine paintings by Jot. Vernet. — Salle 
des CciRASsits (at the end of R. VI; PI. VIII). Models of iron-clads, turret- 
ships , and torpedo-boats ; submarine boat ; planetarium moved by clock- 
work. Marine paintings. Adjoining corridor, see below. —Room VII. Models 
of antique vessels and of transports. Planetarium. — Room VIII (PI. VI). 
Representation of the interior of the turret-ship 'Marengo' (1867). Parts of 
a ship; cables; rigging. The 'Oce'an', first-class man-of-war of the 18th cen- 
tury. — Room IX (PI. V). Model of the 'Achille' (1803). Models of pumps, 
machinery and fire-escapes; telegraphs, semaphores — Room X (PI. IV). 
Large geographical globe in MS. Navigating instruments. Models of xebecs 
or galleys refitted for sailing. — Room XI (PI. III). Beautiful models of 

Etlmograph. Museum. 4. LOUVRE. 165 

galleys and ships of war of the 17th century. The original carving in 
gilded wood by Puget, on the wall, decorated the second of these galleys. — 
Room XII (PI. II). Models of schooners, cutters, clippers, etc. (19th cent.); 
relief-plan of the island of Tahiti. — Room XIII (PI. I). Machine for ad- 
justing the masts of a ship at the port of Brest; rigging, etc. — The second 
Corridor (Qalerie des Pirogues, behind the rooms we have just seen) contains 
small models of vessels from the far east and Polynesia; dwellings, etc. 

The Ethnographical Museum (Musee Ethnographique) , which 
occupies the large saloon at the end on this side, is a collection of 
curiosities brought home by French navigators, and the spoil cap- 
tured in the course of military expeditions in India, China, and 
Japan. Much better collections of the same kind may be seen at the 
Musee Guimet (p. 221) and the Trocade'ro (p. 226). At the end of 
the large saloon are models of ships from 1789 to 1824 ; model of 
the "Gallia', a transatlantic liner. On the left, models of the 'Belle 
Poule', the frigate that brought home the body of Napoleon I. from 
St. Helena (p. 302), and of the 'Sphinx' (No. 719), the steamer (1829) 
that carried the obelisk of Luxor (p. 64). — Two glass-cases towards 
the end contain (r.) a curious collection of Indian statuettes, and (1.) 
one still more curious of Javanese marionettes ('Wayangs'). — By 
the central window, a musical clock which belonged to the Dey of 
Algiers (made in London). By the right window, crown of Behanziu, 
king of Dahomey. 

The Chinese Museum (to the left on leaving the Marine Mu- 
seum), which may be regarded as a continuation of the Ethnographical 
collection, is also of secondary importance, being surpassed in interest 
by the collections at the Musee Guimet (p. 221), while its porcelain 
is far inferior to that of the Collection Grandidier (p. 166). In the 
2nd room are objects in carved ivory, from Japan; in the 3rd, two 
fine Chinese pirogues. 

Leaving this room, we enter a corridor containing marine draw- 
ings and (by the windows, under glass) figurines representing a 
Javanese dance and marriage. On the right is the former Salle des 
Boites, with models of French Ships of the 18-19 Centuries. To the 
right and left, compasses and other instruments. In the middle, 
model of the 'Arte'sien' (1774). At the end, Peruvian antiquities 
found in tombs at Ancon, near Lima. In the vestibule at the end of 
the corridor (see above) by the window : Bell from St. Juan d'Ulloa, 
pierced by a bullet (1838); right wall, Jean Bart (1650-1702), 
marble bust by Dantan. The staircase leads to the Salle des Bronzes 
Antiques (p. 150). 

Entresol next the Seine. 

Two other collections have been arranged in a kind of second 
entresol on the side next the Seine, viz. the Chalcographie and the 
Collection Grandidier. The principal entrance to these is by the 
Porte Jean-Ooujon, opposite the Pavilion Denon, but there is an- 
other" in [that Pavilion via the Salle des Moulages (see p. 96 and 
the ground-plan; open on Tues. and Sat. afternoons only). 

166 4. LOUVRE. Pavilion de Marsan. 

The Chalcographie, in the gallery on the right as we approach, was 
founded by Louis XIV. in 1660, on the model of the Calcografia at Rome. 
Engravings of most of the great Parisian and foreign works of art, in the 
provinces of painting, sculpture, and architecture are exhibited and sold 
here. It is open daily, except Sun. and holidays, from 10 or 11 to 4 or 5 
(entrance by the Salle des Moulages, see p. £6), and contains three Ex- 
hibition Rooms and a Sale Room in which are albums and detailed cata- 
logues of over 10,000 plates. Farther on are the workshops and stores (see 
also p. 45). 

The Collection Grandidier, or Mtisie de VExtrcme Orient, on the left, is a 
rich collection of Chinese and Japanese porcelain presented to the Louvre by 
M. Grandidier. It is open daily, except Mon., from 1 to 4 or 5. Umbrellas, 
etc. must be left (no charge). Seven rooms are devoted to Chinese por- 
celain, embracing more than 6000 specimens. The three following rooms 
are occupied by Japanese porcelain (900 specimens) and other Japanese 
objects, including statuettes, bronze vases and sword-hilts, combs, and 
a collection of engravings of the 18th and 19th cent., in frames and on 
two radiating stands; caskets, lacquered screens, etc. 

Pavilion de Marsan. 
The Museum of Decorative Art (Music des Arts Decoratifs) is 
destined to occupy the whole of the Pavilion de Marsan (see Plan, 
p. 92), hut a few rooms only have been organised at present. Entrance 
from the Rus de Rivoli, opposite the Rue de l'Echelle. The museum 
is usually open from 10 to 4, hut is often closed. The exhibits are 
frequently changed, hut the following summary may be of use. 

Ground Floor. On the right, groups of lionesses (plaster), by Cain. 
In (he middle, Venetian well-head (16th cent.); monumental clock, by 
C. Sivin; large vase, by Bloche. 

Staircase. Sevres vases; models of the torch-holders at the Opera 
House (p. 80), by Carrier- Belleuse. On the 3rd landing (left), Glass-case with 
porcelaiu from Copenhagen, Roerstrand (Sweden), Potschappel (Dresden), etc. 

First Floor. — I. Room (to the right) : Embroideries of the 17-18th 
cent.; French fayence, from the 18th cent, onwards. The panels on the 
left wall (Lady with a parasol; Turk and pilgrim) were painted by 
Lancret for the Hotel de Boullongue, Place Vendome (1731). Large central 
case: Lace (point de France, made under Louis XIV.); dress of Louis XV. 's 
time. — Gallery I (on the left, at the end). Enamelled earthenware, by 
Haentschel; jewelry and weapons, by Bapst and Falize; glass by GaUt, 
Brocard, etc.; medals by Roty, B. Dupuis, V. Lefevre; enamels with metallic 
glaze , by OrancThomme , Hertz, etc. In the centre , Dumestic peace , by 
Dampt; glass by Dammouse; cloisonne enamels, by Thesmar; glass from 
Jeumont. At the end, Bronze medallion by G(r6me. — Gallery II (door 
at the end, to the left). Left wall, 1st bay: Coloured engravings (French 
and English) from the extensive Ande'oud collection, after Huet, Peters, etc. 
Glass-cases : China from St. Cloud, Sevres, Chantilly, etc. ; jewels (18th cent.); 
Louis XV. dresses, etc. 2nd bay: Andeoud collection of engravings con- 
tinued. 3rd bay : Bindings ; statuette by Frimiet ; earthenware by Delahercfie, 
Colonna, GalU, Mossier, etc. By the windows, Iwelve pieces of plate, gal- 
vanic facsimile by Christofle of a service which belonged to Napoleon III. 
At the first window, "Goblet in gold and relief-enamel representing the 
handicrafts of art, by Falize. Then, earthenware by Doat, Chaplet, LeveilU; 
glass by Patrice, Salin, etc. Left wall, Brass vases, by Bonvallet, Char- 
pentier, etc. 


5. From the Louvre to the Place de la Bastille. 

Restaurants in this part of Paris, see p. 19. 

The E. part of the Rue de Rivoli (p. 90J, beyond the Rue du 
Louvie, traversing a congeries of narrow streets, was constructed by 
Napoleon III., who desired to facilitate the access of his troops to 
the Hotel de Ville. It intersects the Rue du Pont-Neuf, leading from 
the bridge of that name to the Halles Centrales (p. 188), then the 
Rue des Halles and the Rue St. Denis, and, finally, the Boulevard de 
Sebastopol (p. 84). The Station da Chdtelet on the Metropolilain is at 
the corner of the Rue des Lavandieres-Ste-Opportune (see Appx., 
p. 36). 

At No. 144, at the corner of the Rue de l'Arbre-Sec (PI. R, 20; III), an 
inscription records that the Motel de Montbazon, where Admiral de Coligny 
was killed (see p. 91) , once stood there. Here also lived C. Van Loo , the 
painter, and the Duchess of Montbazon, mistress of Ranee (d. 1700), who 
retired at the death of the duchess and reformed the Order of the Trappists. 

In the square at the S.E. corner of the Rue de Rivoli and the 
Boulevard de Sevastopol rises the *Tour St. Jacques (PI. R, 23 ; III, 
IV), a handsome square Gothic tower, 175 ft. in height, erected in 
1508-22. This is a relic of the church of St. Jacques-la- Boucherie, 
first mentioned in a Papal bull of Oalixtus II. in 1119, which was 
completed under Francis I., and sold and taken down in 1789. The 
church was a place of refuge for criminals. The tower is now used 
as an observatory. In the hall on the groundfioor is a statue (by Cave- 
lier) of the philosopher Pascal (1623-62), who is said to have 
repeated from the summit of this tower (or, according to other author- 
ities, from the tower of St. Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, p. 321) his ex- 
periments with regard to atmospheric pressure. A statue of St. James 
the Great crowns the summit. The *Vibw from the top of the Tour 
St. Jacques is one of the finest in Paris, as the tower occupies a very 
central position, but the public are not allowed to ascend except 
with a permit obtained gratis at the Hotel de Ville (daily 11-5). A 
fee to one of the keepers of the square will, however, usually secure 
admission (preferably between 12 and 3). The spiral staircase has 
291 steps. — The Square de la Tour-St-Jacques is embellished 
with bronze sculptures of the Breadbearer, 'Ducks and Drakes' ('Le 
Ricochet'), and Cyparissus, by Coulan, Vital Cornu, and H. Pie. 

The Squares of Paris, like the great majority of the other promenades 
of the city, are both useful and ornamental. Though they have been con- 
structed on the model of the London squares, the enjoyment of the gardens 
with which they are laid out is by no means confined to a few privileged 
individuals, but is free to all-comers. The formation of squares of this sort 
has been a prominent feature of the modern street improvements of Paris. 

In the Rue St. Martin, a little to the N.E. of the Tour St. Jacques, rises 
the church of St. Merri (PI. R, 23; ///) formerly St. Midiric, in the best 
Gothic style, although dating from 1520-1612. It possesses a beautiful though 
unfinished portal in the Flamboyant style. The interior was disfigured in 
a pseudo-classical style by Boffrand (17th cent.), who was also the architect 
of the large chapel on the right. Among the most noteworthy contents 
are a large marble crucifix, by P. Dubois, at the high-altar; two good pictures 


by C. Van Loo (d. 1765) at the entrance to the choir (to the left, San Carlo 
Borromeo); and a painting (Reparation for sacrilege) by Belle (d. 1806), 
in the left transept. The chapels of the ambulatory are adorned with 
fine frescoes by Cornu, Lehmann, Amaury -Duval, Chasse'riau, LtpoMle, 
Malout, Qlaize, La/on, and others, which, however, are very badly lighted. 
— The stained-glass 'Windows of the choir date from the 16th century. — 
In the crypt is a shrine containing the remains of St. Mederic. During the 
Revolution this church was the Temple of Commerce. 

The street at the back is the old Rue du Cloitre-St-Merri, off which 
run the picturesque Rue Taillepain and Rue Brisemiche (PI. R, 23; III), named 
doubtless from a bakehouse belonging to the chapter of St. Merri. The 
curious house with a Gothic door which forms the corner of these two streets 
was formerly part of the cloister. The Rue de Venise, which intersects the 
Rue St. Martin farther on, is one of the oldest and narrowest in Paris. It 
was once the Ruelle des Usuriers, and still retains its cut-throat aspect of 
the 14-15th century; it abounds in low drinking-shops. At No. 27 is the 
ancient tavern of the Epe'e-de-Bois, which was frequented by Marivaux and 
Louis Racine. The Rue Quincampoix, which crosses this street, is also of 
great age. Law's Bank, notorious for its fantastic speculations, flourished 
here in 1718-20. At its S. end is the Rue des Lombards, which, like its 
London namesake, owes its title to the Lombard money-lenders who were 
there established. It claims to be the birthplace of Boccaccio (1313). — 
The Rue des Lombards leads into the Rue St. Martin (PI. R, 23, 24; III), 
which was once the great Roman road between Paris and the northern 
provinces. The Fontaine Maubuie, at No. 122, was restored in 1734. The 
curious sign of the Cloche d'Or should be noticed at No. 193. — The other 
streets in this quarter all contain picturesque or historic houses. 

The Boulevard de Sevastopol terminates on the S. in the — 
Place du Chatelet (PI. K, 20-23 ; V) , the site of which waa 
occupied till 1802 by the notorious Prison du Orand-Chdtelel , the 
plan of which may be seen on the left side of the facade of the 
Chambre des Notaires. The Fontaine de la Victoire and the Colonne 
du Palmier, with its bronze cordons, were erected herein 1807. The 
names of fifteen battles won by Napoleon I. are inscribed above. On 
the summit is a gilded statue of Victory, holding a wreath in each 
hand, and below are four figures representing Fidelity, Vigilance, Law, 
and Power, by Boizot. The monument was removed to its present 
position in 1858; the pedestal with its double basin adorned with 
lour sphinxes was added on that occasion. It was restored in 1899- 
1900. On the right and left of the Place du Chatelet are situated 
the Thedtre du Chatelet (p. 37) and the Theatre Sarah Bernhardt 
respectively (p. 36), both designed by Davioud. The former build- 
ing occupies the site of the house where the painter David was born 
in 1748 (inscription). The square is bounded on the S. by the Seine, 
which here flows under the Pont au Change (p. 254). 

In the building occupied by the Assistance Publique (PI. R, 23; V), a 
public establishment for the selief of the poor, in the Avenue Victoria, it 
is proposed to found a Museum of Hygiene, together with a Muse'e de PAs- 
sistance Publique, in which the specimens of fayence, pictures, etc., now 
scattered in the various branches of this institution, would be collected. 

From the Place du Chatelet the broad Avenue Victoria extends 
on the E. to the — 

Place de l'H6tel-de-Ville (PI. R, 23; V), once named Place de 
Oreve ('bank of the river'), a name that evokes many a tragic re- 
collection. Public executions took place here from 1310 to 1832. 


In 1572, after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, Catherine de MeMicis 
caused the Huguenot chiefs Briquemont and Cavagnes to be hung in 
this Place amid the jeers of an enraged mob ; and in 1574 she 
ordered the Comte Montgomery, captain of the Scottish guard, to be 
executed here for having accidentally caused the death of her hus- 
band Henri II. at a tournament (p. 186). On this spot, too, Ele'onore 
Galiga'i, foster-sister of Marie de Me'dicis, convicted of sorcery, was 
beheaded and afterwards burnt in 1617. In 1766 the Comte de Lally- 
Tollendal, governor of the French Indies, unjustly condemned for 
treason, suffered the extreme penalty; he was followed, in 1798, by 
Foulon, general comptroller of finance, and the latter's son-in-law 
Berthier, both hanged by the mob on the lamp-posts of thi3 Place. 
Among famous criminals who have here paid the penalty of their mis- 
deeds are Ravaillac, the assassin of Henri IV. (1610), the Marquise 
de Brinvilliers and 'La Voisin', the poisoners (1676 and 1682), Car- 
touche, the highwayman (1721), and Damiens, who attempted to 
assassinate Louis XV- (1757). — The Place de l'H6tel-de-Ville is 
connected on the S. with the Cite (p. 253) by the Pont d'Arcole. 

The *H6tel de Ville (PL R, 23; V), which was burned by the 
Communards in 1871, was rebuilt in its original form by Ballu and 
Deperthes. It is a magnificent structure in the French Renaissance 
style, with dome-covered pavilions at the angles (recalling the 
mediaeval towers), mansard windows, and lofty decorated chimneys. 
The building is entirely detached and is surrounded by an area with 
a railing, affording light to the sunk floor. The groundfloor is 
adorned with pilasters , and the first floor with engaged pillars of the 
composite order. Above the first floor is a kind of entresol, while 
the pavilions have an extra story. The construction of the old Hotel 
de Ville was begun in 1533, but subsequent additions quadrupled 
its extent. The original plans are, with some uncertainty, attributed 
to the Italian Domenico da Cortona, erroneously surnamed 11 Boc- 
cador. The Hotel de Ville is the headquarters of the municipal 
government of Paris, controlling the 'mairies' of the twenty aron- 
dissements or wards. At the head is the Prefect of the Seine, who up 
to 1789 bore the title of Pre'vot (provost) de Paris or des Marchands. 

The Hotel de Ville has played a conspicuous part in the different re- 
volutions, having been the usual rallying-place of the democratic party, 
as opposed to the court-party, whose centres were the Louvre and the 
Tuileries; and it was wilhin its walls that the Tiers Etat developed its power. 
On 14th July, 1789, the captors of the Bastille were conducted in triumph 
into the great hall. Three days later Louis XVI. came in procession 
from Versailles to the Hotel de Ville under the protection of the mayor 
Bailly and other popular deputies, accompanied by a dense mob, whom 
he only succeeded in calming by showing himself at the window wearing 
the tri-coloured cockade, which Lafayette is said to have composed, the 
blue and red standing for the City of Paris and the white for the Bourbons. 
On 27th July, 1794 (9th Thermidor), when the Commune, the tool employed 
by Robespierre against the Convention, was holding one of its meetings 
here, Barras with five battalions forced his entrance in the name of the 
Convention, and Robespierre had his jaw shattered by a pistol-shot. 
Here was also celebrated the union of the July Monarchy with the hour- 

170 5. HdTEL DE VILLE. 

geoisie, when Louis Philippe presented himself at one of the windows, in 
August, 1830, and in view of the populace embraced Lafayette. From the 
steps of the Hotel de Ville, on 24th Feb., 1848, Louis Blanc proclaimed 
the institution of the republic. From 4th Sept., 18T0, to 28th Feb., 1871, 
the Hotel de Ville was the seat of the 'gouvernement de la defense nationale', 
and until the end of May, that of the Communards and their 'comite' du 
salut public 1 . The Communards prepared heaps of combustibles inide the 
building, and when forced to retire thither after the fearful struggle of 
24th May in the Place de l'Hotel-de-Ville they set fire to them, regardless 
of the fact that 600 of their party were still within its precincts. Not 
one escaped, and the entire building perished in the flames. 

The *Main Facade is divided into three approximately equal 
parts. That in the centre, projecting beyond the others, has three 
entrances, two of which are carriage-archways with pavilions. In 
front of the third are bronze statues of Science, by Blanchard, and 
Art, by Marqueste. In the niches of the principal stories (and also 
on all the pavilions) are statues of celebrated men, while on the 
cornices are figures representing the towns of France, etc. The 
facade is farther adorned with a handsome clock surrounded with 
seven statues, a campanile, and (on the roof) ten gilded figures of 
heralds. Including a few statues in the courts, there are about 200 
statues and groups on the exterior of the Hotel. Most of these are 
explained by inscriptions. 

The other facades also are worthy of inspection. The small 
garden on the side next the Seine contains a bronze Equestrian 
Statue of Etienne Marcel (p. xv), by Idrac and Marqueste. The 
entrances on the rear are guarded by bronze lions, by Cain and 

Visitors may at all times walk through the Hotel de Ville and 
inspect the handsome courts. 

The tasteful decoration of the *Intebioe affords, perhaps, an 
even better opportunity of appreciating modern French art than do 
the works in the Luxembourg collection (p. 307). Sketches of the 
decoration may be seen at the Petit Palais (see p. 71). 

Tickets to view the interior are obtained gratis between 2 and 4 p.m. 
in the secretary's office, in the N. court (to the left as we approach from 
the Place), staircase D (to the left), first floor above the entresol. Visitors 
then proceed to the Salle des Prevots, to the right of the archway, where 
they are met by an official who escorts them over the building C/2 hr. ; fee). 

"We first enter a gallery commanding a view of the court, and 
of the 'Gloria Victis', a bronze group by Mercie. We skirt this court 
to the right to reach the staircases to the first floor. 

On the groundfloor, at the back, is the large Salle St. Jean (not 
shown), for large meetings. 

The *Galleries and the Salles des Fetes, on the first floor, are de- 
corated on the ceilings and walls with paintings by modern artists. 
The Vestibules and Corridors at the top of the staircases are painted 
with landscapes and views of Paris and its environs. Between the 
corridors is the Salon des Cariatides, with paintings by Carolus- 
Duran and a large vase, 10ft. high, of red and green jasper from the 
Ural Mts., presented by the Czar Alexander III. of Russia in mem- 

5. HdTEL DE VILLE. 171 

ory of tbe reception of Russian naval officers and seamen at Paris 
in 1893. — The Salon d'Arrivee Nord contains a large painting by 
Roll, representing the Pleasures of Life. This room has a fine cas- 
setted ceiling, like all the other rooms that have not ceiling-paint- 
ings. The Salon d' Introduction Nord has ceiling-paintings by Bonis 
(Nature as educator, Physical Exercises, Study and Philosophy), 
while the Portique Nord is painted by F. Barrias, and contains two 
marble figures (Horace and Lesbia) by Ouillaume. 

Then follows the main hall, or Grande Salle des Fetes, 164 ft. 
long, 42 ft. wide, and 42 ft. high. On the side of this hall next 
the Place Lobau is a gallery, above which is another smaller gal- 
lery, continued also on the remaining three sides. 

Ceiling Paintings: Progress of Music, by Oervex; Perfume, by 0. Fer- 
rier; Paris inviting the world to her fetes, by Benj. Constant; Flowers, 
by 0. Ferrier; Progress of Dancing, by A. iforot. Above the doors arc re- 
presentations of the old provinces of France (names inscribed above), by 
Weerts, F. Humbert, Ehrmann, and P. Milliet. — The sculptures, especially 
tbe caryatides and the groups in high-relief, by various artists, should be 
noted. — In the panels of the side-gallery (Galerie Lobau) are paintings 
(scenes from the history of Paris, festivals, etc.), by Picard (Fete of 14th 
July, on the left)), Clairin, Cazin, Berteaux, Baudouin, Delahaye, and Blan- 
ctton, and the small cupolas contain interesting frescoes by Picard and Risler. 

At the other end of the Salle are the Portique Sud, decorated by 
H. Levy (Hours of the Night and Day), and the Salon a" Introduction 
Sud, decorated by H. Martin (Apollo and the Muses). — We now 
enter the *Salle a Manger de Reception , which has three fine ceil- 
ing-paintings by Qeorges-Bertrand representing the '"Hymn of the 
Earth to the Sun; at the sides, Agriculture, Harvest, Vintage; and 
six marble statues: Hunting, by E. Barrias; the Toast, by Idrac ; 
Fishing, by Falguiere; "Wine, by A. Crauk ; Song, by JDalou; and 
Harvest, by Chapu. The beautiful marquetry should not be overlook- 
ed. — At the angle of the side next the Seine is the *Salon Lobau 
or Salon Historique, with paintings by J. P. Laurens: Louis VI. 
(le Gros) granting the first charter of Paris ; Etienne Marcel protect- 
ing the Dauphin ; Repression of the revolt of the Mailiotins (1382) ; 
Anne Dubourg protesting in Parliament before Henri II. against the 
oppression of the Huguenots (1559); Arrest of Broussel (1648); 
Pache, Mayor of Paris in 1793; Turgot; Louis XVI. at the Hotel 
de Ville (see p. 169; 1789), a composition known as the 'arch of 
steel'. The decorations are not yet completed. 

In the S. wing, next the Seine, are three large rooms (*8alons 
des Sciences, des Arts, and des Lettres); four small rooms (Salons de 
Passage), two at each end; and the Oalerie de la Cour du Sud, the 
farther end of which adjoins the Escalier d'Honneur. The custodian 
does not always show them all. 

Premier Salon de Passage : Louis XI. entering Paris (1461), by Tallegrain. 
— Salon des Sciences. Paintings. On the ceiling : Apotheosis of the Sciences, 
Meteorology, and Electricity, by Besnard; two friezes by Lerolle, Science en- 
lightens. Science leads to fame; twelve corner-pieces by Carriere, symboliz- 
ing the Sciences; above the doors, Physics, Botany, by Duez; eight panels 
on which are the Elements, by Jeanniot, Rixens, Bttland, and A. Berton, 

172 5. H&TEL DE VILLE. 

and Views of Paris, by P. Vauthier, L. Loir, Lipine, and E. Barau. Sculp- 
tures, notably the chimneypiece , by /. P. Caveliei: — Salon des Akts. 
Paintings. On the ceiling: Glorification of Art, Truth, and the Ideal, by 
Bonnat; friezes, Music and Dancing, Material and Intellectual life, by 
L.Olaize; corner-pieces by Chartran; four medallions by Rivey; on the 
panels, Painting by Dagnan-Bouveret, Music by Ranvier (unfinished), Sculp- 
ture by Layraud, Architecture by T. Robert- Fleury, and Views of Paris, by 
Francois, Belhl, G. Collin, and Lapostolel. — Salon des Lettees, Paintings. 
On the ceiling: the Muses of Paris, Meditation, Inspiration, by J. Le- 
febvre; History of Writing, two friezes by Cormon; twelve corner-pieces 
by Maignan, representing the Great Works of Literature ; four medallions 
by Mile. Forget; above the doors, Philosophy freeing Thought, History 
gathering the lessons of the Past, by U. Bourgeois; on the panels, Elo- 
quence, by H. Leroux, Poetry, by R. Collin, History, by E. Thirion, Philo- 
sophy, by Callot, and Views of Paris and the environs, by Berthelon, 
Guillemet, E. Saintin, and Lansyer. Sculptures by G. J. Thomas, notably the 
chimneypiece. — Galerie de la Cons do Sod (Galerie des Me'tiers). Six- 
teen small cupolas with paintings of Trades (inscriptions), by Qalland. The 
pillars bear the arms of French towns. — Escalier d'Honneur, see below, 

The Salon d'Arrivee Sud, through which we pass to the great 
S. staircase and the exit, contains two huge paintings by Puvis de 
Chavannes (Summer and Winter). 

In the centre of the W. wing (next to the Place de Fllotel-de-Ville), 
on the first floor, is the Salle du Conseil Municipal, to which the public are 
admitted during the council-meetings, on Mon, Wed , and Frid. at 3 p.m. 
— The 'Escalier d'Honneur, or Grand Staircase, is not shown to ordinary 
visitors, but may be seen by those present at fetes or having business in 
the Cabinet du Pre'fet, in the angle of the facade next the Seine. Sculptures : 
on the groundfloor, Mounted torch-bearer, bronze by Frimiet; Monument 
of Ballu, the architect (bronze), by E. Barrias and Coutan; Justice and 
Security, by Mercii and Delaplanche; on the first floor, Art and Commerce, 
by the same, Literature and Education, by Schoeneaerk, Sciences and Public 
Benevolence, by M. Moreau, etc. Paintings by Puvis de Chavannes: Victor 
Hugo dedicating his lyre to Paris; in the spandrels, Virtues. 

Salle du Budget (on the 2nd floor; shown when the council is not 
sitting). On the right, Return of the troops from Poland after the cam- 
paign of 1806-7; on the left, Enrolment of Volunteers in 1792, both by 
fietaille. Marble bust of Garibaldi. 

In the Place Lobau (PL R, 23; V), at the back of the Hotel de 
Ville, are two large barracks, built by Napoleon III.; those on the 
S. side are now used as offices for the board of education. On the 
N. side is the Hotel- de -Ville Station of the Metropolitain, see Ap- 
pendix, p. 36. 

The church of St. Gervais (PI. R, 23; V), or St. Gervais et St. 
Protais , which stands at the end of the Place between the two 
barracks, was begun in 1212, but was completely remodelled in the 
16th cent. ; it now presents a combination of the Flamboyant and 
Renaissance styles. The portal was added by Debrosse in 1616, 
and, though inharmonious with the rest, is not without interest ; it 
illustrates the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, one above the 
other, together with triangular and semicircular pediments. 

The Interior is remarkable for its height. St. Gervais is rich in 
paintings and other works of art, most of which are, however, as is usual 
in the churches of Paris , very badly lighted. The names of the various 
chapels are sufficiently explanatory of the subjects of their mural paint- 
ings. Chapels on the right : 3rd, Frescoes by Jobbi-Dmal; 4th, by Gendron; 

5. ST. GERVAIS. 173 

5th (opposite the altar), Painting by Couder (St. Ambrose and Theodosius); 
6th and 7th (ambulatory), stained glass of the 16th cent. ; 8th, Frescoes by 
Qlaize; 9th, Mausoleum of Michel Le Tellier (d. 1685), minister of state under 
Louis XIV., by Mazeline and Hurtrelle, frescoes by Al. Heise (SS. Gervais 
and Protais), and (on the altar) a statue of the Virgin (14th century). The 
Lady Chapel has stained-glass windows by Pinaigrier or J. Couein (16th cent), 
paintings by Delorme, and a Madonna by Oudini. The vault with coronal 
and pendentive (4 ft. by 6V2 ft.) is by Jacquel (1511). Chapels to the left 
as we return : 1st and 2nd, Pieta by Nanteuil and Cortot, paintings by Norblin 
and Quichard; 3rd, beyond the clock-tower, Martyrdom of St. Cyr and 
Ste. Julitte, a painting by Heim; above it a Passion painted on wood, 
attributed to Aldegrever; 4th, Reredos (16th cent.); 5th, Keredos and altar 
(with relief), 16th cent.; 7th, Reredos reproducing the facade of the church 
— Above the stalls of the clergy is a medallion of God the Father , by 
Perugino, belonging to an altar-piece of the Ascension (the chief panel of 
which is at Lyons). The candelabra and bronze crucifix on, the high-altar 
(18th cent.) were brought from the abbey of Ste. Genevieve. The choir- 
stalls (16th cent.) have fine misericordiae. Organ of the 17th cent., with 
organ-loft in stone. 

To the N. of St. Gervais, behind the barracks, is the small Place 
Baudoyer, between the Rue deRivoli on theN. and theRueFrancois- 
Miron on the S. This Place was the scene of a sanguinary encounter 
in June, 1848. The Mavrie of the 4lh Arrondissement, on the E. side 
of the Place , is an edifice in the style prevalent at the end of the 
16th century. The Salle des Mariages and Salle des Fetes are 
embellished with paintings by Cormon and Cornerre. 

The neighbouring Rue Francois-Miron, which up to 1836 was pait of 
the Rue St. Antoine, contains some ancient buildings. The Hdtel de Beauvait 
(No. 68), dating from 1655-1660, was designed by Ant. Lepautre, and 
possesses a fine circular court with a carved staircase; the Hdtel du Prisi- 
dent Htnault (No. 82) has a balcony supported by a Moor's head. The Rue 
de Jouy and the Rue Geoffroy-rAsnier, both to the S., also contain several 

food specimens, the finest being the Hdtel d^Aumonl, built by Mansart in 
690, and now the Pharmacie Centrale (Rue de Jouy 7), and the 17th cent. 
Hdtel de Chalons-Luxembourg, with a handsome door, Rue Geoffroy-rAs- 
nier 26. Opposite is the curious little Rue Grenier-sur-1 Eau , which dates 
from the 13th century. — At the corner of the Rue de l'H6tel-de-Ville and 
the Rue du Figuier (the S.E. prolongation of the Rue de Jouy, see above) 
rises the Hdtel de Sens (now private property), where the archbishops of 
Sens resided when they were metropolitans of Paris, at that time a simple 
bishopric. It is built in the 15th cent, style, with turrets at the angles 
and a donjon, or keep, in the courtyard. — Farther on lies the Quai des 
Celestins (p. 176). — Curious houses may be seen also on the Quai de 
VHdte:-de- Ville (Nos. 14, 12, 10, 2, etc.). 

Beyond the E. end of the Rue Fran<;ois-Miron the Rue de Rivoli 
takes the name of Rue St. Antoine (PI. R, 23, 26, 25 ; V), from the 
former abbey which stood there. 

In the Rue St. Antoine, on the right, is the former Jesuit church 
of St. Paul et St. Louis (PI. R, 25, 26 ; V), erected in 1627-41 , by 
P'ere Fr. Derand. The handsome baroque portal was added by P'tre 
Marcel Ange. The dome of this church was one of the earliest in 
Paris. The architecture of the church is obviously inspired by 
Italian works of the 16th cent. , and retains the distinguishing 
characteristics of most Jesuit churches. The general effect of the 
interior is imposing, but the style is somewhat florid and the de- 
coration overdone. In the left transept is a painting of Christ in the. 


Garden, by Eug. Delacroix (1827). — The building behind, to the 
right, formerly a Jesuit college, is now the Lycee Charlemagne. — 
Station of the Me'tropolitain, see Appendix, p. 36. 

In the Rue St. Antoine (No. 119) is the Passage Charlemagne, containing 
the Hdtel des PrivSts, an ancient turre'ed building with spiral staircases, etc 
— At No. 65 in the Passage St. Pierre are the remains of the charnel-house 
of the church of Si. Paul, pulled down in 1793 ; the old vault through which 
it was entered may be seen at the intersection of the square formed by 
this passage. Rabelais and Mansart, the architect, were buried here. 

In the Rue Se'vigne, which begins opposite the church of St. Paul, 
is the Musee Carnavalet (p. 180). 

On the left in the Rue St. Antoine, No. 62, is the old Hotel de 
Bethune or de Sully, built in 1624 by J. A. Du Cerceau, and pur- 
chased in 1634 by Maximilien de Bethune, better known as the Due 
de Sully and minister of Henri IV. The court is interesting. — On 
the right, No. 21. at the corner of the Rue du Petit-Muse, is the 
Hotel de Mayenne or d'Ormesson, built by Du Cerceau, now a school. 
It has a pretty vaulted staircase and a turret, and contains the room 
where the Ligue met to decide the death of Henri III. (nothing to be 
seen). — The Rue de Birague, on the left, leads to the Place des 
Vosges (p. 185). 

Farther on in the Rue St. Antoine, to the right, is the Eglise de 
la Visitation, now the Temple Ste. Marie (Calvinist), constructed in 
the 17th cent, by Fr. Mansart. Then, to the left, at the corner of 
the Rue des Toumelles, is a bronze Statue of Beaumarchais (1732-99), 
the author, by L. Clausade (1895). — The Rue St. Antoine termin- 
ates in the Place de la Bastille. An inscription at No. 5 (on the 
left) relates to the taking of the Bastille. 

The Place de la Bastille (PI. R, 25; V), or simply La Bastille, 
as it is usually called, was formerly the site of the Bastille St. Antoine, 
a castle erected in 1371-83 by Kings Charles V. and VI., and left 
standing when the old fortifications were swept away under Louis XIV. 
It was situated to the "W. ; part of its perimeter is traced by a line of 
white stones running along the ground between the Rue St. Antoine 
and the Boulevard Henri IV. On the house at No. 3 is an inscription 
with the plan of the Bastille. This fortress, which commanded the 
river and its approaches and at the same time menaced the populous 
quarter of St. Antoine, was afterwards used as a state-prison, where 
the victims of a despotism so unjust that court favourites had merely 
to procure a 'lettre de cachet' to secure their immediate arrest were 
often confined. This prison of odious memory attained a world-wide 
celebrity in consequence of its destruction on 14th July, 1789, at 
the beginning of the French Revolution. A rumour having spread 
that the regiments from St. Denis were marching on the city, and that 
the Bastille was about to bombard the Faubourg St. Antoine, the 
populace flew to arms. The governor Delaunay, who had only a hand- 
ful of men under his orders , could make no prolonged stand against 
the multitude, and both he and his soldiers were massacred. 


The*Colonne de Juillet, which now adorns the Place, by Alavoine 
and Due, was erected in 1831-40 in honour of the heroes who fell 
in the Revolution of July, 1830. The total height of the monument 
is 154 ft. , and it rests on a massive round substructure of white 
marble , originally intended for a colossal fountain in the form of 
an elephant contemplated by Napoleon I. for this site. On this rises 
a square base, adorned on each side with six bronze medallions, 
which supports the pedestal of the column. On the "W. side of the 
pedestal is represented a bronze lion in relief (the astronomical 
symbol of July), by Barye. At each of the four corners is seen the 
Gallic cock holding garlands. The column itself is of bronze, 13 ft. 
in thickness, and partly fluted. It is divided by bands into five 
sections, on which the names of the fallen (615) are emblazoned in 
gilded letters. The summit is crowned by a bronze Genius of Liberty 
standing on a globe, holding in one hand the torch of civilisation 
and in the other the broken chains of slavery, by J. Dumont. 

The Intbkiob (adm. gratis) contains an excellent staircase of 238 steps 
leading to the top, whence a fine view is enjoyed. 

The Vaults (open 10-4 or 5, cards of adm. obtainable at the Ministere 
des Beaux- Arts) consist of two chambers, each containing a sarcophagus, 
45 ft. in length and 7 ft. in width, with the remains of the fallen. In the 
same receptacles were afterwards placed the victims of the Revolution of 
February, 1848. 

The Place de la Bastille played a part also in the troublous times of 
1818 and 1871. In June, 1843, the insurgents erected their strongest bar- 
ricade at the entrance to the Rue du Fanbourg-St-Antoine. It was there 
that Archbishop Affre (p. 261), while exhorting the people to peace, was 
killed by an insurgent's ball. In May, 1871, the site of the Bastille was 
one of the last strongholds of the Communards, by whom every egress of 
the Place had been formidably barricaded. 

To the N. of the Place de la Bastille are the Boulevard Beaumarchais 
(p. 85) and the wide Boulevard Richard- Lenoir , running above the 
Canal St. Martin (p. 236), which is vaulted over for a distance of 
nearly l'^M. — To the E. begins the Rue du Faubourg-St-Antoine 
(p. 246). — On the S.W. is a station of the Metropolitain (see 
Appx., p. 36), and on the S.E. the Gare de Vincennes (p. 249). 
The Rue de Lyon ends at the Gare de Lyon (p. 176). — The Bassin 
or Gare d'Eau de I' Arsenal, in which the Canal St. Martin ends, 
stretches to the S. 

The Boulevard Henri Quatre (PI. R, 25; V) extends to the S.W. 
of the Place de la Bastille, and affords a fine vista terminated by the 
dome of the Pantheon (p. 276). On the left side of this boulevard 
rises the Caserne des Celestins, on the site of a celebrated convent, 
which once contained the group of the three Theological Virtues by 
Germain Pilon (see p. 109). Opposite, near the bridge, are the sub- 
structures of a tower of the Bastille CTour de la Liberte'), which 
were discovered beneath the Rue St. Antoine in excavating the 
Metropolitain . In the Rue de Sully, No. 1, is the valuable Bibliotheque 
de V Arsenal (PI. R, 25; V), occupying part of the old arsenal of 
Paris, which extendedYrom the Seine to the Bastille. The library 



is open daily, 10-4, except on Sundays and holidays and during the 
vacation (15th Aug. to 1st Sept.). After the Bibliotheque Nationale 
it is the richest library in Paris (454,000 vols. ; 9654 MSS.), especially 
in theatrical literature (35,000 plays are catalogued). 

The Boulevard Henri IV crosses the two arms of the Seine and 
the E. end of the He St. Louis (p. 262) by means of the Pont Sully 
(PI. R, 22; V), near which is a fine monument of Barye (1796-1875), 
the animal sculptor, with reproductions of his chief works (see p. 103) 
and a medallion by Marqueste. 

On the right bank, below the bridge, at the beginning of the Quai 
des Celestins (PL R, 25, 22; V), is the old Hotel de La Valette, now 
the College Massillon, a handsome building erected by J. Har- 
douin-Mansart (1671), with a monumental facade recently restored. 
It was the residence of Fieubet, chancellor of Anne of Austria 
(1602-66). Farther on, on the right, in the Rue St. Paul No. 4, is 
the Hotel de La Vieuuille, once the residence of the Due de La Vieu- 
ville, who was minister of finance in 1649. 

At Xo. 32 Quai des CiHestins was (a? the inscription records) the 
tennis-court of the Croix-Noire, where the Illustre- Theatre of Moliere was 
established in 1645. — Port of the Quai des Celestins, etc., see p. 318. 

On the right bank, upstream, between the Quai Henri Quatre 
and the Boulevard Morland (PI. It, 25 ; V), is the former lie Louviers, 
united with the quay in 1840. Here are situated the Magasins and 
Archives de la Ville. 

Farther to the E., beyond the Gare d'Eau de l'Arsenal (p. 175), 
is the Boulevard Diderot (PI. R, 25, 28, 31), which ends at the 
Place de la Nation (p. 246). The Gare de Lyon (PI. R, G, 25, 28), 
at the beginning of the boulevard, has a tower 210 ft. in height. 
*Buffet on the 1st floor, gorgeously painted and decorated. 

Quartier du Marais. 

Stations on the M&tropolitain (see Appx., p. 36): Hotel-de-Ville Station, 
in the Place Lobau (p. 172), opposite the Rue des Archives, for the Archives; 
St. Paul Station, beside St. Paul's Church (p. 173), for the Muse'e Carnavalet. 

The Quartier du Marais is the district to the N.E. of the Hotel 
de Ville, bounded by the Rue de Rivoli, Rue St. Antoine (p. 173), 
Rue du Temple, and Boul. Beaumarchais (p. 85). Down to the 18th 
cent, a fashionable quarter with several still handsome mansions, 
it is now quite given over to trade and manufactures. — In the Rue 
des Francs-Bourgeois, in the W. of this quarter, are the — 

Archives Nationales (PI. R, 23; III), established in the old 
Hotel de Soubise. This building occupies the site of the mansion 
of the Conne'table Olivier de Clisson , the companion-in-arms of 
Duguesclin, erected in 1371, of which there still exists in the Rue 
des Archives, to the left of the facade, a handsome gateway flanked 
with two turrets (restored in 1846). Down to 1696 the mansion 
belonged to the powerful Guise family , after which it came into 


the possession of the family of Soubise. The present Palais des 
Archives chiefly consists of buildings erected in 1706-12 for Francois 
de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, and others added or reconstructed in 
the 19th century. The entrance is in the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois. 
The court is surrounded by a handsome Corinthian colonnade by 
P. A. Delamair; the pediment is adorned with sculptures by R. Le 
Lorrain. The decorations of some of the rooms are among the best 
examples of the style of Louis XV. in Paris. 

The national archives were deposited here in 1808. They are 
divided into four departments — the 'Secretariat', the 'Section 
Historique', the 'Section Administrative', and the 'Section Legis- 
lative et Judiciaire'. Visitors are admitted for purposes of research 
daily, 10-3 o'clock, except on holidays, on previous application at 
the Bureau des Renseignements. The 'MuseV consists of a collection 
of the chief treasures of the Archives, but several documents are 
represented only by facsimiles. 

The Musee des Archives, or Musie PaUographique, is open to the public 
on Thurs., 12-3. The principal objects are labelled, and the illustrated 
catalogue by J. Guiffrey (1 fr.) contains interesting information about the 
building. The musee is not heated in winter. There is no 'vestiaire'. 

Gkodnd Flooe. Some of the rooms are used temporarily by students. 
The oldest seals and documents which were .preserved here will be trans- 
ferred later 1o the Salle des Gardes and the Salle des Bustes (p. 1T8) on 
the first floor. — Salle I. The paintings above the doors represent Diana 
disarming Cupid, by TrimolUres (1737), and Apollo instructing Cupid on the 
lyre, by Restout (1737). — Foreign Documents: Cases 18-22. Belgium; 23, 24. 
Netherlands; 25-28. Germany; 29. Sweden; 30. Denmark; 31, 32. Norway; 
33-36. Austria-Hungary; 37-43. Spain; 44, 45. Portugal; 46-48. Italy ; 49-57. 
Papal See; 58, 59. Russia; 60-63. Eastern Europe; 64-68. African and Asiatic 
states; 69. United States of America (letter from Franklin to Washington). 

Salle II. Treaties and Foreign Documents, in 69 glass-cases. Cases 1-14. 
Treaties of alliance and peace, from the treaty between Richard Coeur-de- 
Lion and Philip Augustus (1195) to the Conventions of Erfurt (1808); 
15-17. Great Britain. — This was the summer sitting-room of the Prince 
de Soubise. It is of oval shape and decorated, like the other rooms, from 
designs by O. Boffrcmd, with delicately carved panels and groups of figures 
almost in the round between the archivolts of the doors and windows. 
Music, Justice, Painting and Poetry, History and Fame, by L. S. Adam; 
Astronomy, Architecture, Comedy, by /. B. Lemoine. 

Salle III. This was part of the Prince de Soubise's bedroom. In front 
of the alcove were two carved wooden columns, now in the Musee des Arts 
Decoratifs (see p. 166). The delicate mouldings on the cornice show the 
interlaced double S. with the mascle or lozenge voided, the heraldic device 
of the Soubise, whose motto was 'Sine macula macla'. The room is divided 
by a partition and contains the Seals. Reproductions of the finest seals 
in the Archives ; seals of provinces, communes, foreign sovereigns, princes, 
and noblemen, etc.; stamps from stamped papers; dies for coins. Also 
an allegorical painting ('Tableau des Jesuites') of little artistic value, but 
historically celebrated. It dates from the reign of Henri IV., and represents 
the vessel of the Church on its voyage towards the harbour of Salvation, 
surrounded with boats bringing believers to it, and with others containing 
assailants. It was discovered in a church of the Jesuits, and afforded an 
argument against them when the order was suppressed in 1762. 

On leaving this room we pass under a vaulted passage which connects 
the two interior courts, and ascend to tfie first floor by the Escalier de Guise, 
on the banisters of which we notice the gilded double cross of the great 
Lorraine lineage. 

Baedeker. Paris. 15th v.Ait 12 


First Flook. . 1st Room (Salle du Consulal et de I' Empire). Richly 
carved panels ever the doors. Paintings: on the left, Neptune andAmphitrite, 
by Eestout (L738); on the right, picture by Trimolieres (temporarily placed 
here). At the end, two scenes from the fables of La Fontaine: Mercury 
offering the three axes to the Woodcutter, by C. Van Loo, and Boreas ana 
the Traveller, by Eestout. — Documents of the end of the 18th Cent, and of 
1800-1815. Cases 117-152, Autographs of Danton, Charlotte Corday (No. 1368, 
farewell-letter to her father), Robespierre, Hoche, Bonaparte (letter to Pope 
Pius VII., No. 1496), etc. 

2nd Room. Above the doors : Education of Cupid by Mercury (Boucher, 
1738); Characters of Theophrastus , or Sincerity (Trtmolieres, 1737). Rear 
wall, above (left), Secrecy and Prudence {Eestout, 1737) ; (right), Friendship 
of Castor and Pollux (G. Van Loo ; 1737). Below (left), Venus at her toilet, 
by C. Van Loo ; (right), '"Venus in her bath, by Boucher, one of the best paintings 
in the Archives. Left wall, Marriage of Hercules and Hebe (Tr&molifres, 1737). 
Right wall, Mars and Venus (C. Van Loo). — Cases 87-116. Documents of the 
reigns of Louis XV. and Louis XVI. (1715-92). 

3rd Room. "Salon Ovale cr Salon dHiver of the Princess de Soubise, 
one of the most admired examples of 18th cent, decorative art. The exquisite 
painting of the ceiling, by G. Boffrand, and the eight cartouches with their 
graceful garlands of foliage and flowers and their scenes from the story of 
Psyche, the chief work of Ch. Natoire, should be specially noted. The 
series begins to the left of the entrance. Most of the pictures are signed 
and dated (1737, 1738, and 1739). — Glass-cases 78-83, from right to left: 
Documents of the end of the 18th Century, including the Oath taken at the 
Jen de Paume (in case 79), papers relating to the Bastille (81), Declaration 
of the Rights of Man (82), Constitutions of 1791, 1793, 'an III', and 'an VIII' 
(83). — Cases 81-86, at the end: Papers relating to Marie Antoinette; the 
will of Louis XVI., and the last letter of Marie Antoinette (unsigned and 
of doubtful authenticity); journal, speech, and letter of Louis XVI. Near 
the centre of the room is a table from the cabinet of Louis XVI., on 
which Robespierre, when wounded, was brought before the 'Comite' du 
Salut Public' at the Tuileries. 

4th Room, or former "Bed Chamber of the Princess de Soubise. A gilded 
balustrade (restored) marks the spot where the bed stood; but the two original 
chimney-pieces are replaced by copies. The room is decorated with four 
mythological subjects in low-relief, gilded, four medallions, and mythological 
groups by the first sculptors of the period. Above the doors: The Graces 
presiding at the education of Cupid, by Boucher, and Minerva teaching the 
art of tapestry to a young girl, by Trimolicres (1737). The two pastorals 
at the back of the alcove are by Boucher, who also painted one of the 
landscapes, the other being by Trhnolieres (1738). 

The two next rooms, the Salle des Gardes and the Salle des Busies (see 
p. 177) are under repair. The staircase beyond is modern, and has a ceiling- 
painting by Jobot-Duval. A copy of the, large plan of Paris known as 
'Turgofs Plan' (1739-40) is shown here, al--o busts of keepers of the archives 
(one of Daunou by David d' Angers). On the right is the door of the Depot, 
where the custodian shows the keys and a relief of the Ba«tille carved on 
a stone from the prison by the 'patriot' Palloy. The documents preserved 
in the Depot and the iron safe containing the legal standards of the metre 
and kilogramme can be seen only by special permission. The pretentious 
unrailed staircase leads down into the court, at the other side of which 
is the exit. 

Lovers of old Paris will enjoy a stroll through some of the neigh- 
bouring streets. In the Rue des Archives, No. 78, is the Hotel du 
Marechal Tallard (1728 ; fine staircase by Bullet in the court to the 
right) ; at the icorner of the Rue des Haudriettes is a Fountain, 
erected by the Prince de Rohan (1705), with a naiad by Mignot; 
the fine Gothic doorway at No. 58 was the former entrance to the 
mansion of the Clisson family, now the Archives (p. 176); No. 24 

5. MONT-DE-Plfrr£. 179 

was the Chapelle du Convent des Billettes, built in 1754, and now 
(since 1808) a Protestant place of worship (the sacristy may be seen). 
In the Rue des Quatre-Fils, to the right of the Rue des Archives, is 
the house (No. 22) where Mme. du Deffand entertained Voltaire, 
Montesquieu, d'Alembert, etc. 

The Rub des Fkancs-Bourgeois (PI. R, 26, 23 ; VI, V), to the 
S. of the Archives Rationales, leads to the Musee Carnavalet (p. 180). 
The name of 'francs bourgeois' was given to those citizens who were 
free to change their domicile, the 'petits bourgeois' not being allowed 
to do so, and the 'grands bourgeois' being tied to their seignories. At 
No. 35 is the Mont-de-Plite (entrance, Rue des Blancs-Manteaux 18), 
or great pawnbroking establishment of Paris, which enjoys a mono- 
poly of lending money on pledges for the benefit of the 'Assistance 

Tbe loans are not made for less than a fortnight, but articles may be 
redeemed within that time on payment of the fees. Four-fifths of the 
value of articles of gold or silver, two-thirds of the value of other articles, 
are advanced, the maximum lent being 10,000 fr. at this establishment, 
and 500 fr. at the branch-offices. The interest and fees, which before 1885 
were as high as 9'/z per cent, are now reduced to 6 per cent, with a minimum 
of 1 fr. The pledges are sold after fourteen months from the time when the 
borrower has failed to redeem them or to renew his ticket; but within 
three years more the excess of the price realised over the sum lent may 
still be claimed. The Mont-de-Pie'te' lends about 56,000,000 fr. annually on 
about 2 million articles. The sale of unredeemed pledges produces about 
4,000,000 fr. annually. Loans upon deeds up to 500 fr. were authorized in 1892. 

In the court (Cour de l'Horloge) may be seen the outline of the 
wall of Philippe Auguste (p. 92). — Adjacent to the Mont-de-Pie'te" 
is the church otNotre-Dame-des-Blancs-Manteaux, the insignificant 
relic of a convent which stood on the site of the pawn-office. — 
In the Rue des Blancs-Manteaux, at the back, No. 25, is the tavern 
'L'Homme Arme", with an 18th cent. sign. — The Rue des GuiUemites, 
which intersects the last, contains (No. 14) the remains of the above- 
mentioned convent. 

In the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois (31) is the Hotel d'Albret, built 
about 1550 by Connetable Anne de Montmorency, and restored in the 
18th cent, (inscription). Mme. Scarron, who became Mme. de Main- 
tenon, made the acquaintance there of Mme. de Montespan, who 
entrusted her with the education of her children. At No. 30, Hotel de 
Jean de Fourcy (1570) , a bust of Henri IV. stands in the court, 
above the cornice. At No. 42, farther on, at the comer of the Rue 
Vieille-du-Temple (54), rises a Gothic tower with arcades and a 
grated window, a relic of the mansion built in 1528 by Jean de la 
Balue, who married the widow of Jean He'rouet, secretary of Louis II. 
of Orleans. Then, at No. 38, is the curious blind alley where stood 
the Poterne Barbette, the postern where Louis T. of Orleans, brother 
of Charles VI., was assassinated in 1407 by order of Jean sans Peur, 
Duke of Burgundy. An escutcheon with an inscription above the 
door commemorates the event. — To the left, a little farther up, in 
the Rue Vieille-du-Temple, is the — 



Imprimerie Nationale (PI. R, 23; lit), or government print- 
ing - office, established in the old Hotel de Strasbourg, which once 
belonged to the Dukes of Rohan , four of whom were cardinals and 
bishops of Strassburg , among them the famous Cardinal de Rohan 
(1734-1803) who was implicated in the affair of Marie Antoinette's 
necklace. The first court is adorned with a copy in bronze of the 
statue of Gutenberg by David d' Angers at Strassburg (1852), and in 
the second court, above the stables, is a fine relief (Steeds of Apollo) 
by Le Lorrain. Visitors are admitted on Thurs. at 2 p.m. precisely, 
with tickets obtained from the director. The director's room contains 
two landscapes by Boucher, a beautiful clock in the Boulle style, and 
in the middle, Cardinal de Rohan's table. The 'Cabinet des Poincons' 
has a carved and gilded cornice with designs of birds, and the 'Salon 
des Singes' is decorated with paintings by Huet. The inspection 
takes I-IV2 nr - The printing-office employs about 1200 workpeople 
of both sexes. The chief business consists in printing official docu- 
ments, books published at the expense of government, geological 
maps, and certain playing-cards (viz. the 'court' cards and the ace 
of clubs, the manufacture of which is a monopoly of the state). A 
project is now, unfortunately, under consideration of pulling down 
this handsome structure, as the printing-works are about to be trans- 
ferred to Grenelle (Rue de la Convention). 

A little to the N. of the Imprimerie, in the Rue Chariot, is the 17lh 
cent, church of St. Jean-St-Frangois (PI. E, 23; III), formerly a chapel 
belonging to the Capuchins of the Marais (17th cent). It contains a number 
of paintings (badly lighted), among which is St. Louis visiting the plague- 
stricken, by Ary Scheffer (first to the left, in the nave). There are also 
eight tapestries referring to a 'Miracle of the Host' that took place in Paris 
in 1290. At the entrance to the choir are statues of St. Francis of Assisi 
(by O. Pilori) and St. Denis (by J. Sarrazin). — Other fine buildings of the 
17-18th cent, in the Eue Chariot are those at Nos. 3, 9, 57, 58, 62, etc. — 
At the corner of the Eue de Turenne (PI. R, 27; III), where Marshal 
Turenne lived, is the Fontaine Boucherat (1735). 

In the part of the Rue Vieille-du-Temple lying to the S. of the 
Rue des Francs-Bourgeois is the Hotel de Hollande (No. 47), a hand- 
some edifice of the 17th cent., once occupied by the Dutch ambas- 
sador to the court of Louis XIV. It was constructed in 1638 by 
Cottard, and has a gateway adorned with fine sculptures (heads of 
Medusa and other mythological subjects). The court contains a large 
bas-relief of Romulus and Remus suckled by the wolf, by Regnaudin. 

Beyond the Rue Vieille-du-Temple the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois 
passes on the right the old Hotel Lamoignon (No. 25), dating from 
the 16th century. The entrance to the handsome court is in the Rue 
Pavee (No. 24), diverging to the right. Diane de France, Duchess 
of Angouleme, the legitimised daughter of Henri II. and Diane de 
Poitiers, resided there. Her mother's crest (crescents, hunting sym- 
bols, and the letter D repeated) may still be seen. 

Farther on, to the left, in the Rue SeVigne", is the — 

*Musee Carnavalet (PI. R, 26; V), or Musee Historique de la 
Ville, containing a collection illustrating the history of Paris and 



of the Revolution. It was at one time the Hotel des Ligneris, and 
then the H6tel de Kernevenoy, whence the present name of Oarna- 
valet. It was the residence of Mme. de Sevigne for eighteen years 
(1677-96). The building was begun in 1544 from designs by Lescot 
and Bullant, continued by Du Cerceau, and enlarged in 1660 by 
F. Mansart, who built the prinoipal fa jade in the Rue de SeVigne. 
The portal, however, with sculptures by Jean Ooujon, is earlier. 

The Museum (director, it. Ed. Haraucourt; curator, M. Oeo. Cain) is 
open to the public on Sun., Tues., and Thurs., 10 5 (4 in winter). Sticks 
and umbrellas must be given up (no fee). Descriptive labels everywhere. 
Those whose time is limited should pass quickly through the groundfloor 
of the right wing and ascend at once to the first floor by the main stair- 
case in the central building (p. 182). 

The archway, under which, to the right, is the entrance to the 
museum, leads to a Coubt, in the centre of which is a fine bronze 
statue of Louis XIV., by Ant. Coyzevox, brought from the old H6tel 
de Ville. The sculptures of the Seasons, on the facade facing the 
archway, are attributed to Jean Goujon. To the left is a staircase 
to the first floor. 

Rulc, eles Francs- Bourejaois 

Ground Floor. Right Wing (entrance beneath the archway) : Antiqui- 
ties, in two rooms (PI. I and II), which are divided into nine small rooms 
or sections. Room I. 1st Section : Prehistoric period. Monuments and fossils of 
the Stone age. Left window, worked flints found at Levallois. 2nd Section : 
Roman period. Gallo-Roman fragments found at Paris, including stones 
from the Amphitheatre in the Rue Monge (p. 281). — Room II. 3rd Section : 
Roman period continued. Sarcophagi (by the window , stone sarcophagus 
with skeleton intact). 4-9th Sections : Roman and Merovingian periods. Grind- 
stones and millstones excavated in Paris (6th section); building materials, 
sarcophagi, sculptures, and monuments. 

The Main Building, to the left as we come from the preceding rooms, 
contains additional Antiquities (in Rooms III, IV, and V): fragments of 
Gallo-Roman buildings; 16th cent, chimneypiece; earthenware, glass, bron- 
zes, and coins, found in Gallo-Roman, Merovingian, and mediaeval tombs ; 
bronze statuette said to represent Charlemagne, and dating from his time 
(Room V; central case); tomb-inscriptions. — Beyond the last room, to the 
left, is the principal staircase, ascending to the first floor (p. 182). 

The Garden is surrounded on the three other sides with constructions 
not belonging to the H6tel Carnavalet. In the middle, to the left, the Are 
de Nazareth (16th cent.), a gateway from the old street of that name in 



the Cite - , with sculptures by Jean Goujon, and a tasteful modern gate. 
Opposite, to the right, is the Pavilion de Choiseul (end of the 17th cent.), while 
at the end is the handsome facade brought from the old Guildhouse of Iht 
Drapers (17th cent.), by L. Bruant. 

In the galleries, to the right and left, are Fragments of Parisian Build- 
ings of the middle ages, the Renaissance, and the 17th and 18th centuries. 
Under the Pavilion de Choisenl are an equestrian bronze relief of Henri IV., 
by Lemaire (1838), from the old Hotel de Ville, statues (Public Safety and 
Hope) by Fr. Anguier, and statues of Apostles, of the school of G. Pilon, 
from the Chateau of Anet. 

The rooms at 1he end of the garden, containing Memorials of Pakis 
during the 19th Centuey, may be entered from either gallery. We ch Jose 
that to the right, which leads to the staircase mentioned at p. 183. 

Salle du Palais-Royal (PJ. IX). Relief-model of the Palais-Royal, executed 
in 1843; paintings; engraving*. Medallions of his contemporaries, by David 
a" Angers. Model of an old diligence. To the right of the entrance (under 
glass), Death-mask of Beranger; by the opposite wall, Death-mask of Ste. 
Beuve; at the glass door to the left, Casket presented by the City of Prague 
t o the City of Paris (1900). — The Salle de l'Hdtel-de- Ville (PI. VIII) contains 
relics of the old Hotel de Ville; fragments of an altar-screen (16th cent.). 
Left wall, Landscapes and views of Paris, by Houbron, Cagniart, Ten Cate, 
GUM, P. L. Moreau, etc.; by the glass doors, Bust of Alphand (p. xxvii) 
by Carrier-Belleuse, in bronze; then, inscriptions and medals from the 
foundations of ancient buildings, particularly the Cour des Comptes (1810). 
— Salle de 1830 (PI. VII). In the centre. Caricature Statuettes and Busts of 

celebrities of the time of Louis Philippe, by Dantan the Younger. To the 
right, by the entrance, Statuette of the Duke of Bordeaux (Henri V.) at 
the age of seven. By the wall next the garden, Portrait of George Sand 
fin masculine dress); chair in which Beranger died. In the glass-cases are 
memorials of the Bestoration and the Revolution of 1830; by the 1st window 
(left), Plaquettes (Pasteur at the age of 70), medallions, insignia, etc.; on 
the walls, paintings and engravings (opposite the entrance, to the right: 
Portraits of Alfred de Vigny, of Paul and Alfred deMnsset when children, 
and of Armand Carrel (by Ary Scheffer). — In the Vestibule (VI), bronze 
bust and memorials of President Carnot (d. 1894); door of Balzac's bedroom. 
— From the garden we return to the main building and ascend the prin- 
cipal Staircase (p. 181) to the first floor. 

First Floor. The principal staircase leading to this, the most interest- 
ing portion of the museum, is at the end of the court, to the left of the 
entrance. On the staircase itself are casts of bas-reliefs after Jean Goujon 
and facsimiles of ancient plans of Paris. 

In the S. Gallery (opposite the staircase) are three Rooms (I, II, and 
IV) and two Galleries (III and V), devoted to the Topography of Paeis : 
Views of Paris, priDts, paintings and drawings; illustrations of bygone 
scenes and manners (explanatory labels). Those by the brothers Raguenet 


Demacliy, Oudry, Perelle, Thion , H. Robert, and St. Aubin may be 
specially mentioned. — Room I. Admirably carved door from an old Pari- 
sian house; on the right, Claude Chastillon (?), Romance of the Chevaliers 
de la Gloire (tournament tinder Louis XIII.); by the left window, General 
view of Old Paris (under glass); water-colours by Hoffbauer. — Room III. 
On the left, Procession of the Ligue in 1590, by a pupil of Pourbus; to 
the right of the staircase leading to Room IV, View3 of J. J. Rousseau's 
tomb at Ermenonville (p. 3961. 

In the next rooms (V-VIII) the topographical section ends and the 
Historical Section begins. — Rooms V and VI contain more views of 
Paris. In the latter, a collection of Sevres porcelain from the time of the 
Revolution, with views and emblems , and more than 200 historic snuff- 
boxes (17S9-1848). On a stand in the centre, views and landscapes of Paris, 
by Ed. Yon, Ricols, Canella, Richomme, Vollon, Marec, Houbron, etc. — 
Salle Dangeau (PI. VII). Ceiling-painting (attributed to Le Brun) and gilded 
panelling brought from the former Hotel Dangeau (time of Louis XIV.). 
Porcelain and tapestries. Wax portrait of Heuri IV., modelled by Bour- 
din (?) on the day after the king's assassination (1610). Two well preserved 
standards of the Swiss guards of Henri IV. — Salle de la ligue (PI. VIII). 
To the left, the Procession of the Ligue (see above); Dubois giving a lesson 
to the Duke of Orleans (perhaps by Jouvenet), and a banner: by the next 
window, collection referring to the history of balloons (1783-1880) By the 
window on the right, Revolutionary porcelain and stoneware, including the 
inkstand of CamilleDesmoulins. In the glass-case to the left of the entrance, 
a caricature (in gouache) of the Procession and Orgy of the Ligue (ca. 1624). 
Ceiling-painting by Le Brun (restored by Maillot): Olympus, Mei-cury pre- 
senting Hebe to Jupiter; in the angles, Muses. 

The adjacent staircase descends to the Salle du Palais-Royal (19th cent, 
memorials, see p. 182). Here and on the landing are wood carvings, old 
Paris signs in wood and wrought iron, ornamental plates for fire-places, etc. 
— Farther on the right is the — 

Galerie de la Rivolution (PI. IX & XI), containing memorials of the 
Revolutionary period: Portraits of De Launay, Louis Philippe Egalite, 
Che'nier, Marat, Danton, Robespierre, and revolutionary Porcelain, chiefly 
made at Nevers. In the third case (left), 'Tasse a la Guillotine', in Berlin 
porcelain. The glass-cases by the windows contain busts, statuettes, auto- 
graphs, etc. ; to the right of the exit, painted mask of Voltaire. — The Salle 
Centrale, or Salon des Stuarts (PI. X) has fine panelling and ceiling of the 
18th century from the Hotel des Stuarts. Sevres vases of the Revolutionary 
period. Opposite, glass-case containing various relics (Marat's snulT-box, 
etc.). To the left, bust of Delille (d. 1813), by Pajou ; harp in carved wood. 
To the right, Voltaire's armchair in which he died, and the small ad- 
justable armchair of Coulhon. — Galerie de la Rivolution (PI. XI). Among the 
portraits are those of Desmoulins, Mirabeau, St. Just, Hoche, Marat after 
his assassination (by David), and Philippe Egalite (by Sir Joshua Reynolds) ; 
to the left of the entrance is a clock satirizing the Revolution; original 
sketch for David's painting of 'The Death of Marat' ; Festival of Federation 
in the Champ-de-Mars in 1790, by Debucourt; Oath in the Jeu de Paume, 
completed reduction of the painting sketched by David ; Funeral of Marat 
(to the le r t of the exit); decorations, miniatures, fans, watches, revolu- 
tionary buttons, and so forth. In the cases to the right are autographs of 
Robespierre, Mirabeau, Fonche', etc. ; documents relating to the execution 
of Louis XVI. ('Louis Capet'). 

Salle de la Bastille (PI. XII). Revolutionary period continued. In 
the centre, Model of the Bastille, made from a stone of that building. In 
the glass-case surrounding it, relics of various kinds connected with the 
Bastille; next the fireplace, lettres de cachet (see p. 174); Louis XVI. 's 
autograph order for the defenders of the Tuileries to cease tiring (Aug. 10th, 
1792; see p. 67); medallion of Louis XVI. with a Phrygian bonnet and 
tricolour sash. Hanging from the ceiling is a banner of the Emigre's, with 
the arms of France and the Allies and the Hydra of the Revolution. By 
the entrance-wall: Cabinet with a representation of the fall of the Bastille; 
table of the Rights of Man (on the wall); weapons, playing-cards, and bind- 


ings of the Revolution, including a copy of the Constitution of 1793 bound 
in human skin. By the left window, engravings and paintings. Another 
cabinet with portraits, including one of 'La Veuve Capet' (Marie Antoinette) 
during her incarceration in the Conciergerie, by Prieur, and a miniature 
of Charlotte Corday, taken from life during her trial, by Quiverdo; window- 
curtains. Fireplace-wall: Weapons; instruments of punishment; portrait 
of Latude, who incurred the displeasure of Mme. Pompadour and was 
confined for thirty-six years in the Bastille ; below are the rope-ladder and 
tools that aided his ultimate escape. Garden-wall : Cabinet decorated with 
patriotic scenes; swords and sabres of honour. 

The Salle de VEmpire (PI. XIII) is devoted to the Napoleonic period. 
To the left, is Napoleon I.'s field-desk and dressing-case, articles in silver- 
gilt; autographs, medals, etc. By the window, relics of Napoleon I., 
connected more especially with St. Helena; map of Germany used by him 
in 1800; death-masks of Napoleon I. and his son the Duke of Reichstadt. 
Left wall, Grot, Cardinal de Belloy, archbishop of Paris, receiving the 
colours taken at the battle of Austerlitz. The Beugnot bequest (1902) 
includes the deeds of the grand-duchy of Berg, which fell to Murat; 'Pocket- 
book with the arms of Napoleon; bonbonnieres wilh miniatures of Letitia, 
and Jerome Bonapar'.e. — A staircase to the left ascends hence to the 
second floor (p = 185). 

The next eight rooms, occupied by Mme. de Sevigne in 1677-96, have, 
with the exception of K. XVI, been adorned with panelling and wood- 
carvings from ancient mansions in Paris , illustrating various styles of 
decoration. — Room XIV, with panelling in the style of the Regency, con- 
tains paintings, drawings, and engravings. From left to right: Boilly, 
Standard-Bearer (1788) , "Portrait of Lucile Desmonlins , The Pont Royal 
i n 1800 (on glass), Portrait of himself. Above the fireplace, Pesne, Mariette, 
the author; at the sides, Hubert Robert, Destruction of the church of the 
Feuillants (p. 66); drawings by Watteau, St. Aubin, and others. On the 
chimneypiece , a curious decimal clock of 1795. Right wall, Boilly, De- 
parture of the Paris conscripts (1807). On the table is a terracotta bust 
by Caf 'fieri. — Salle dei Costumes (PI. XV). Glass-case at the end, rich costumes 
from the reign of Louis XIV. to the Empire; above, statuettes of the prin- 
cipal personages in Italian comedy. In the glass-cases at the sides and on 
the walls are coloured engravings of the period and costumes. Central glass- 
case : caps of liberty, cockades, shoes, buttons, etc. ; christening-robe of the 
Prince Imperial (1856) ; above, elaborately dre?sed wax dolls of the time 
of Louis XV., including a figure of Voltaire; behind, fine collection of 
tortoise-shell combs. — Salle des Thidtres (PI. XVI). Theatrical portraits, 
caricatures, autographs, and personal relics of actors. On the left, Portrait 
of Mme. Maillard, the singer, who represented the Goddess of Reason in 
the Revolution. On the wall, painting of the old Boulevard du Temple 
in 1862, with its seven theatres. Rear wall, Bust of Taillade, by Deloye; 
statuettes of Rachel, the tragedian, and of Mile. Dejazet. In the case by 
the left window are relics of the 'Ihree Dumas'. — Galerie Lucien Faucou 
(PI. XVII). Drawings: Lagrenie, Transference of Voltaire's body to the 
Pantheon (11 91) ; Van der ifeulen, Inauguration of the Dome des In- 
valides. Two cabinets with medallions; case with coins and drawings by 
Aug. Duprt; in the first cabinet, memorials of Alboni (d. 1894), the singer. 
— Salle A. de Liesville (PI. XVIII). Paintings and drawings. Scenes of 
juvenile comedy ; then (no labels), Portrait of Jeavrat. by himself; Drawing 
competition by Cochin; portraits of Ledoux the architect and d'Alembert 
(1753-81) by Catherine Lvsurier; by the 2nd window, Lady of qualify playing 
the hurdy-gurdy (18th cent.). End-wall, Jeaurat, Dispute at the fountain; 
above, Coypel, Artists in company. To the right of the entrance, Portrait 
of Theroigne de Me'ricourt (1762-1817), by Vestier (?) ; Mme. Pouget. by 
Chardin. The central glass-case contains statuettes, medallions, etc., chiefly 
of the 18th century. — Salon Chinois (PI. XIX), with rococo panelling painted 
with Chinese subjects. On a table is a model of the water-works of La 
Samaritaine, which were situated near the Pont-Neuf. — Salle de Stvigni 
(PI. XX), formerly the salon of the Marquise de S(Svignet. On the entrance- 
wall, Mignard, "Portrait of Mme. de Grignan, daughter of Mme. de Sevigne' ; 


below, glass-case containing a letter written by the marquise; a piece of 
one of her dresses; her miniature; portrait of Roger Bontemps, the French 
15th cent. poet. By the right window (badly hung) is a copy of Mignard's 
portrait of Mme. de Sevigne. At the end, to the right and left, H. Robert, 
the Pont de Notre-Dame and the Pont au Change. Porcelain, purses, small 
genre pictures of the period. — Room XXI, at the entrance to which is an 
iron railing of fine workmanship, contains most of the valuable collection 
of porcelain bequeathed by M. de Liesville. — Through Room XX (on the 
right) to the Salle des Echevins (PI. XXII). Portraits of echevins (guild- 
wardens) and other magistrates; to the left of the entrance, Voltaire at 
the age of 24 (by Largilliere) and engravings referring to Voltaire. On the 
left wall is a portrait by Duplessis, and, to the left of the entrance, an 
excellent portrait of two echevins by Largilliere. 

We now return to Boom XIII and ascend the staircase to the — 
Second Floor. Six small rooms here are devoted mainly to the Siege 
of Paris in 1870-71. Room I. Paintings, drawings, and sketches, by 
Guiltier ; views of streets in Paris. — Room II (to the right). In the middle 
is a relief-plan of the environs of St. Germain-en-Laye (battlefield of Jan. 
19th, 1871). Memorials of Gambetta, including a death-mask. Uniforms 
and weapons worn by Meissonier, Claretie, Dubois, Carolus-Dnran, and 
other well-known men as National Guards. MSS., pictures, and photo- 
graphs. — Room III. Remains of a balloon in which a plenipotentiary 
of the government in Paris escaped to Austria. Representations of the 
ambulance -service. Letters sent by pigeon-post; diminutive newspapers; 
provision-tickets; passes. — Room IV. Specimens of foods and substitutes 
for food. Death-mask of the painter Regnault, who fell in a sortie at 
Buzenval (1871). This room and Rooms V and VI also contain satirical 
paintings and newspapers ; weapons ; portraits. Cabinet with fused glass and 
metal and other relics of conflagrat'ons. In R. V, by the window, is the 
death-mask of Gustave Flaubert (1821-80), and in R. VI (left wall), that 
of Jules Valles (1833-85), the controversialist. Above, memorials of Nicho- 
las II. 'b visit to Paris in 1896, including the pen which he used when 
laying the foundation-stone of the Pont Alexandre III (p. 219). Other mem- 
orials of the Russian 'rapprochement'. Opposite are the mask of Michelet 
and his study-table. To the right of the entrance, a youthful portrait of 
Victor Hugo, by Beim; to the left, Funeral of President Carnot at Notre 
Dame, by Houoron, and (above) View of Paris (ca. 1849), a large drawing 
by Victor Hugo. 

At No. 29 Rue de Sevigne - , in what was once the Hotel de Le Peletier 
de Souzy (erected by Bullet in 1637), is the Bibliotheque Historique de la 
Ville, founded in 1871, to replace the library destroyed in the Hotel de 
Ville. It comprises about 200,000 vols, and 15,000 MSS. illustrative of the 
history of Paris and the Revolution. It is open to readers on week-days, 
10-4 in winter, and 11-5 after Easter (closed in Easter week and from Aug. 15th 
to the first Mon. in Oct.). — Other ancient mansions in the Rue de Sevigne 
are: No. 52, H6tel de Flesselles, who was the last Pre'vot des Marchands 
(massacred in 1789) ; it is decorated with sculptures of foliage, urns, etc. ; 
Nos. 7 and 9, Hdtel du Conseiller Nic. Pinon (now barracks; fine facade in 
the court of No. 9), etc. 

The building in front of the library (No. 17) is the Lytie Victor Hugo, 
a high-school for girls, erected on the site of the Couvent des Filles-Bleues, 
which was founded by the Marquire de Vernenil, mistress of Henri IV. 

A little farther on the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois ends at the 
Place des Vosges (PI. R, 26 ; V\ formerly called the Place Royale. 
Its present name dates from the Revolution and was given in honour 
of the department of the Vosges, which was the first to forward 
patriotic contributions to Paris. The name has, however, twice been 
changed during the intervening period. The marble Equestrian 
Statue of Louis XIII., in the centre, by Dupaty and Cortot, was 


erected in 1825 to replace a statue raised by Richelieu in 1639 
and destroyed in 1792. The angles of the square are adorned with 
fountains, and all around are houses of the 17-18th cent., with 
arcades and steep roofs. 

The Place des Vosges occupies the site of the court of the old Palais 
des Toumelles, where the tournament at which Henri II. was accidental- 
ly killed took place in 1565 (see p. 169). It then became a horse-market 
and witnessed the duel, in 1578, between the three minions of Henri III. 
and the three favourites of the Due de Guise. Catherine de Medicis caused 
the palace to be demolished, and Henri IV. erected the present square. 
Fine old houses at No. 21 (Hotel de Richelieu, 1615); No. 13, where the 
tragedian Rachel died; No. 1 (Hotel de Coulauges, 1606); No. 3 (Hotel 
d'Estrades, 1752), now the Bibliolhtque des Arts Dicoratifs, open 10-5 and 
7-10 p.m., Sun. excepted. 

The House of Victor Hugo (PI. R, 26; V), at No. 6 in the Place 
des Vosges, was the residence of Marshal de Lavardin (1610). The 
poet occupied the second floor from 1833 to 1848. It was converted 
into a museum in 1903. Open Tues., Thurs., Sat., and Sun. 12-4 or 5 
(curator, Dr. L. Koch). 

Staircase. Drawings of scenes from Victor Hugo's works, by Roche- 
grosse, E. Bayard, Brion, Villelte, Robert- Fleury, etc. ; caricatures by Nadar, 
Daumier, Gill, and others. 

First Floor. — Vestibule. Plaster bust of V. Hugo, by Schosnewerk 
(1879); drawings by F. Lix, Orimiet, etc. — Gkande Galeeie. Left wall, 
E. Carriere, Fantine abandoned; Fantin-Latour, The satyr; Bonnat, Portrait 
of V. Hugo; Hermer, Sarah at the bath; Raffa'elli, The march past (Feb. 
26th ; 1881). Principal left wall, Devambez, Jean Valjean before the tribunal. 
First window. Death-mask of V. Hugo, by Dalou. Farther on, Roll, Vigil 
at the Arc de Triomphe (see p. 75). 2nd window, 'Bust of V. Hugo 
(plaster), by Rodin. Then, P. Baudry, Consecration of Woman ; L. Boulanger, 
Richelieu's litter; Ol. Merson, Esmeralda; B. Lepage, Portrait of V. Hugo; 
Orasset, Eviradnus. At the end, Rochegrosse, The Bargraves; J.P.Laurent, 
Death of Baudin (see p. 246); David d 'Angers, "V. Hugo in his youth (1833), 
marble bust; A. Bernard, First performance of Hernani; F. Roybet, Don 
Cesar de Bazan. Principal right wall, Steinlen, Poor folk; Cabanel, The 
Titan; E. Fourrier, Hernani (act V). In the middle of the room is the 
famous table made by Victor Hugo, with four autographs and the four 
inkstands of Lamartine, George Sand, the elder Dumas, and V. Hugo. 
Desk with the inscription 'Vive, Ama', arranged by the poet for his friend 
Juliette Drouet. — The Librae? (on the left) contains 4000 volumes and 
5000 engravings, original drawings by V. Hugo on the walls, portraits of 
the poet by Rodin, Deviria, and Mauroi, as well as portraits of A. Dumas, 
Lincoln, and George Smd, given by them to him. In the centre, Sevres 
vase, presented to the poet by the nation in 1881. The silver crjwn on 
the left wall was presented by the city of Prague on the inauguration of 
the Victor Hugo Monument. 

Second Floor. — Vestibule. Sideboard, cabinet for liqueurs, and foot- 
stool arranged by V. Hugo for Mme. Drouet. The walls are adorned with 
china which belonged to the poet or Mme. Drouet. Pen-and-ink drawings 
by V. Hugo. — Room I. More than 500 original drawings by V. Hugo 
(Meurice and Koch collections); oa the end-wall, Siege of Paris (1870); 
between the windows, a hand-glass with 'poker-work' by V. Hugo on the 
frame. — Room II (Salle Drouet). Panels, furniture, humnrous drawings 
by V. Hugo which adorned the drawing and dining rooms at Mme. Drouet's, 
near Hauteviile House (Guernsey). — Room HI (on the left). More of the 
poet's drawings, and a double wardrobe from Mme. Drouet's. — Room IV 
or Mortuary Chamber, a replica of the room in the Avenue d'Eylau (now 
the Ave. Victor Hugo, p. 76) where the poet breathed his last: on the righ 
is the bed; by the window, the desk, with inkstand, pen, and an auto- 


graph ; beside it, the cabinet which contained his MSS. ; on the left wall, 
Victor Hugo on his death-bed, by Bormat; over the fireplace, portraits of 
his children Georges and Jeanne. 

Third Floor. — Vestibule: Photographs of the poet's funeral. — 
Room I (on the left): Family portraits, including that of Mme. V. Hugo, 
by Bonnai (lelt wall). — Room II. 1st glass-case, plaster casts of V. Hugo's 
hands, also specimens of his hair, at various ages; pens-, bound volume 
of 'Les Chatiments' adorned with a golden bee from the imperial mantle 
of Napoleon III. 2nd case, autographs. To the right of the exit, Portrait 
of General Hugo, the poets father. — In the Coeeidob is Roll's Ovation 
to Victor Hugo; and in the Mosee Populaiee at the end are theatrical 
posters, small lusts, pipes (effigies of the poet), etc.. 

The Rue du Pas-de-la-Mule, to the N.E. of the Place des Vosges, 
leads to the Boulevard Beaumarchais (p. 85), nearthe Bastille (p. 174). 
The Rue de Birague, where Mme. de Sevigne' was born (at No. 11 
bis), leads on the S. to the Rue St. Antoine (p. 173). 

6. Quarter to the N.E. of the Louvre, as far as the 
Boulevards (Place de la Republique). 

Station of the M&tropolitain: Rue du Louvre, near St. Germain-l'Auxer- 
rois (see p. 91, and Appendix, p. 36). — Restaurants in this part of Paris, 
see p. 19. 

The N. portion of the Rub du Louvre (PI. R, 20, 21 ; III) was 
laid out in 1888 (S. portion, between the Louvre and St. Germain- 
l'Auxerrois, see p. 9i). It terminates at present in the Rue Etienne- 
Marcel, not far from the Place des Victoires (p. 201). 

The H6tel des Postes et Telegraphes (PI. R, 21; III), near 
here, occupies a detached quadrangle of immense size. It was rebuilt 
in 1880-84. The main entrance is in the Rue du Louvre, through 
a gallery, 55 yds. long, where all the offices dealing directly with the 
public are situated. Kehind is the loading-yard, used by the post- 
vehicles, and, adjoining it, the yard where the vehicles are housed 
(the sculptured railing was designed by Boniri). The sunk floor ac- 
commodates the stamping-offices, the apparatus for the pneumatic 
post, and the stables ; on the first floor are the sorting and distribut- 
ing offices ; on the second, the diligence offices and official dwell- 
ings ; and on the third, the archives and stores. — The Poste Restante 
and general inquiry offices are at the end of the gallery (Rue du 
Louvre entrance), on the right. The telegraph office is also on the 
right. — Postal regulations, etc., see p. 31. 

In the centre of the rear-facade of the post-of8ce, in the Rue J. J. Rous- 
seau, a marble tablet commemorates the Hdtel Herwarth, in which La 
Fontaine died (1695). J. J. Rousseau resided after 1770 in the N. part of this 
street (beyond the Rue Coquilliere), called at that time the Rue Platriere. 

In the adjacent Rue Gutenberg is the Hotel des Telephones, 
built of glazed bricks. — Opposite the post-office is the building 
occupied by the parcels post service (p. 32). 

About midway between the Post Office and the Louvre rises the 
Bourse de Commerce (PI. R, 20 ; HI), formerly the Halle au Ble or 
corn-exchange, converted to its present use in 1888-89 by Blondel. 


The nucleus is a spacious rotunda, dating from 1762-67, the dome 
of which was added after it was burned down in 1811. Fronting the 
Rue du Louvre is a new facade, with four Greek columns, 65 ft. 
high, above which is a pediment with sculptures, by Croisy. The 
interior of the dome is embellished with frescoes of East, West, 
North, and South, by Clairin, Luminals, Laugee, and Lucas. The 
exchange is open daily, except Sun., from 9 to 6 (to 7 on Wed.; 
business-hours 1-3). — In front, on the other side of the street, is 
a fluted Doric Column, 100 ft. high and 10 ft. in diameter, a relic 
of the Hotel de la Reine (afterwards Hotel de Soissons) built by 
Bullant in 1572 by order of Catherine de Medicis on the site of the 
Bourse de Commerce. A staircase within the column ascends to the 
top where the queen is said to have made astrological observations 
in the company of Iluggieri. 

Those interested may visit the cold-storage rooms below the building 
(apply to the employe ; fee) which can accommodate 3000 carcasses of cattle 
and 20,000 sheep, besides quantities of game and fish. The ammonia 
freezing apparatus (by Linde) is in the lower chamber. Entrance opposite 
Rue de Viarmes 2. An overcoat should be worn. 

In the Rue Vauvilliers, behind the Bourse de Commerce, are a number 
of old shop-signs (No. 21, 'Au Panier fleuri'; No. 23, 'A mon ideV, etc.). 

The Halles Centrales (PI. R, 20-23 ; III), not far to the E. of 
the Bourse de Commerce, a vast structure, chiefly of iron, and 
covered with zinc, were erected by the architect Baltard in 1851. 
These 'halls' consist often pavilions, each of which contains 250 stalls 
13 ft. square, which are let out at 20 c. per day. Between the pavilions 
run covered streets, 48 ft. wide and 48 ft. in height, intersected by 
a boulevard 105 ft. in width, descending towards the Rue de Rivoli. 
The six E. pavilions occupy a space measuring 180 yds. by 135 yds. 
Under the Halles are cellars 12 ft. high, divided into 1200 compart- 
ments ; these are chiefly used for the storage of goods, etc.; some 
contain municipal electric motors. The front pavilions are occupied 
by retail - dealers , those behind by wholesale merchants, whose 
business also extends into the neighbouring streets in the early 

The best time for seeing the markets is in the small hours, the wholesale 
business beginning at 3 a.m. and lasting till 8 (in winter 4 to 9 a.m ). Huge 
as are the consignments of food disposed of here, both for home and foreign 
use, they by no means represent the total consumption, which is further 
swollen by the supplies passing through the various covered markets distri- 
buted over the city. 

To the S.E. of the Halles, in a square near the Boulevard de 
Se'bastopol, rises the Fontaine des Innocents. This graceful structure 
of the Renaissance period is due to Pierre Lescot; the older sculp- 
tures are by Jean Goujon. It was originally placed against the church 
of the Innocents, and at that time had only three arcades ; but it was 
reconstructed in 1788 in the form of a square pavilion, on which 
occasion the naiads, the lion, and other ornamentations by Pajou were 
added. Opposite the Rue Berger, at the corner of the square, the 
facade of the office of Miles. Lingeres (1716), which had been taken 

6. ST. EUSTACHE. 189 

from another building (of the Pompadour period) in the Rue Cour- 
talon, near the Halles, has been re-erected. 

The Rue and the Square des Innocents occupy the site of the cemetery 
of that name, which dated from the time of Philippe Auguste. At No. 11 
in the street is a house of 1669, the groundfloor of which contains a 
number of vaults ('charniers') ; in these were placed (ca. 1870) the bones 
from the disused cemetery. — No. 3 in the Rue de la Ferronnerie, near by, 
is believed to he the house in front of which Henri IV. was assassinated 
in 1610. 

The *Church of St. Eustache (PI. R, 21 , 20 ; III), situated at the 
Pointe St. Eustache, to the N.W. of the Halles Centrales and at the 
end of the Rue Montmartre and Rue de Turbigo, is one of the most 
important churches in Paris. Begun in 1532, probably by Pierre 
Lemercier, and completed in 1642 from designs by Ch. David, it 
presents, with the exception of the main portal (1775-88), which is 
due to Mansart de Jouy, a strange mixture of degenerate Gothic and 
Renaissance architecture. Over the transept is an open-work cam- 
panile known as the 'Plomb de St. Eustache'. The funeral rites of 
Mirabeau ware solemnised in 1791 in this church, whence his body 
was conveyed to the Pantheon (p. 276) ; and here was celebrated 
the Feast of Reason in 1793. In 1795 the church was turned into a 
'Temple of Agriculture'. Several eminent men, including Colbert 
(see below), Voiture, Benserade, Vaugelas, Marshal de la Feuillade, 
Admiral de Tourville, etc., lie buried here. It was entirely restored 
in 1846-54, and is now undergoing repairs. 

The Interior (entrance by the chief portal or by a side-door near the 
Rue Montmartre) consists of a graceful and lofty nave and double aisles, 
and is 348 ft. in length, 144 ft. in width, and 108 ft. in height. Six of the 
chapels contain old frescoes (laid bare and restored in 1846). Those in 
the other chapels are modern. The 4th chapel contains a marble relief of 
the Marriage of the Virgin, by Triqueti, and the 5th an Ecce Homo by 
Etex and a figure of Resignation by Chatrousse. — In the S. transept are 
frescoes by Signol: on the right, The Resurrection, St. John, and Justice; 
on the left, Entombment, St. Luke, and Temperance. — At the end of the 
ambulatory is the Chapelle de la Vierge, added at the beginning of the 
19th century. Over the altar is a "Statue of the Virgin by Pigalle, which 
used to be in the Church of the Invalides. The frescoes (three representa- 
tions of the Virgin Mary) are by Couture. — The next chapel, with frescoes 
by Bttard, contains' the monument of Colbert (d. 1683; see p.xvii), consist- 
ing of a sarcophagus of black marble, with a kneeling figure of Colbert 
in white marble, by Coyzevox. At one end is a statue of Abundance by 
Coyzevox, at the other end one of Religion by Tuby. — The five other 
chapels flanking the choir contain frescoes by Delorme, Basset (early 
frescoes restored), Perruz, Pichon (St. Genevieve), and F. Barrias (St. Louis). 
— The short N. transept is adorned in the same way as the S. transept : bas- 
reliefs by Devers; six statues of Apostles by Crauk and Huston, and frescoes 
by Signol (Crucifixion, St. John, and Prudence on the right; Christ bearing 
the Cross, St. Luke, and. Divine Power on the left). Above a benitier is a 
fine group of two angels and Pope Alexander I. (109-117), by whom the 
use of holy water was introduced. — Handsome N. porta), which faces an 
alley leading to the Rne Montmartre. Beyond the transept is the chapel 
of St. Eustache, who was a Roman general under the Emp. Titus, with 
frescoes by Le Hinaff. — The stained glass in the choir and apse was 
executed by Soulignac in 1631, from designs by Ph. de Champaigne. 

St. Eustache is perhaps the leading church in Paris for Religious Music. 
which is performed with the aid of an orchestra on important festivals 


The Rue de Turbigo (PI. R, 24; III), a handsome new street 
beginning at the Pointe St. Eustache (p. 189), crosses after about 
200 yds. the Rue Etienne-Maroel, in which rises the Tour de Jean 
sans Peur (Duke of Burgundy, 1371-1419), a crenellated tower with 
pointed arches of the loth cent, (much neglected). It was a later 
addition to the Hotel de Bourgogne (built in the 13th cent.), where 
the Confreres de la Passion (in 1548) and the Enfants sans Souci 
(in 1552) established their theatre. Corneille's 'Cid' and Racine's 
'Andromaque' and 'Phedre' were here performed for the first time. 
It contains a handsome spiral staircase and a room with pointed vault- 
ing. (Apply to the concierge of the school, Rue Etienne-Marcel 20, 
preferably in the afternoon ; fee.) 

Farther on, the Rue de Turbigo crosses the Boulevard de Se- 
vastopol (p. 84) , then the JRwe St. Martin and the Rue Reaumur 
(p. 203), and finally leads to the Place de la Ripublique (p. 85). — 
Quartier du Temple, to the S., see p. 194. 

On the right, near the intersection of the Rue de Turbigo and the Boul. 
de Sebastopo), is situated the church of St. Leu-St. Gilles (PI. E, 23; III), 
with a portal of the 14th cent, and a facade of 1727. This formed part of 
the abbey of St. Magloire, a convent for penitent women. The Chapelle 
des Fonts in the interior (on the right) is adorned with frescoes by Bizard 
and Desgoffe. In the Chap, de la Vierge: St. Gilles discovered in his retreat 
by the King of the Goths (by Monwisin). Passage leading to the sacristy, 
on the right : Scenes from the life of Christ (marble reliefs). On the triumphal 
arch, frescoes by Cibot. The choir was restored in the 19th century. 

We now turn into the Rue St. Martin, which leads to the N. to 
the Porte St. Martin (p. 84). At the corner of the Rue Re'aumur, to 
the right, is — 

St. Nieolas-des-Champs (PI. R, 24 ; 777), a Gothic church, which 
was enlarged in the 15th cent., with a square tower. The handsome 
S. portal, in the Renaissance style, designed by Ph. Delorme, was 
added in 1576. The choir is of the same period. The high-altar-piece 
is an Assumption by Vouet. The woodwork of the organ is also 
worthy of mention. Paintings have recently been discovered in the 
collateral chapels of the choir. The completion of the Rue de Turbigo 
and the Rue Cunin-Gridaine will open up the approach to the church. 

In the Rue St. Martin, opposite the church of St. Nicolas-des-Champs 
is one of the principal entrances to the vast network of Sewers (Egouts) 
by which Paris is undermined, the other chief entrance being on the Quai 
du Louvre near the Rue du Louvre (p. 91). They are shown to the public 
generally on the second and fourth Wednesday of each month, from the 
first Wed. after Easter to the second Wed. in October (inclusive). Written 
application should be made in advance to the Frtfet de la Seine, mention- 
ing the number of visitors and enclosing a stamp for the reply, which 
will determine the time and place of starting. If pressed for time, personal 
application should be made at the office of the Chief Engineer des Eaux 
et de PAssainissement, Place de l'Hotel-de-Ville 9. The tours of inspection, 
in which ladies need have no hesitation in taking part, are timed to start 
at 1, 2.15, and 3.30 p.m. Punctual attendance is essential, and visitors will 
do well to provide themselves with an extra wrap. The visit lasts about 
1 hour. The itinerary is as follows : Rue St. Martin, Rue de Turbigo, Boul. de 
Sebastopol, Place du Chatelet (cars up to this point), Quai de la Me'gisserie 
Quai du Louvre as far as the Rue du Louvre (by boat). When the start 

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is made from the Louvre this itinerary is reversed. The cars and boats are 
worked by electricity, and the end and intermediate stations are brightly lit 
by electric light. The itinerary traversed and the sewers which run through 
it are indicated by numerous descriptive plates. 

The total length of the network of sewers of Paris is now about 890 M. 
The two main sewers run at right angles with the Seine, under the Boul. de 
Sevastopol and the Boul. St. Michel respectively. The main basin is situated 
below the Place de la Concorde, whence the Collecteurs Qeniraux conduct 
the water to Asnieres and Clichy to be there used for irrigation (p. 332). 
The largest sewers are 16 ft. high by 18-20 ft. wide. The 'collecteurs' are 
flanked with pavements or ledges, between which the water runs, and are 
cleansed in the following manner. There are boats or waggons of the same 
width as the channel, each provided with a vertical gate or slide, which 
when let down exactly fits the channel and causes the boat to be propelled 
forward by the force of the stream, scraping clean the bottom and sides 
of the sewer as it advances to the outlet. 

Beyond St. Nicolas, between the Rue St. Martin and the Boul. de 
Sevastopol, is the pleasant Square des Akts et Metieks (PI. R, 
24; 277). Jn its centre rises a column surmounted by a Victory in 
bronze, by Crauk, with a pedestal bearing the names of the Crimean 
victories (1854-55). On each side are small basins, adorned with 
bronze figures. On the S. side of the square is the The&tre de la 
Qaite (p. 36), built in 1862. 

The Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers (PI. R, 24; 777) was 
founded by decree of the Convention in 1794. The first idea of such 
an institution is attributed to Descartes (1596-1650), and it was 
put in practice in 1775 by the celebrated engineer Vaucanson, who 
bequeathed to the state in 1783 his collection of machines, in- 
struments, and tools, for the instruction of the working classes. The 
museum is combined with a technical school, the classes in which 
are free. 

Since 1799 the collection has occupied the former Cluniac Priory 
of St. Martin-des-Champs, built in 1060 on the site of an earlier abbey 
(destroyed by the Normans) and secularized in 1789. The building 
was restored and completed in 1845. The former church and re- 
fectory are the most interesting of the extant ancient parts. One 
of the towers of the fortified enceinte has been re-erected to the left 
of the facade towards the Rue St. Martin. Beside this tower is the 
Fontaine du Vertbois, dating from 1712 (restored in 1886). — The 
facade of the former church (p. 192) may be seen from the Rue 
St. Martin, through the railing. In front of it is the Monument of 
Boussingault (1802-1887), the chemist and agricultural writer, con- 
sisting of a bust on a pedestal preceded by bronze statues of Science 
and an Agriculturalist, by Dalou. 

The entrance is in the Cour d'Honneur, Rue St. Martin. The 
monumental platform in front is a modern addition. Beside the first 
staircase, to the right, is a bronze Statue of Papin (1647-1714), 
discoverer of the elasticity of steam, by Millet ; to the left, one of 
Nic. Leblanc (1742-1806), the inventor of the process of extracting 
soda from sea-salt, by Hiolle. 

The old Refectory (13th cent.), to the right of the main court, a 


beautiful Gothic hall with aisles, is attributed to Pierre de Montereau, 
the architect of the Sainte-Chapelle (p. 256). The Library (over 
40,000 vols.) which it contains is open on Sun., 10-3, and on -week- 
days, except Mod. and holidays, 10-3 and 7.30-10 p.m. The former 
Church, a little beyond; the view of which is still obstructed on this 
side, is a remarkable structure of the ll-13th cent, (best seen from 
the interior; see below). 

The Museum, which is entered from the platform in the Cour 
d'Honneur (22 steps up and 22 down), is open in winter on Tues., 
Wed., and Sat. 12-3, Sun. 12-4; in summer Tues., Wed., and Sat. 
12-4, Sun. and Thurs. 11-5. Parcels, but not sticks and umbrellas, 
must be left (no fee). — The exhibits, which afford an insight into 
the different phases of construction of machinery, etc., are divided 
into 24 categories, distinguished by capital letters, each category 
embracing several subdivisions denoted by small letters. The section 
devoted to physics (P) is more developed than the othe'rs, and has 
10 sub-categories (PA, PB, etc.) with subdivisions like the others. 
All the articles, which are as far as possible chronologically arranged, 
bear explanatory labels. The accompanying plan will enable the 
visitor to choose his own course; and only the main divisions of 
each part are here mentioned. 

Ground Floor. Salle 1, or 'Salle de VEcho', contains a fine collection 
of Siberian jade and graphite, illustrating the numerous industrial appli- 
cations of the latter mineral; model of a screw-steamer; various busts. The 
acoustic properties of the Salle de l'Echo resemble those of the Whispering 
Gallery at St. Paul's in London: words spoken quite softly in one cornei 
of the saloon are distinctly audible in the angle diagonally opposite. — We 
enter, on the right, the — 

S. Side of the Building (N. side, see p. 193). Salle 1 (Mining). 
In the centre and to the right and left are models of mines; tools, machinery, 
and apparatus for sinking mines. Round the room, specimens of minerals. 
— Salles 2-6 (Metallurgy). Salle 2 (to the right of Salle 1). Model of 
the iron-works of Creusot ; models of artillery, etc. — Salle 3 (next S. 1). 
Iron and steel rolling-mills and forges, etc. — Salle 4. At the windows 
on the right and left, Steam-bellows, smelting and puddling furnaces (iron 
and steel). Window - walls, Zinc -furnace, trophy showing the different 
stages in the manufacture of nickel, steam-hammers, etc. Similar hammers 
opposite the windows, also minerals. — Salle 5 (parallel to S. 3). Apparatus 
for soldering and welding tyres and other iron-work. In a corner by the 
right wall is the 'Livre d'Or' of the Franco-Russian alliance, by P. Des- 
champs (a collection of gold and silver medals). — Salle 6 (to the right). 
In the middle, beginning on the right (next to Salle 3): Fused, forged, 
and rolled metals; to the right, models of workshops (plumbing, rail- 
making, silversmith's, etc.). — Salle 7 (next S. 4). Wood Industries. 

• The Former Church, which we enter next, has a choir in the Transi- 
tion style and a Romanesque apse (ll-13th cent.). It now contains Machinery. 
Opposite the entrance are a pendulum invented by Foucault and a glass 
globe about 5ft in diameter. In the choir, Cugnot's steam-carriage (1770); 
ploughs. In the nave (left), printing-machines; (right), bicycles, etc. 

South Gallery (to the right as we return). Agriculture. Valuable 
collection of ploughs and other agricultural implements; heads of cattle; 
anatomical specimens ; samples of grain and fruit (to the left of the entrance). 

Galeries Vaucanson (looking on the Rue Vaucanson). Gallery 1. 
Agriculture continued, alfo Constructions Rnrales (barns, granary, a farm) and 


Construction! Civile* (heating and ventilating apparatus; baths, etc.). — 
Central Room. Social Economy illustrated by pictures and diagrams : pro- 
vident and mutual - benefit societies, artisans' dwellings, etc. (A similar 
collection may be seen at the Musee Social, p. 295.) — Gallery II. Models 
of locks and sluices; viaducts; model of the Viaduct of Garabit (Cantal); 
bridges, sewers, hydraulic lift (on the left); cranes, winches, etc.; excavat- 
ing machine, lighthouses, relief-plan of the Suez Canal. 

North Gallery. Five rooms and a parallel corridor. Constructions 
Civiles, Giomitrie Descriptive. Salle I. Building materials and tools. — Salle II. 
Hydraulic works (bridges). — Salle. III. Timber-work and frames; stone- 
cutting. — Salle IV. Geometry and perspective ; instruments and apparatus 
for drawing (below on the window-side). — Salle V. Veneering- wood, 
marbles, locksmith's tools, etc. — Parallel Corridor. Kilns; models of a 
drill, dredgers, and excavator. — Salle VI and adjacent corridor. Geodesy 
and Horology. 

N. Side of the Central Building. The lofty gallery which comes 
next is also devoted to Geodesy and Horology, in addition to Astronomy. 
Clocks in fine 18th cent, cases. — The last room, on a lower level, by the 
staircase ascending to the textile and spinning section (p. 194), contains 
Weights and Measures, ancient and modern, French and foreign; mathe- 
matical measuring- apparatus. 

First Floor. On the landing, opposite the entrance, is a large Sevres 
vase. — Salle d'Honnedr, at the top of the staircase. In the 1st and left- 
hand cases: Apparatus made by Lavoisier, the chemist (seep. 77), or used 
in his laboratory ; original machines and apparatus, by Vaucanson, Watt, etc. 
Near them, between the pillars on the left, Pascal's calculating machine; 
in the centre and between the pillars on the right are ancient and obsolete 
apparatus. The case by the central window contains the first metric 
standards made when the metric system was introduced; types of the 
cubic decimeter, litre, and kilogramme. 

S. Side of the Central Building (on the right as we proceed). Mechanical 
Recipients of force, such as wind-mills, water-wheels, turbines, etc. Steam. 
Engines and parts of machinery. Railway Collection, including a model of 
the first locomotive with a tubular boiler, constructed by Marc Seguin in 
1827 (at the end, to the right). — Last Room: Mechanics. Apparatus for 
demonstrating the laws of gravity, etc. 

The staircase adjoining this room ascends to two rooms on the Second 
Floor, containing lamps, electric machines, etc. (sometimes closed). 

Sooth Gallert. General Physics. Hydrostatic instruments, densimeters, 
hydrometers. Apparatus for the investigation of fluid and gaseous bodies; 
thermometers; static electricity (magnets); electrometers. Electricity, Mag- 
netism, Heat. — Room at the end : Meteorology. 

Galeries Vaucanson. Passage and Room I. Acoustics, Optics, Tele- 
graphy, and Telephony. Edison phonographs, graphophones, etc. — Central 
Room. Turning-lathes and other tools. Several machines by Vaucanson. — 
Gallery II. Tools and Machine Tools, for working wood and metal; motors, 
pumps, hydraulic machines. The last room on this side contains some 
fine specimens of Glass and Pottery (in glass-cases). 

North Gallery. Chemical Arts. — Rooms I and II. Glass ; curiosities ; 
pottery, etc. Room III. Pottery. Models of factories; kilns; the 'Coupe de 
Travail', a large vase in Sevres porcelain designed by Dieterle, and a porcelain 
statue of Bernard Palissy; enamels. — Room IV (Dyeing, etc.). Manufacture 
of chemicals; dyeing and printing of textile f ibrics and of wall-papers. — 
Room V. contains machinery used in the manufacture of indiarubber, etc. 

1st North Wing. Three rooms devoted to the Chemical Arts, and four 
rooms to the Graphic Arts. Rooms I and III (Papeterie). Papermaking, etc. 
— The windows to the right afford a view of the old fortified enceinte of 
the abbey. — Rooms IV and V. Typography, Engraving, and lAthography. — 
Room VI. Photography. 

N. Side of the Central Buildino, as we return towards the grand 
staircase. Industrial Chemistry. Brewing (on the left) ; soap-boiling ; candle- 

Baedeker. Paris. 15th Edit. 13 


making, etc. Distilling; milling (gallery on the right, see below), lighting- 

2nd North Wing, on the left as we return to the middle of the previous 
gallery. Spinning and Weaving. — Section 1. Raw materials; tools and 
machines for the preparation of textile fabrics. — Section 2. Spinning 
and weaving looms; in the middle, to the right, Vaucanson't Loom (1745), 
intended to supersede the earlier looms in weaving cloth with patterns. 
To the left (behind a large ribbon-loom), model of JacquaroTt Loom (1804). 
Specimens of woven fabrics. On the right, towards the end, by (he 
windows, knitting and lace-making looms. — Section 3 Silk fabrics; 
velvet; tapestry from the Gobelins and Beauvais. 

The building to the N. (left) of the principal entrance contains the 
Portefeuille Industriel (open daily, 10-3, except Mon.), where drawings of 
the newest machinery are exhibited for copying or study. The plans 
and specifications of expired patents are deposited and trade-marks are 
registered here. — On the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers devolves also 
the inspection of weights and measures, and it includes farther a depart- 
ment for testing the resistance of various materials. 

The Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures (PI. R, 24; III), 
behind the Conservatoire, to the E., admits pupils by competitive 
examination and trains them for three years, at the end of which time 
they are fitted to become engineers, factory and works managers, etc. 

The Quartier du Temple (PI. R, 23-26, 24-27; HI) extends to 
the S. of the E. section of the Rue de Turbigo, and owes its name to 
the chief stronghold of the Knights Templar in France, part of 
which, the Tour du Temple, was the prison of the royal family in 
1792 and 1793. Napoleon I. pulled down the tower in 1811, and the 
remainder was done away with under Napoleon III. — The site of 
the Temple is now occupied by a square and a market. 

The Square du Temple is embellished with five bronze statues : 
Beranger (1780-1857), by Doublemard; the 'Retiarius', by Noel; 
'This age is pitiless', by Schoenewerk; the Harpooner, by F. RichaTd; 
and Diogenes, by Marioton. The handsome modern building at the 
E. end is the Mairie of the 3rd Arrondissement (du Temple). 

The mansion (built in 1667) which used to stand in front of the tower 
was the scene of Philippe de Vendome's celebrated supper-parties, at which 
the witty Abbe de Chaulieu, the Anacreon of the Temple, was a frequent 
guest. In 1765 the Prince de Conti gave refuge in the Temple (which was 
inviolable) to J. J. Rousseau, against whom a 'lettre de cachet' had been 
issued. — The Marchi du Temple was at one time important, and its stalls 
of cast-off clothing lent it a picturesque air. It is now (1904) being demolished 
to make room for shops. 

To the right, between the Rue du Temple and the Rue de Tur- 
bigo, is the church of St. Elizabeth, founded in 1628 by Marie de 
Medicis and enlarged in 1826. The fonts in white marble, to the 
right of the door, date from 1654. The small cupola of the choir 
is adorned with an Apotheosis of St. Elizabeth, by Alaux, and there 
are paintings by Biennoury, Hesse, Roger, and Lafon , in a chapel 
to the left of the entrance. There are also some good paintings in 
the ambulatory, but the chief feature is the fine wood-carvings of 
Biblical scenes (16th cent.), which were brought from the church of 
St. Vaast at Arras. — The prolongation of the Rue de Turbigo to the 


Rue du Temple has caused the disappearance of the Hotel du Marquis 
de l'Hospital, which was the Garden of Paphos under the Directory. 
The Rue du Temple leads towards the Hotel de Ville (p. 169). 
We follow it as far as the (10 min.) broad Rue de Rambuteau, lead- 
ing on the right to the Halles Centrales (p. 188), and on the left to 
the Archives Nationales (p. 176). 

7. From the Louvre and the Palais-Royal to the Boule- 
vard Montmartre and the Boulevard des Italiens. 

Station of the Mdtropolitain : Place du Palais-Royal (seeAppx., p. 36). — 
Restaurants in this part of Paris, see p. 19. 

Situated immediately to the N. of the Palais-Royal is the Biblio- 
theque Nationale (see below). It is entered from the Rue de Richelieu 
(PI. R, 21 ; It), which begins at the Place du The'atre-Francais, and 
passes on the W. side of the Palais-Royal. At the corner of the Rue 
de Richelieu and the Rue Moliere is the Fontaine Moliere, erected 
in 1844 to the memory of the famous dramatist, who died in 1673 at 
No. 40 Rue de Richelieu (tablet). The monument was designed by 
Viseonti; the statue of Moliere is by Seurre, while the muses of 
serious and light comedy are by Pradier. — At No. 39 Rue de Riche- 
lieu a tablet indicates the house where Diderot died (see p. 289) ; 
No. 23t> is is similarly designated as the death-place of the painter 
Mignard (in 1695). No. 25 is a charming building in the Louis XV 
style, the balcony adorned with a grotesque. Beyond the fountain, 
No. 50, was the residence of Louise de la Motte, mother of Mme. de 
Pompadour; the balcony of wrought iron is supported by carved 

After crossing the Rue des Petits-Champs (on the right the statue 
of Louis XIV., p. 202) we skirt the W. side of the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, opposite the principal entrance to which (farther on) is 
the *Fontaine Richelieu, or Louvois, in bronze, by Viseonti, with 
statues by Klagrhann representing the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, 
and the Saone. It stands in the small Square Louvois, on the site of 
the old Grand-Opera, which the Due de Berry, son of Charles X., 
was about to visit in order to applaud the dancing of his mistress, 
Virginie Oreiller, when he was assassinated by Louvel, in 1820. 

The *Bibliotheque Nationale (PI. R, 21; It), formerly called 
the Bibliotheque du Roi, and afterwards the Bibliotheque Royale or 
Imperiale, is probably the richest library in the world. The building, 
which was formerly the palace of Cardinal Mazarin, dates from the 
17th cent., though the greater part of it is modern. On the completion 
of the portion in the Rue Vivienne it will occupy nearly the entire 
block of buildings bounded by the Rues de Richelieu , des Petits- 
Champs, Vivienne, and Colbert. The handsome facade with its court 
and railing, which we notice from the Rue Vivienne, and the frontage 
on the Rue des Petits-Champs both belong to the edifice. 



The library may, perhaps, be dated back even to the MSS. collected 
by the Carlovingians. St. Louis (d. 1270) had a library in a side-chamber 
of the Sainte-Chapelle (p. 256). More important was the collection of 
Charles V.. which was inventoried in 1373, but was sold to the Duke of Bed- 
ford in 1425. The real founder of the present library may be recognized in 
Louis XII. (d. 1515), who collected the books of his predecessor, Charles VIII., 
in the Chateau of Blois, and acquired the libraries of the Sforza of Milan 
and of the Gruthuuse family of Bruges. Francis I. (d. 1517) removed the 
collection (consisting of 1890 vols.) to Fontainebleau and busied himself in 
its enlargement, entrusting it to the care of Guillaume de Bude (Budaeus; 
p. 197). It was he who decreed that a copy of every work printed in France 
should be furnished to the royal library, though it was some time before 
this requirement was properly observed (later two copies were prescribed). 
Subsequently the library was removed to Paris. Henri IV. (d. 1610) deposited 
it in the suppressed Jesuit College de Clermont, and used the proceeds of 
the confiscated property of the Order to provide the books with handsome 
bindings. Under Louis XIV. (1643-1715) the library was greatly enlarged by 
the purchase of the collections of Dupuy (9000 vols.), Mentel (10,000 vols.), 
Gaston d'Orleans, and others. In 1774, in the reign of Louis XV., the 
library was finally, on the suggestion of the librarian Abbt Bignon. ac- 
commodated in the present building. At the Revolution the books of the 
religious orders were united with the National Library. The library is 
constantly receiving additions, either by way of gift or purchase, and now 
contains upwards of 3,000,01)0 volumes. The General Catalogue has been 
carried as far as the word Blanzy only, and as this portion alone takes 
up 13 volumes it is calculated that 25-30 years will be required for its 

The Bibliotheque Nationale is divided into four departments: 
(1) Printed Books and Maps ( Imprimis et Cartes) , (2) MSS. (Manus- 
crits); (3) Engravings (Estampes); (4) Medals and Antiques (Me- 
dailles et Antiques). 

The Salle Publique de Lecture (public reading room ; entrance 
by the Rue de Richelieu, opposite the square) is open daily from 
9 a.m. till 4, 5, or 6 p.m. (according to the season), with the excep- 
tion of the nine days from Palm Sunday to Easter Monday. The 
Salle de Travail (hall for study ; entrance in the Rue de Richelieu) 
is open at the same hours, except on Sundays, holidays, and the 
two weeks before Easter; it is reserved for persons provided with a 
reader's ticket by the 'administration' (p. 197). 

The Salle de Travail contains seats for 344 persons. On entering the 
visitor receives a slip of paper ('bulletin'), on which he writes his name 
and .iddress and the number of the seat he has selected. At the bureau, 
to the right and left of which are catalogues of the acquisitions since 1884, 
he receives smaller slips, which he fills in with the titles of the books 
desired and then returns, along with the larger slip, to the librarians. 
He then waits till the books are brought to him. No applications are re- 
ceived within one hour of the hour of closing. On returning the books 
the reader receives the larger bulletin back, stamped and bearing the 
titles of the look'. He gives it up to the official at the exit. For further 
details see the notices affixed to the doors of the different saloons. Works 
of general utility which may always be consulted are ranged round the room. 
On a special table near the office of the Salle de Travail, to the left lie 
periodicals, reviews (about 40), reports, scientific publications, etc. — Visitors 
are not permitted to quit either of the Salles with books, papers, or port- 
folios in their hands, without a 'laissez-passer' from one of the librarians. 
— Foreign scholars and students visiting the library receive the mos' 
cordial reception and assistance. 

The most interesting books, MSS., bindings, engravings and 


J{ U (' 

Cot 7) p r t 

t i t, s C It a m p s" 


medals are exhibited in special rooms, to which the public is ad- 
mitted free on Tuesday and Friday, 10-4. 

Under the archway leading from the Eue de Richelieu to the 
principal court (Cour d'Honneur) are statues of Printing, by Labatut, 
Writing, by Coutan, Copper-Plate Engraving, by J. Hugues, and Die 
Cutting, by J. Becquet. In the middle, directly in front, are the 
offices of the Administration. To the right is a short flight of steps, 
acsending to the lower vestibule, where a Sevres vase, designed by 
the sculptor J. Cheret (1879), has been placed to commemorate the 
share of the French savants in the observations of the Transit of 
Venus in 1874. Opposite the entrance is the Salle de Travail. To 
the right is a small refreshment room (moderate prices) ; on the left 
is the vestiaire. Busts of savants are to be placed in the vestibule 
and rooms. At the end of the vestibule, to the left, is the staircase 
leading to the first floor. To the right is the entrance to the — 

Departement dbs Estampes, which contains more than2,500,000 
plates bound up into volumes (14,500) or arranged in portfolios 
(4000). A number of the most interesting are exposed to view at 
the same hours as the printed books and manuscripts (comp. above). 

The staircase ascends to the upper vestibule , containing the 
drawings made during Napoleon's expedition to Egypt (1798) and 
some Phoenician inscriptions. Facing the staircase is the small 
Oalerie des Chartes. To the right is the department of MSS. 
(nearly 100,000 volumes). To the left are the department of Maps 
(Cartes) and the — 


These contain the chief treasures of the library, many of them beau- 
tifully illuminated and magnificently bound. The second, the Galerie 
Mazarine, belonged to the original palace of Card. Mazarin, All the 
objects are labelled (catalogue, 1881, 3fr.). 

Room I. In the centre, the French Parnassus, a gronp in bronze 
representing the chief French authors and artists of the 17th cent., by 
Louis Qarnier. Opposite the window a Gobelins tapestry represents Letters, 
Sciences, and Arts in antiquity, after Ehrmann. By the entrance and on 
the small walls, copies of epitaphs and inscriptions from tumuli. Wall 
opposite the entrance, Gobelins tapestry (The Middle Age-0, after Ehrmann 
(1888) ; to the left, Dante and Petrarch. On the other wall, the Renaissance : 
Lorenzo the Magnificent surrounded by contemporary artists (tapestry after 
Ehrmann). In tlie glass-cases I-III and V, superb Binding!, with ike arms 
of the kings of France from Francis I. downwards. In Case IV, by the 
window: 369. 'Christianismi Restitutio', by Michael Servetus, a copy which 
was saved from the flames when the author was burnt at the stake in 
Geneva (1553), by order of Calvin; works with autographs of Rabelais, 
Montaigne, and Racine ; manuscript music by Gluck and J. J. Rousseau 
(376. MS. score of the 'Devin du Village'). 

Room II, the "Oalerie Mazarine, has a line ceiling-painting by Romanelli 
(1617-62). The principal subjects are (beginning at the entrance) : Romulus 
and Remus suckled by the wolf ; Mars and Venus; Rape of Helen; Burning 
of Troy; Rape of Ganymede; Jupiter and the Titans; Awakening of Venus ; 
Narcissus; Jupiter and Mercury; Parnassus; Judgment of Paris; Chariot 
of Venus; Apollo and Daphne. On the walls are busts of Budaeus (see 
p. 196), De Thou (Thuanus), the historian, Colbert, Mabillon, etc., and 
Kings Francis I., Charles V., and Louis XIV. 


The first half of the saloon contains Printed Volumes and Binding!. In 
cabinets VII and VIII (to the right of the entrance) are early works printed 
in Spain and more especially in Italy. — In Case IX are a copy of the 
Mazarin Bible (dated 1456 and perhaps from the press of Gutenberg) one 
of the Mayence Bible (1462), and a psalter by Fust and Schoffer (1462; 
below). — Case VI, in the middle of the room, contains bindings, made 
for the Kings of France and celebrated bibliophiles. Many are from the 
library of Jean Orolier (d. 1565), who introduced the Italian style of rich 
bindings into France. 198. Polyglot Bible, by Chr. Plantin (Antwerp 1569-73) ; 
282. Latin Bible, by Robert Stephens (Bstienne ; 1538-40), etc. — XXI-XXVI. 
By the windows, returning towards the entrance : books printed in France ; 
books with plates; books printed in Holland, Germany, and England. — 
XXVII-XXIX. In the centre: books printed in Paris, some with splendid 
miniatures; bindings (above). 

Second half of the gallery : MSS. and Bindings. Cabinet X. (to the 
right) : First beginnings of the Bibliotheque (14-15th cent.) ; Portrait of 
Jean II., le Bon, on wood (14th cent.); below, Roll with the oldest 
catalogue of the library (1373). — XI. French palaeography from Charlemagne 
to the middle ages. In the centre, 179. Mlhard s History (end of the 10th cent.), 
containing the text of the oath taken by the sons of Louis le D^bonnaire, 
the oldest monument of the French language (842); Album of Villars 
d'Honnecouri, the architect (13th cent); 191 (below), Acta of the Templars' 
trial of 1309 ; 1S6. Acta of the trial of Joan of Arc. — XII. Palaeography 
of Italy, Spain, England, and Germany from Charlemagne to the end of 
the middle ages : 139. Genoese Annals of Caffaro (12-13th cent.); 144. 
Petrarch's 'De viris illustribus' (14th cent.); 147. Dante's 'Divina Commedia' 
(14th cent.). — XIII. Latin palaeography, from antiquity to the Carlovingians. 
— No number, wax tablets with accounts of the 13-14th centuries. — XIV. 
Ancient Mexican MSS., illustrated. — XV. Oriental and American MSS. — 

XVI. Autographs, Runic calendar, Russian charter written on birch-bark. 

XVII. Greek MSS. — XVIII. Autographs, continued. — XIX. Illuminated 
MSS. — XX. MSS. formerly belonging to kings and queens of France, 
including the Gospels of Charlemagne, Louis le Dibonnaire, and Lothaire. — 
XXX, XXXI. Sumptuous bindings of the middle ages, adorned with ivcry, 
jewels, etc., including (Case XXXI) a missal (ll-12th cent.) and a Gospel 
(9-13th cent.) from the abbey of St. Denis, and four Gospels (ll-15th cent.) 
from the Sainte-Chapelle. By the central window, adjoining Case XXX, are 
recent acquisitions (1891-1900) : MSS. of the 10-15th centuries. — XXXII. Auto- 
graphs. 308. Mary Stuart; 303. Du Guesclin; 339. Henri IV.; 342. Pascal's 
'Pense'essur la Religion'; 344. Bossuet ('Sermons'); 345 ^neiofs('Telemaque'); 
Rousseau; Voltaire; Mme. de Sivigni; Mme. de Maintenon; Racine; Moliere; 
Corneille ; Montesquieu. 

At the end, to the right, is the work-room of the Section des Cartes et 
Collections Qiographiques. 

The *Cabinet des Medailles et Antiques (admission, see 
p. 196) has an entrance of its own in the Rue de Richelieu, the door 
beyond the police-station when approached from the Boulevards, 
and the first when approached from the Palais-Royal (visitors ring). 
It contains an extensive collection of Medals (400,000) and Antiques, 
comprising gems, intaglios and cameos, small works of art, glass, 
vases, arms, and other curiosities. Illustrated guide to the Medals, 
etc., by E. Babelon (1900, 31/2 fr.J. Illustrated catalogue to the 
Painted. Vases, by A. de Ridder, tome I, 1st vol., 30 fr. (may be 
inspected at the entrance to the Grande Galerie). The arrangement 
of the exhibits is sometimes changed. 

Vestibule. On the wall at the back : Zodiacal Monument from the 
Temple of Dendera, Egypt, a work of the Roman empire. On the right, 
Greek stele with satyr. On the left, Chamber of the Kings from Karnak, 
constructed by Thutmosis III. (18th Dynasty; see p. 107), with important 


inscriptions (badly placed). In front is the bust of Prisse d' Avenues, the 
archaeologist (d. 1879), who conveyed it to France. By the walls are a stele 
of the Ancient Empire, with scenes of domestic life, and several Egyptian 
bas-reliefs, also brought to France by P. d'Avennes. Decree of the senate 
of Cyzicus (11th cent. B. C); ancient inscriptions in various languages; 
steles, etc. 

On the Staircase and in the Anteroom (if closed, visitors ring) at the 
top: Cinerary urns, steles, and Greek, Latin, Coptic, and Phoenician in- 
scriptions. — On the left is the — 

Grande Galerie. The glass-cases in the centre are subdivided into 
sections, from left to right. Case I. Cylinders with cuneiform inscriptions, 
and cut gems from Assyria, Chaldsea, and Persia; also antique intaglios. 
In the 8th Division of the second row (I. 8), in the middle (on the window- 
side), e 18I5. Achilles playing the lyre, in amethyst, signed Pamphilos, a 
Greek artist; beside it, 1815bis. Achilles dragging the body of Hector (in 
red jasper). — Case X. Small Bronzes. 815. Warrior (Hellenistic period); 
1009. Ethiopian slave (Roman period); 1157. Cow. 

Case II. Intaglios and cameos of ancient, mediseval, Renaissance, 
and modern times, most of them in sardonyx and of considerable artistic 
value. Some of them are in settings of enamelled gold, dating from the 
time when they were regarded with veneration as religious amnlets. 
Among others : 3rd Division (centre), 2391. Jupiter enthroned, between Mars 
and Mercury; below, Neptune; the signs of the Zodiac surrounding them 
are in cornelian. On the right, 2396. Abundance and Peace, crowned by 
two genii, in sardonyx ; on the left, 2405. Medallion of Caesar; 2404. Jugurtha 
delivered to Sulla (cornelian) ; 2338 (fifth row), Triumph of Silenus (blood- 
jasper); 2337 (to the left), Cornelian with Bacchanalian device, said to 
have been used as a seal by Michael Angelo (?); although barely more 
than l fe in. square, fifteen human and three animal figures are engraved on 
it. 4th Division, third row: Engraved portraits by Guay, engraver to Mme. 
Pompadour ; cornelian seals. 5th Division, Cameos (mythological and religions 
subjects) : 3rd row (centre), 402. Analogies of the Old and New Testaments, 
end of the 15th cent. ; on the left, 405 Adoration of the Magi (15th cent.). 
7th Division, 593. Negro king; to the right (above), 765. Heliogdbahu : 
below, 643-645. Battles; 612. Fountain of Wisdom; bottom row, alleged 
Bracelets of Diana of Poitiers, each composed of seven cameos, Renaissance 
work. 8th Division, 780 (3rd row, centre), Francis I.; 926. Louis XV., by 
Guay ; 944. Seal of Louis XV., with portrait of Mme. de Pompadour inside ; 
below, 927, 788. Louis XV. and Henri IV. in an emerald setting from a 
bracelet of Mme. de Pompadour ; 786. Henri IV. ; to the left, 789. Henri IV. 
and Marie de Midicis; above, 977. Charles V. and Ferdinand 1 '. ; below, 792. 
Louis XIII.; 925. Louis XIV. — Case III (continuation of the cameos): 
lat Division (r.), 238. Augustus ; 274. Claudius. 2nd Division (centre), *308. 
Triumph of Licinius ; 240. Augustus. 4th Division, 79 (3rd row, 1.), Bacchus 
and Ariadne, in a chariot drawn by centaurs. 

Case VI, at the window. Antique cameos. 1st Division : On the left, 
above, "226. Alexander the Great, with Athena ; farther to the left, 17. Athena ; 
in the centre, *220. Alexander the Great, with helmet, translucent agate in 
a magnificent 18th cent, mounting of enamelled gold; below, *265. Apotheosis 
of Oermanicus ; above, 276. Claudius and Messalina, as Triptolemus and Ceres, 
in a chariot drawn by two dragons. On the right, from top to bottom : 
243. Julia, daughter of Augustus, with the attributes of Ceres ; 277. Mes- 
salina with her children. On the left, from bottom to top : -SOO. Septimius 
Severus and his Family; "289. Trajan; 270. Claudius; *251. Tiberius; 244, 
242. Julia, daughter of Augustus. — 2nd Division (in the centre): *1. Jupiter, 
one of the most valuable cameos in the collection, with a magnificent 
mounting of the 14th cent. ; below, *27. Dispute between Minerva and 
Neptune; above, *11. Juno of Argos, and 7. Ganymede restored to his father 
by one of his brothers. In the middle, "14S. Horses ofPelops (?) ; "17. Minerva ; 
*115. Amphitrite on a marine monster; 31. Diana. To the right, 97. Centaur, 
*184. Bull; 111. Mercury; 41. Apollo and Marsyas; 43. Venus in the bath. 

Case IV, in the centre of the hall, contains the greatest treasures of 


the collection. Above, from right to left (window-side), 363. So-called 
Cup of the Ptolemies, cantharus in oriental sardonyx with reliefs, re- 
presenting the mysteries of Ceres and Bacchus, from the treasury of the 
Convent of St. Denis; twelve antique gold medals, some mounted as jewels; 
379. Cup of Chosroes II., king of Persia (d. 579), composed of medallions of 
rock-crystal and coloured glass, with Chosroes enthroned in the centre 
(seen better from the reverse side), also from the treasury of St. Denis, 
where it was known as the Cup of Solomon'; to the right and left of this 
cup, small busts of Augustus and Annius Verus, in agate; below, 351. An- 
tique necklace and Roman medals, in gold; 2539,2540. Trisor de Bourdon, 
a small paten and chalice of massive gold (6th cent.), found at the village 
of Gourdon (Cote-d'Or), dating from early Christian times. Below, 2781. 
Augustus, antique cameo in mediseval setting. 264. "Apotheosis of Oermanicus 
('Came'e de la Ste-Chapelle'), the largest cameo in the world, consisting 
of a sardonyx nearly 1 ft. in height, with twenty-six figures. "Medal of 
Eucratides, Greek king of Bactriana (ca. B.C. 200), weighing 20 staters or 
5'/s oz. Troy (until its discovery, in 1827, no medal had been known to 
weigh more than 4 staters); 373. Antique Ship in sardonyx, with mediseval 
mounting ; to the left and right, Tiberius and Constantine ; below, 2089. Julia, 
daughter of Titus, aquamarine in mediseval setting; No number 'Patere de 
Rennet, a cup of massive gold, found near Eennes in 1774, with reliefs 
representing the drinking- contest of Bacchus and Hercules (triumph of 
wine over strength), and bordered with sixteen medallions of Roman 
emperors of the family of the Antonines; below, gold ornaments (probably 
Etruscan) ; 309. Butt of Constantine the Qreat (?), in sardonyx (part of a sceptre ; 
used formerly as a conductor's baton in the choir of the Ste. Chapelle); 
490. Tritor de Tarse, four gold medals. The remaining divisions of the 
case contain cameos (*44. Judgment of Paris) , gold seals, personal orna- 
ments, and Italic and early Roman coins. 

Opposite the windows at the end; Bust of the Abbi J. J. Barthilemy 
(1716-95), author of 'Le Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grece'. 

A Case (unnumbered) at the adjoining window contains a map with 
early French coins arranged on it geographically. 

Cases VII, VIII (in the middle), Koman and Byzantine coins, Roman 
and Italic copper coins, Greek coins and medals from Lower Italy, Greece, 
and Egypt. — Case IX. Interesting coins of the middle ages and modern 

The cabinets ranged along the wall opposite the windows contain 
the continuation of the Small Bronzes (including antique utensils, vases, 
and arms), specimens of ancient Glass, and a choice collection of Greek 
Painted Vases, then more bronzes, especially statuettes. — Case XXI. 
5th Division, below, "426. Dancing Satyr, in the Grseco-Roman style; 363. 
Bust of 'Hermes with the Bells' (see p. 73), probably a votive offering. — 
The cabinet on the following wall contains small antique Terracotta Figures 
and the ' Caillou Michaux', an ovoid stone of black serpentine with cunei- 
form inscriptions, a very valuable Babylonian monument (1120 B.C.). The 
cabinet on the opposite side of the door also contains bronzes, and a silver 
disc, nearly 2>/a ft. in diameter, known as the Bouclier de Scipion\ with 
reliefs representing the abduction of Briseis from Achilles by the messengers 
of Agamemnon: Antilochus, Nestor, Diomedes, and two warriors. It was 
found in the Rhone, near Avignon, and probably dates from the fourth 
cent, of our era. Another smaller disc represents Hercules slaying the 
Nemean lion. 

The Salle de luynes. to the right of the antechamber, contains a 
choice collection of antique coins, intaglios, cameos, weapons, and terra- 
cottas, bequeathed by the Due de Luynes, who was a celebrated antiquarian 
fd. 1867). In the centre,' a beautiful torso of Venus in Parian marble. 
Cabinet to the right: antique weapons and a handsome Moorish sword 
of the end of the 15th cent., said to have belonged to Boabdil, the last 
king of Granada. — Adjacent is the — 

Salle de la Renaissance. Cabinet I, to the right: interesting Objects 
in Ivory. Consular diptychs (presented by consuls to senators) of the 


5-6th cent. ; large French medals ; sword of honour of the grand-master 
of the Maltese order, with enamelled gold hilt (Kith cent.); medallion of a 
woman, by Mino da Fiesole (15th cent.) ; Moorish bronze vases. — Central 
Case, above: ivory bridal coffer (Italian; 14th cent); two enamelled 
croziers of the 13th and 15th cent. ; enamelled cup with a representation 
of Noah's Ark, by J.Courtois of Limoges; silver-gilt ewer of the 16th cent. ; 
wood-carving of St. Anthony, by Lucas van Leyden; silver casket of Franz 
von Sickingen, with reliefs (early 16th cent.); rook, said to have belonged 
to a aet of chessmen sent by Haroun-al-Rashid to Charlemagne; seals of 
the University of Paris (13th cent.), of Louis XII., etc.; talisman of 
Catherine de M^dicis ; ornaments and enamels, including fine *Hat-ornaments 
of the 16th century. Behind, large and fine medals of the l6-17th cent., 
and articles found in 1653 in a tomb conjectured to be that of Childeric I. 
(d. 481). — Cabinet II. Medallions by David d Angers; antique and Byzan- 
tine ivory carvings; the large 'Sobieski Vase', with ivory carving of the 
battle of Vienna in 1683. On the other side of the room, the so-called 
Throne o/Dagobert (7th cent.), a Roman curule chair (back and arms added 
in the middle ages), and some interesting cabinets of medals. 

Botunda or Salle des Donateurs (the last room), containing the Collec- 
tions Janzi, Oppermann. and Pauvert de la Chapelle, consisting of ancient 
statuettes in bronze and terracotta, and a few vases. Among the chief 
objects in the Janze' Collection, to the right of the entrance, are: 623. 
Demos, or the masculine genius of cities ; below, 124 Statuette of a dancing 
girl, in terracotta; 927. Small replica of the Diadumenos of Polycletus 
(bronze); 128. Artemis; 536. Hercules. The Oppermann Collection, to the 
left of the entrance, contains mirrors with graffiti, bronzes, terracottas, 
and painted vases. — The glass-case in the centre contains a chronologically 
arranged collection of French medals; also, the Treaiure of Bernay, con- 
sisting of 67 statuettes and silver vessels and two statue? of Mercury, of 
different periods, found at Berthouville (arrondissement of Bernay) in 1830. 
The two "Goblets with Bacchic processions and two other with single figures 
are among the best-preserved specimens extant of ancient silver-work. 
Above, Bronze head of Lutetia, patron-goddess of Paris, found at Paris in 
1675 — By the 3rd window is the Pauvert de la Chapelle Collection, consist- 
ing of 167 lapidary inscriptions : Greek (including Mycenian cj linders), Etrus- 
can, and Boman, presented to the libr.ry in 1899. — At the first window to 
the right are recent acquisitions, including cameos, medals, etc.; Alsatian 
coins, medals of Stra=sburg, Weissenburg, Peace of Nymwegen, Maximilian I. 
(Archduke of Austria), Emperor Ferdinand I. (1556-64), Archduke Ferdinand 
(1564-95), Emperor Rudolph II. (15'j5-1612), 'pied-fort' or pattern for a coin 
of 3 batzen, gold florin, etc. On the other side, medals of Henri IV. and 
Marguerite de Navarre, Louis XIV., etc. 

A little beyond the Bibliotheque, Rue de Richelieu 58, at the 
corner of the Rue Colbert, is the picturesque but neglected old 
Hotel de Nevers. Then on the left, No. 75, a 17th cent, mansion with 
Rhandsome door bearing a carved escutcheon. No. 101, the balcoyn 
of which, resting on sculptured consoles, is adorned with a grotesque, 
was the residence of the Abbe Barthelemy (see p. 200). At the 
corner of the Boul. des Italiens (No. 112) is an old portrait-relief of 
Richelieu with an inscription of 1838. 

The Rue des Petits- Champs runs between the Bibliotheque and 
the Palais-Royal. Lulli, the musician (p. 35), lived at No. 45, in 
a house built by Gittard in 1671. Then comes the Rue de la Feuillade 
(on the right, the Banque de France, p. 90), which ends at the round 
Place des Victoires (PI. R, 21 ; III). This Place was constructed 
in 1685 from J. Hardouin-Mansart's designs, partly at the expense of 


the Marechal de la Feuillade (1673-1725), and was embellished at 
the time with a gilded statue of Louis XIV. The monument, with 
the exception of the groups now at the Invalides (p. 296), was 
destroyed in 1792, and replaced by a pyramid inscribed with a list 
of victories gained by the republican army, from which the Place 
derives its present name. The pyramid was in its turn displaced 
in 1806 by a statue of General Desaix, which was removed in 1814. 
The present clumsy monument, a bronze Equestrian Statue of 
Louis XIV., by Bosio, was erected in 1822. The rider is garbed as a 
Roman general, with a wig, and the horse, in a rearing attitude, 
rests on the hind-legs and tail, in imitation of Peter the Great's 
monument at St. Petersburg. The reliefs on the pedestal represent 
the king's passage of the Rhine, and the distribution of military 

The facades of the houses in the Place des Victoires were built by Fredol. 
To the E.'of the Place des Victoires the Eue des Petits-Champs is pro- 
longed by the Rue Etienne- Marcel, which crosses the Eue du Louvre, 
skirts the central post office (p. 187), and is continued to the Boul. de 

A few paces to the N.W. of the Place des Victoires, in the 
Place des Petits-Peres, is the church of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires 
(PI. R, 21; HI), erected in 1656-1740 to commemorate the taking 
of La Rochelle from the Protestants in 1627. It formed part of the 
monastery of the bare-footed Augustine friars known as the 'Petits 
Peres', and during the Revolution was used as the Exchange. The 
altar of the Virgin, to the right of the choir, is richly decorated. 
The walls of the chapels are covered with votive inscriptions on 
marble. The choir contains some admirable wood-carving and two 
pictures by C. Van Loo : an Allegory of the capture of La Rochelle, 
and scenes from the life of St. Augustine. The first chapel on the 
left contains a coloured terracotta relief of SS. Peter and Paul in 
the Mamertine prison, by Bonassieux (d. 1745). In the second 
chapel to the left is the tomb of Lulli (see p. 201), by Cotton and 

The Rue de la Banque, a little beyond the church, to the right 
as we quit the latter, leads to the Bourse. This street contains three 
handsome modern edifices : the Mairie of the 2nd Arrondissement 
and the Caserne de la Banque on the right, and the H6tel du 
Timbre on the left. The Salle des Mariages of the mairie contains 
paintings by Moreau de Tours. 

The *Bourse, or Exchange (PI. R, 21 ; II), constructed in 1808-26 
by Brongniart and Labarre, and surrounded by a series of sixty-six 
Corinthian columns 33 ft. high and 374 ft. in diameter, with a spacious 
platform and steps at either end, is an imitation of the Temple of 
Vespasian in the Forum at Rome. At the corners in front are al- 
legorical statues of Commerce by J. Dumont and Consular Justice 
by Duret; at the back, Industry by Pradier and Agriculture by 
Seurre. It has recently (Jan. 1904) been enlarged by the addition' of 

7. BOURSE. 203 

two annexes, one in front and one behind. The grisaille paintings 
on the ceiling of the large hall, by Abel de Pujol and Meynier, re- 
present the inauguration of the Bourse by Charles X., France receiv- 
ing the tributes of nations, the Union of Commerce, Science, and 
Art, and the Principal Cities of France. 

The Bourse is opened for business daily, except on Sundays and holi- 
days, at 12 o'clock (on the 1st and 15th of the month at 11). Admission 
is free, hut no ladies are allowed inside the hall, where the crush is any- 
thing but pleasant. Even under the Peristyle outside, business is animated, 
though nothing in comparison with the scene within the hall, which is 
thronged by a compact crowd of eager money-seekers. The parquet, at 
the end, is a railed-off space which the sworn brokers, or agents de change, 
are alone privileged to enter. In the centre of this part of the hall is the 
corbeille, a circular enclosed space, round which they congregate, making 
their offers in loud tones. Various groups in different parts of the hall, 
but especially near the parquet, are occupied in taking notes, or conclud- 
ing sales or purchases, the prices being regulated by the transactions 
going on in the parquet, while other persons are seen handing instruc- 
tions to the brokers within the parquet. To the right, not far from the 
'corbeille', is the Marchi au Comptant for cash transactions, the employe's 
here shouting out the rates at which the various transactions are concluded. 
To the left, at the end of the gallery, is the Coulisse de la Rente (French 
government bonds). At 3 o'clock the bell rings and stock-exchange busi- 
ness is over for the day. 

Adjacent is the Boulevard Montmartre (see p. 82). — The wide 
Rue Reaumur (PI. R, 21, 24 ; III) leads to the S.E. to the Conserva- 
toire des Arts et Metiers (p. 191). At No. 100 in this street is the 
entrance to the old Cour des Miracles (p. 83). 

8. Quarters to the North of the Interior Boulevards. 

To reach the objects of interest situated in this quarter visitors from 
central Paris should travel by the Mbtropolilain (see Appx., p. 36) to the Arc 
de Triomphe de l'Etoile, ch nge there, and take another train (in the direction 
of the Place de la Nation) to the Place Pigalle. Walk down the Rue 
Pigalle (to the left of the station), and at the point where the road forks 
either continue straight on to the church of La Trinite (p. 203), or, bearing 
to the left, take the Rue de la Rochefoucauld to the (5 min.) Musee 
Gustave Moreau (p. 206), and proceed thence to the left by the Rue St. 
Lazare to Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (p. 206 ; 5 min. farther on). From the 
latter church the Rue Maubeuge and Rue de Belzunee lead in less than 
74 hr. to St. Vincent de-Paul (p. 204). The quickest direct route from the 
centre to the last-named church is via the Metropolitain (see above) to the 
Boulevard Barbes station, and thence on foot by the Boul. Magenta and 
the Rue St. Vincent-de Paul (to the right) to the (5 min.) church. 

Restaurants in this part of Paris, see p. 19. 

The Boulevard de Strasbourg (PI. R, B, 24;///), which unites 
the Boul. St. Denis (p. 84) and the Gare de l'Est, was laid out by 
Haussmannfe. xxvii), under Napoleon III., partly to afford more room 
for traffic and partly for the sake of clearing away the narrow streets 
which lent themselves too easily to the erection of barricades in times 
of revolutionary ferment. Beginning at the GaTe de l'Est on the N., 
it is prolonged by the Boulevards de Sevastopol (p. 84), du Palais 
(p. 255), and St. Michel (p. 263) to the Observatoire (p. 326) on the 
S., thus forming one of the main arteries of Paris. 

204 8. ST. LAURENT. 

At the intersection of the Boul. de Strashourg and the Boulevard 
de Magenta (which begins at the Place de la Republique, p. 85), 
rises, on the right, the church of St. Laurent (PI. B, 24), one of the 
most venerable in Paris , which was rebuilt in 1429, several times 
restored, and finally remodelled in 1865-66, when two bays were 
added to the nave and a handsome Gothic facade and a spire were 
constructed on the side next the boulevard. 

The choir was decorated by Blondel, and the high-altar by Lepautre. 
In the S. transept is a Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, by Oreuze; in the 
Cnapelle des Catechismes (in the right aisle; apply to the verger) is a 
painting of St. Lawrence on his way to torture, by Trezel. The Lady 
Chapel in the apse (Chap. Notre-Dame-des-Maladea) is adorned with numer- 
ous votive offerings. 

The Square St. Laurent , to the right of the church , contains a 
pretty group (Brother and Sister) by A. Lefeuvre. 

The Gare de l'Est, or de Strasbourg (PI. B,24; see p. 29) faces 
the end of the Boulevard de Strasbourg. This handsome structure 
(designed by Duquesnay) was rebuilt and enlarged in 1895-99, 
when the portion abutting on the Rue du Faubourg-St-Martin was 
added. In the centre of the fajade is a demi-rose window, the gable 
over which is crowned by a seated figure representing the city of 
Strassburg. The pavilions projecting on each side are connected by 
a colonnade, on the balustrade of which is a clock-dial with statues 
of the Seine and the Rhine. 

On the site of the present courtyard the Fair of St. Lawrence used to 
be held, from If 62 to the end of the 18th century. It was a monopoly of 
the Lazarist order and p rtook of a religious character. Commemorative 
tablet on the corner-pavilion to the left of the station. 

The Rue de Strasbourg, leading to the W. past the front of the 
station, joins the Boulevard de Magenta, which brings us in 5 min. 
to the Rue Lafayette (see below). 

The Gare du Nord (PI. B, 24; see p. 29), a railway-station con- 
structed in 1863-64 by Hittorff, is situated in the Place de Roubaix, 
a short distance to the right. The principal part of the extensive 
fac ade, which is broken by three enormous arcades, is surmounted by 
a pediment crowned with statues of Paris (in the centre) and of eight 
important foreign cities connected with Paris by the Ligne du Nord. 
Behind this central portion are the booking-offices, etc. — On the other 
side of the court lying to the right of it is the Station of the Ceinture, 
which is connected with the main station by an underground passage. 

Between the Gare de l'Est and the Gare duNord begins the long 
Rue Lafayette (PI. B, 21, 24, 27, 26), which extends on the E. as 
far as the outer Boulevard de la Villette (p. 234). A short distance 
from the stations it skirts the small Place de Lafayette, which slopes 
up to the church of — 

*St. Vincent-de-Paul(Pl.B,24), erectedin 1824-44 by Lepere and 
Hittorff in the form of a Latin basilica, resembling Notre-Dame-de- 
Lorette (p. 206). Two inclined slopes in the form of a horse-shoe and 
a central flight of 46 steps ascend to the entrance. Surmounting this 


amphitheatre is a peristyle of twelve Ionic columns; the relief in the 
pediment, by Lemaire, represents St. Vincent de Paul, between Faith 
and Charity. On each side are square towers 138 ft. in height. Over 
the bronze doors are sculptures by Farochon, representing Christ 
and the Apostles. 

Interior. The church consists of a nave flanked with double aisles, 
the latter being partly occupied by chapels, and partly by galleries. The 
roof is borne by 86 Ionic stuccoed columns. The open roof is tastefully 
decorated. The windows of the aisles are filled with stained glass by 
Marichal and Orignon. 

The nave is adorned with a celebrated 'Frieze by Hippolyte Flandrin 
(1809-64), conceived in the manner of the early-Christian mosaics at Ra- 
venna. It represents the nations of the earth advancing in solemn pro- 
cession towards the gates of heaven. Over the entrance are SS. Peter and 
Paul, preaching the gospel. To the right are two groups of believers, 
one with St. Louis in its midst. Farther on are bishops, St. Jerome with 
his lion, and the other Fathers of the Church, martyrs, Christian heroes, 
SS. Stephen, George, Christopher, and so forth. To the left are Mary and 
Joseph , penitent saints with Mary Magdalen, two groups of holy women 
(SS. Anne, Elizabeth, Felicitas with her seven sons), the virgin saints Martha, 
Genevieve, etc., and female martyrs (St. Cecilia and others). 

In the dome of the choir is another fresco, by Pieot (d. 1868), re- 
presenting St. Vincent de Paul kneeling before Christ on his throne, and, 
presenting children to him. The frieze, also by Picot, represents the seven 
sacraments. The high-altar is adorned with a handsome Crucifixion in 
bronze, by Rude (d. 1855). The Lady Chapel behind the choir contains a 
fine group of the Virgin and Child by Carrier-Belleute , and scenes from 
the New Testament by Bouguereau : Annunciation, Visitation, Adoration of 
the Magi, Adoration of the Shepherds, Flight into Egypt, Meeting of Christ 
and Mary. — Admirable organ. 

The Rue St. Vincent-de-Paul, behind the church, intersects the Boule- 
vard de Magenta, and ends at the Hopital Lariboisiere (PI. B, 23), erected 
in 1P4653, and called after the countess of that name, who bequeathed 
2,900,0! 1 fr. to the poor of Paris. The chapel contains the tomb of Mme. 
de Lariboisiere (d. 1851), by Marochetti. — A little to the N. of the hos- 
pital, beyond the Boul. de la Chapelle, is the handsome church of St. Ber- 
nard (PI. B, 23), with its fine spire, erected in 1858-61, by Magne. in the 
Gothic style of the 14th century. In the square in front of the church is 
a pretty bronze figure of a woman feeding poultry. 

A little farther on the Rue Lafayette is joined on the W. (left) 
by the. .Rue de Chabrol, in which is the notorious 'Fort Chabrol', 
which defied the police for so many days in 1899. Then, on the 
right, we pass the Square de Montholon (PI. B, 1i), embellished 
with two bronze groups : Eagle and vulture contending for the car- 
case of a bear, by Cain; and a Mountebank with a monkey ('Mon- 
naie de singe'), by Roland. 

At No. 28 Rue de Montholon died Mebul, the composer, in 1817. 

In this part of the Rue Lafayette are a number of old curiosity 
shops. No. 61 is the office of the 'Petit Journal 1 , which claims to 
have a daily circulation of 1,100,000, i.e. the largest in the world. 

The quarter extending to the S. of this point towards the Boule- 
vards is, especially in the neighbourhood of the latter, affected by 
members of the 'haute finance', many banks and handsome private 
residences being situated there. On the left, where the Rue Drouot 
(p. 82) begins, are the offices of the 'Figaro' with a graceful facade 


in the style of the Spanish Renaissance and a statue of Figaro by Amy. 

The Rue Laffitte and the Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin (p. 81) are the 

principal streets in this neighbourhood. 

At No. 6 Rue Drouot (PI. B, 21) is the old BStel de Daugny (1750), now 
the Mairie of the 9th Arrondissement , with a monument of Voltaire by 
B. Lambert. — In the Place St. Qeorges (PI. B, 21) was the residence (No. 27) 
of Thiers, rebuilt at the expense of the government after it had been fired 
by the Communards in 1871. The fountain which adorns the Place is to 
be converted into a Monument to Oavarni (see below) , by D. Puech. — A 
tablet at No. 42 Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin m irks the house where Mirabeau 
died in 1791. Josephine de Beauharnais lived at No. 62 and General Foy 
died there in 1825 (inscription). No. 2 (Restaurant Paillard, see p. 15) 
was the barracks of the Garde Frangaise; Rossini occupied it in 1868. In 
this street also lived Mme. d'Epinay, Grimm, Necker, Mme. de Stael, 
Mme. Recamier, and other celebrities. 

At the N. end of the Rue Laffltte appears the church of — 

Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (PL B, 21), erected in 1823-36 by 
Hipp. Lebas in the simple style of an early-Christian basilica. The 
tympanum of the Corinthian portico is adorned with figures of Faith, 
Hope, and Charity, by Foyatier, Lemaire, and Laitie. 

The Interior is more elaborately decorated than the character of 
a basilica would warrant. The "Frescoes in the four corner-chapels are, 
however, admirable in their classical restraint. To the right are the Bap- 
tistery, by A. Roger (ca. 1834), and the Chapel of the Eucharist, by Pirin 
(1852); to the left are the Chapelle des Morts, by Blondel. and, at the end, 
the Lady Chapel, by Orsel. — The smaller chapels contain paintings by Hesse, 
(Adoration of the Shepherds), Johannot (St. Hyacinth), Dev&ria (Apotheosis 
of St. Genevieve), Schnetz (frescoes), and others. — The frescoes in the nave 
and on the triumphal arch represent the Four Major Prophets and scenes 
from the life of the Virgin, by Dubois, Monvoism, and others. — In the choir: 
on the left, Presentation in the Temple, by Heim; on the right, Jesus 
teaching in the Temple, by Drolling. In the apse: Madonna enthroned and 
(dome) Coronation of the Virgin, by Picot. In the spandrels, the Evan- 
gelists, by Delorme. — Fine music at the evening-services in May, the Ma- 
donna's month ('mois de Marie"). 

Notre-Dame-de-Lorette is associated with the 'lorettes' , with whom 
this quarter abounded, and whose types were so happily hit off by Gavarni 
(1801-66), the celebrated caricaturist. 

The Rue de Chateaudun leads from Notre-Dame-de-Lorette 
to the W. to the church of La Trinite" (p. 208). — In the Rue de 
la Victoire, running parallel on the S., is a Synagogue in the Neo- 
Romanesque style, built by Aldrophe in 1865-74. 

Between the churches of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette and La Trinite, 
in the Rue de La Rochefoucauld, No. 14, is the Musee Gustavo 
Moreau (PI. B,21), occupying the house of that artist (d. 1898). It 
contains about 700 paintings (some of them unfinished) and 4000 
drhwings by this original painter, whose works, much as their merit 
asa been discussed, possess an undoubted charm of their own. The 
museum, which is well arranged, is open daily 10-4 except Mon. 
(visitors ring the bell). Director, M. Rupp. Catalogue (1902), l^fr- 

The collections are exhibited on the second and third and ground- 
floors. The upper floors should be seen first as they are principally devoted 
to the paintings. — On the landing of the 1st floor: (Edipus and the 
Sphinx, Persian Poet ant the Unicorn. 

Second Floor. — Wall to the right of the staircase: 18. Tyrtaeus 


singing during the battle; '19. Penelope's wooers; 20. The Argonauts. 
Rear wall, 21. Moses; 23. Apollo deserted by the Muses; "25. Daughters 
of Thespius; 28. Hesiod and the Muses; 30. Messalina; *32. The Magi; 
35. Punishment of Prometheus; 37. The mystic flower. Left wall: 39. The 
Chimerte; 43. Leda; 48. Good Samaritan; 47. Magdalen at the foot of the 
Cross. Opposite the 1st window, Semele. Window wall, 57. Scourging of 
Christ; 58. Helen on the ramparts of Troy; 63. Eve; 62. Finding of Moses; 
66. Poet and Siren. Above are smaller pictures : from right to left, t, 26, 
*34. Hercules and the Lernsean hydra; 36. Moses in the bulrushes. 

Third Floor. — Room I. Wall behind the staircase, from left to right : 
93, 104. Leda; 94. Unicorn; 109 (farther on), Persian poet; 96. Tvrtaus; 
97. Petrarch; 98. Messalina; above, 95. Debauch; 100. Galatea; 101, 108. 
Golgotha; above, *102. Orpheus; 103, 107. Sirens; 105. Ganymede. Eight 
wall (from 1. to r.), 78. Good Samaritan; 79. Salome; above, 80. Hercules 
and the Nemean lion; 81. Angels of Sodom; '83. Dance of Salome; 85. 
Hercules at the Stymphalian lake; above, 86. Venice. Partition at the end, 
s 70. Triumph of Alexander the Great; above, 71. Death of Sappho; 73. 
Human life; above, "74. Narcissus; 75. Pasiphae; 76. Leda. In the middle 
of the room, on a stand: 69. Portrait of G. Moreau, by himself (1850). — 
Room II. Right wall (from r. to 1.), 199. King David; 200. Indian poetesses; 
•201. Roman slaves thrown to the lampreys; 204. Temptation ; '205. Helen 
on the ramparts of Troy ; 206. Hercules and the stag ; 208. Magdalen at the 
foot of the Cross; 211. Daughter of Herodias ; 215. Return of the Prodigal 
Son; 213. Unicorns; 214. St. Sebastian. Entrance-wall, 216. Jupiter and 
Semele; 219. St. Sebastian; above, 220. Pasiphae; "222. Salome with the 
head of John the Baptist ; 223. Flight of Darius. Window-wall, 224. Park- 
scene; 230. Cupid victorious over Death; 234. Portrait of the artist by 
himself. Rear wall (1. to r.), 183. Fairy and the griffins ; above, 185. Apollo 
and the satyrs; 184. Christ at Gethsemane; 186. Bathsheba; 187. St. Cecilia; 
191. Rape of Europa; 193. Delilah; *196. Prometheus. A revolving stand 
contains (inside and outside) about 440 water-colours (apply to the custodian). 
— We now descend the three staircases to the — 

Ground Floor, principally devoted to sketches and water-colours. — 
Room I (door to the right; lighted by electricity). Drawings of horsemen, 
warriors, etc. for the Tyrtseus. — Above the doors in the Corridor are 
studies of old men's heads for Moreau's 'Pieta' at Angouleme. — Room II 
(on the right). Sketches for the Shulamite in the Musee at Dijon, Om- 
phale, Medea and Jason, Leda, etc. Rear wall, Magdalen in the desert; 
Centaurs. Right wall, Birth of Venus; studies on blue cardboard for the 
Chimerae. Above the door are more studies : Adolescence and- Death, 
Hamlet, Delilah, etc. — Room III (opposite, to the left). Water-colours. 
Left wall, 554. Ulysses and the Sirens; 282. Fairy and griffins. To the 
left of the door, 587. Polyphemus. Above the fireplace, Galatea. On the 
right, Two heralds ; Standard-bearer. To the right of the window, Behead- 
ing of John the Baptist. Salon (at the end of the corridor). Right wall 
(from 1. to r.): above, Polyphemus; Sappho throwing herself from the rocks; 
Angel guarding a city; St. Joseph (for the Pieta at Angouleme); a few 
sketches, including some youthful work (no mythological subjects). Left 
wall, 673. Life-size portrait of the Empress Eugenie (youthful work); 
above (from 1. to r.), Narcissus; Orpheus; 'Christ at Gethsemane. To the 
left of the fireplace, Apollo as a shepherd (above); St. John the Baptist; 
Finding of Moses. To the right of the fireplace, Salome ; Circe ; Eve. — 
Room IV. Opposite the door, St. Cecilia; Andromeda; The Argonauts 
(sketch); youthful sketches. Right wall, St. Sebastian (study for the figure 
at Marseilles); Death of a Crusader; Apollo and the Python. Entrance- 
wall, Sirens; St. Cecilia; Triumph of Faith; The Magi; Battle of horses; 
youthful studies. 

The church of La Trinity, likeNotre-Dame-de-Lorette, stands at 
the upper end of a street running from the Boulevards, the Rue de 
la Chaussee-d'Antin (p. 206), generally alluded to as the 'Chaussee 
d'Antin'. The small Square in front is embellished with a group of 

208 8. LA TRINITY. 

three fountains, the statues on which represent Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, by Lequesne, after Duret. 

La Trinite (PI. B, 18"), a church in the latest Renaissance style, 
was built by Ballu in 1861-67. The facade has a porch with three 
large arches, above which rises an elegant story with a gallery and a 
rose of open-work, surmounted by a clock-tower 206 ft. in height, 
flanked with two lanterns. Over the doors of the porch are enamel- 
paintings by Bake. — The usual entrance is by the door on the right. 

Interior. By the side-doors are two tasteful holy water- basins in 
marble, representing Innocence and Purity, by Gumery. — The chapels in 
the aisles are adorned with modern paintings. Left Aisle: Chapelle des 
Fonts, Adam and Eve expelled from Paradise and Baptism of Christ, by 
Francais. 2nd Chap., Pieta and Prayer to the Virgin (Michel Dumas). 
3rd Chap., Sacred Heart and Good Shepherd (R. Cages). 4th Chap., Holy 
Family and Joseph's dream (E. Thirion). — Choir. Behind the high-altar 
is some good stained glass; the frescoes on each side represent: (r.) 
Presentation in the Temple, (above) Daniel and David (Em. Livy); (1.) As- 
sumption and Isaiah and Ezekiel (E. Delaunay). The marble group of the 
Madonna and Child is by Dubois. — Right Aisle. 4th Chap, (near the choir), 
Death of St. Denis and St. Denis carrying his head (D. Laugie). 3rd Chap., 
St. Genevieve distributing food to the Parisians and Believers praying 
before her relics (F. Barrias). 2nd Chap., St. Vincent de Paul converting 
the galley-slaves ; above, Madonna and Child, St. Vincent succouring the 
inhabitants of Lorraine, by Lecomte du Nouy. 1st Chap., Intercession for 
the souls in Purgatory, Entombment (P. Brisset). — La Trinite has a good 
choir and organ. 

The Rue St. Lazare, which starts from the "W. side of the square, 
forms the S. boundary of the Quartieb de l'Eubopb, so called 
because most of the streets are named after European capitals. 

In the Rue de Clichy, to the left of the church, is the Casino de Paris 
(p. 38), built on the site of a house once belonging to the Due de Richelieu. 
The Rue de Londres, which ascends from La Trinite to the right of the 
Rue St. Lazare, leads almost straight to the Pare Monceau (p. 217), via 
the curiously shaped Place de VEurope (PL B, 18), formed by the junction 
of six streets above the line of the Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest, behind the 
Gare St. Lazare. 

The Gare St. Lazare (PI. B, 18; see p. 29), which is reached 
from the Boulevards more directly via the Rue Auber and Rue du 
Havre, is a large and handsome building, remodelled in 1886-89 on 
plans by Lisch. It consists of two main parts, connected by a long 
open hall, and of the Hdtel Terminus (p. 4) in front, facing the 
street, and concealing the rest. The pavilion in the Rue d' Amster- 
dam is for the main line traffic, the other part, in the Rue de Rome, 
for the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture and for the Lignes de Banlieue. 
The waiting-rooms are on the first floor; the registration of luggage 
takes place on the groundfloor, on which are the principal exits. 


The most direct way of reaching the basilica of the Sacre-Coeur (p. 209) 
from the central quarters is to go by the Mitropolitain (as shown at p. 203) 
to the Place d'Anvers (PI. B, 20; see Appx. p. 37), and then to walk 
through the Rue de Steinkerque to the (3 min.) Place St. Pierre (p. 209), to 
the left of which is the cable-tramway ascending to the Sacre-Coeur. — From 
the centre to the Cemetery of Montmartre: by the Metropolitan (as at p. 203) 


to the Place Blanche (PI. B, 17; see Appx., p. 37), and thence by the 
Bonl. de Clichy (opposite tie station) and the Avenue Rachel (to the ri^ht). 
passing on the right the Moulin Rouge (p. 39); 3 min. walk. 
Restaurants, see p 19. 

The heights of Montmartre are situated to the N. of the exterior 
boulevards. They may be ascended from St. Vincent-de-Paul (p. 204), 
Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (p. 206), or La Trinite (p. 208). 

The exterior boulevards offer little of interest. In the Boul. de 
Rochechouart (PL B, 20), to the E. of the large College Bollin, is 
the small Place d'Anvers, which is embellished with a column bear- 
ing a bronze Statue of Armed Peace, by Coutan, and with bronze 
statues of Sedaine (1719-1797) and Diderot (1713-1784), by Le- 
cointe. Opposite the college is the Theatre Victor Hugo (p. 38). Far- 
ther to the E. the dome of the Magasins Bufayel (PI. B, 23) is con- 
spicuous. The facade on the other side, in the Rue de Clignancourt, 
near the Butte Montmartre, has sculptures by Falguiere and Dalou. 

Cabs bound for the Butte Montmartre generally ascend by the 
Boulevard de Clichy and the Viaduc Caulaincourt (p. 211). — Foot- 
passengers should take one of the side -streets to the N. of the 
College Rollin leading to the Place St. Pierre (PI. B, 20), and thence 
follow the Rue Foyatier to the left. The summit is reached by 
streets with steps. — There is also a route ascending in zigzags, besides 
a cable-tramway (see below). The route passes above the Place, and 
skirts the Square de la Butte Montmartre covering the S. and E. 
slopes (a cascade falls from the rocks in summer). The tramway 
(funiculaire ; 10 c. up, 5 c. down) starts from the omnibus-station (to 
the left as we come from the Rue de Steinkerque , and to the right 
of the Metropolilain station in the Place d'Anvers, see above). 

The Butte Montmartre is a hill famous in the annals of Paris, 
rising to a height of 330 ft. above the Seine. According to tradition, 
St. Denis, the first bishop of Paris, and his companions suffered 
martyrdom here in 270, and the name of the hill is supposed to 
have once been Mons Martyrum. Others derive the name from 
Mons Martis, from a temple of Mars which is said to have stood on 
this site. 

The heights of Montmartre dominate the whole of Paris. It was from 
this eminence that Henri de Navarre, who became Henri IV., bombarded 
the city in 1539 when it was in the hands of the Ligue, the hostilities 
ceasing only on the death of Henri III. , whereby the French crown reverted 
to the besieger. Here also took place the final struggle between the French 
troops and the Prussian and Russian allies in 1814. On 18th March, 1871, 
the insurgent soldiers, having assassinated the generals Cle'ment-Thomas 
and Lecomte , took possession of the cannon on Montmartre, which had 
been entrusted to a body of the National Guard. Thus began the Com- 
munard rebellion of 18th March to 28th May, 1871. The insurgents were 
dislodged by the victorious troops on 24th May, and the batteries of Mont- 
martre were then directed against the Communards who occupied the 
Buttes-Chaumont (p. 235) and Pere-Lachaise (p. 237}. 

The Basilique du Sacre-Cceur (PL B, 20), crowning the summit 
of the hill, was begun in 1876 and, though still unfinished, has been 
used for service since 1891 . It is an imposing edifice in the Ro- 

Baedekebj. Paris. 15th Edit. 14 


roanesqiie-Byzantine style, from designs by Abadie, and is sur- 
mounted by a large dome, about 260 ft. in height, with a clock-tower 
360 ft. high behind. The progress of the building has been slow, for 
very extensive substructures were required, costing 3,500,000 fr., and 
though 30,000,000 fr. (1,200,000 J.) have already been expended, 
much has yet to be raised by subscription. 

The entrance is to the right of the upper station of the 'funi- 
culaire' (p. 208). Admission is free, but 25 c. are charged for showing 
the crypt and 50 c. for the ascent of the dome (see below). The facade 
is shortly to be embellished with two sculptured reliefs: Christ and 
the Samaritan Woman, by A. d'Houdain, and Mary at the house of 
Simon, by L. Noel. The tympana of the porches are also to be en- 
riched with reliefs: Spear -thrust of Longinus, by Barrias, Moses 
striking the rock, by Fagel, and St. Thomas touching the Saviour's 
wound, by H. Lefevre. A statue of the Sacre"-Coeur, by Michel, will 
adorn the niche over the main porch. The interior decoration is still 
far from complete. The scaffoldings have not been taken down, and 
service is held in the crypt. 

To the right of the facade, in a temporary shed, is the huge bell known 
as the ' Savoyard^ ', presented by the province of Savoy (adm 50 c, 25 c. on 
Sun. and holidays). It is 10 ft. high and 19 tons in weight without the 
tongue, dimensions exceeded only by those of the great bell of Moscow 
(19 ft. high and 200 tons in weight). 

The entrance to the Borne (ticket-offices to the right and left at 
the top of the steps) adjoins the W. door of the church. It affords a 
magnificent *View of Paris, as good from the second platform as from 
the top of the lantern (a fatiguing and useless climb of 94 steps). 

The principal features from left to right are as follows : immediately 
below, the dome of the liaison Dufayel (p. 209); in the foreground, 
St. Vincent- de- Paul and the Gare du Nord ; farther off, the Buttes- 
Chaumont, the two towers of Belleville, the tower of Menilmontant, 
and Pere - Lachaise with its 'sugar- loaf and crematorium; to the right, 
nearer us, the Mairie of the 10th arrondissement; beyond St. Vincent- 
de-Paul, the campanili of St. Ambroise, the Colonne de Juillet, and the 
dome of St. Paul's; in front, the Chapelle des Arts et Metiers; more 
remote, still to the right, the dome of La Salpetriere; St. Gervais, the 
Hotel de Ville, Notre-Dame, the Tour St. Jacques, St. Etienne-du-Mont, and 
the Panthe'on; next, St. Eustache and the Halles Centrales, with the 
domes of the Sorbonne, the Val-de-Grace, and the Observatory; nearer, 
the twin towers of St. Sulpice, the tower of St. Germain-des-Pres, and 
the Louvre; in the distance, the tower of Montrouge; then comparatively- 
near, to the right, the imposing Opera House, above which rise the spires 
of Ste. Clotilde; to the left, the Vendome Column; again to the right, the 
dome of the church of the Assumption, the gilded cupola of the Invalides, 
and the Eiffel Tower (3 M. away); nearer, to the right, the campanile of 
La Trinite, and the Madeleine; then the dome of St. Augustin, the towers 
of the Trocadero, the Arc de Triomphe de TEtoile, and the fort of Mont 
Vale'rien. On the horizon rise the hills of Chatillon, Clamart, and Meudon. 

To the "W. of the church is a very large Reservoir (2,420,000 gal.) 
with three stories. The water in the first story is pumped up from 
another reservoir at the foot of the hill, whither it is brought from 
Bercy. The upper stories are destined for spring-water. "Visitors 
apply to the keeper, to the left. — Behind the reservoir lies the old 


church of St. Pierre-de-Monimartre, a relic of a Benedictine mon- 
astery founded in 1147 by Louis VI., and now undergoing restoration. 

To the right of the church is a Mount Calvary, from the old cmvent 
of Mont Valerien (adm. 25 c). — In front of the reservoir, Rue St. Eleu- 
there 3, to the left of the cable-tramway station, is the Panorama de Terre 
Sainte (Ancient Jerusalem, the Crucifixion), by 0. Pichat (50 c), and on 
the other side of the Sacre-Coeur, Rue Lamarck 18, is the Diorama of Jeru- 
salem (adm. 1 fr. ; Sun. & Thurs. 50 c). 

At the foot of the Butte, to the N., at some little distance from the 
Sacrd-Coeur, in the Place Ste. Euphrasie (PI. B, 19), are the ochurch of 
Notre-Dame-de-Clignancowt (1859-63) and the handsome Mairie of the 18th 
Arrondissement (1S88-92), in the Renaissance style. 

Descending once more to the Boulevards Exte'rieurs, we follow 
them to the W. for about % M., to the Cemetery of Montmartre. At 
the end of the Boul. de Rochechouart is the little Cirque Medrano 
(p. 38), at the corner of the Rue des Martyrs, on the right of which, 
in the Impasse Gill, is seen the bust in stone of Andre GUI 
(d. 1883), the caricaturist, by Mme. Montorgueil. The Boul. de 
Rochechouarf is continued westwards by the Boul. de Clichy. The 
Passage de l'Elyse'e-des-Beaux-Arts (PI. B, 20), leading out of it 
on the right, contains a Chapel , destined to be the crypt for a new 
church of St. Jean, to be erected in the adjacent Place des Abbesses. 
A large painting by P. Sieffert and P. Rousseau (St. Pierre Fourier 
teaching the children) decorates this chapel. In the Place is a bronze 
figure of a Lion roaring. — The short Avenue Rachel leads to the 
right (N.) to the cemetery. This approach was lowered in 1888, when 
the Viaduc Caulaincourt was carried over the cemetery, uniting the 
Rue Caulaincourt, to the N. of the Butte Montmartre, with the Boul. 
de Clichy. 

The *Cemetery of Montmartre, or Cimetiire dxi Nord (PI. B, 
17), the second burial-ground of Paris , though inferior to Pere- 
Lachaise, is also worthy of a visit. Hours of adm., see p. 238. 

We follow the main avenue in a straight direction to a circular 
space containing a column surmounted by a funeral urn, below which 
are interred the victims of the 'coup d'etat' of 1852. To the right, on 
the side next the Avenue de la Croix, is the tomb of Emile Zola 
(d. 1902), the novelist, with a monument by R. Meunier and A. Char- 
pentier. On the opposite side lies the vault of the Cavaignae Family, to 
which belonged the author Godefroy (d. 1845) and the general Eugene 
(d. 1857), president of the republic in 1848. The recumbent figure of 
the former, in bronze, is by Rude. To the right, under the viaduct: 
J. Duprato (d. 1892) , composer, bronze medallion by J. Thomas ; 
Custagnary (d. 1888), the author, bronze bust by Rodin; Beyle (Sten- 
dhal; d, 1842), authoT, medallion after David d'Angers. Farther on, 
in the Avenue Dubuisson : Feyen-Perrin (d. 1888), painter, with a 
bronze bust and a statue of a flshor-giTl strewing flowers, by Guil- 
bert. Under the viaduct, Jean Gerome (d. 1891). with a statue of 
Grief by J. L Ge'rome. 




We now follow the Avenue Dubulsson, beyond the column. By 
the wall at the end, Ad. Pollier (d. 1890), with a bronze statue of 
a woman Btrewing flowers, by L. Morice. Near by Is the grave of 
Francisque Sarcey, the dramatic critic (d. 1899). We next pass the 
Avenue de la Cloche, to which we shall return presently (p. 213), 
noticing only the monument of Meilhac (d. 1897), the dramatist, at 
the corner, by Baitholome. 

The Jewish Cbmetery is a little farther on, to the right of the 
Avenue Cordier. To the left, near the entrance, Osiris Family, the 
vault of the millionaire Daniel Osiris (p. 365), with a colossal statue 
of Moses, after Michael Angelo, by A. Mercie. Farther on in the 
Avenue Cordibb, on the left, Gust. Quillaumet (d. 1887), the painter 
of Oriental subjects; the titles of his pictures are inscribed on the 
monument, which is adorned with a statue of an African woman and 
a bronze medallion of the artist by Barrias. To the right, Iheoph. 


Avenues etChemrnspriiieipaiix 


"Numeros des Divisions. 

Gautier, the writer (d. 1872), with a statue of Poetry, by Godebski, 
and the following inscription among others: — 

'L'oiseau t'en va, la feuille tombe, 

ISamour s'iteint, car c'est Vhiver; 

Petit oiseau, viens svr ma tombe 

Chanter quand tarbre sera verf. 

Above, on the right, Halevy, the composer (d. 1862), with a 
statue by Duret. To the left, Gozlan (d. 1866), the writer. We mount 
the steps in front and find ourselves in the Avenue Mont3Bello, 
which bears round to the right, one of the most interesting in the 
cemetery. To the left, Miecislas Kamienski, a Polish volunteer who 
fell at Magenta in 1859, with recumbent bronze figure by Franceschi. 
PaulDelaroche^A. 1856), the painter. Behind, Chas. Maury (A. 1866), 


the composer. P. Chouvaloff, a child's tomb with angel by R. Carnielo. 
Farther on (right), Marshal Lannes (d. 1809), Duo de Montebello ; 
Admiral de Rigny (d. 1835) ; Princess Soltikoff (d. 1845), a chapel 
covered with gilding and painting. — Left, Horace Vernet (d. 1863), 
the painter , a marble sarcophagus. The Counts Potocki, who died 
(1863, 1866) in exile ; Ad. Adam (d. 1856), the composer, bronze 
bust. About 50 paces along the Avenue des Carrieres, on the right, 
is the tomb of Hector Berlioz (d. 1869), the composer , with a me- 
dallion by Godebski. 

The Avenue du Tunnel used to lead to a portion of the cemetery 
which is now closed. In this avenue, to the right, Leon Foucault 
(d. 1868), the natural philosopher. Behind it, J. Qarcin, (d. 1896), 
musician. A little farther on, A. de Neuville (d. 1885), battle-painter, 
with a bust of the deceased and a figure of France, by Fr. deSt. Vidal. 

"We retrace our steps for a few yards and turn to the right into 
the Avenue Cordier again. Left, Henri Murger^d. 1861), author of the 
'Vie de Boheme', with a statue of Youth by Millet. Nearly opposite, 
Aimi Millet (d. 1891), the sculptor. — In a small alley, Louise Thouret 
(d. 1858), with recumbent figure in marble by Cavelier. 

We now ascend by the grave of Gozlan and proceed towards the 
right to the Avbnue de Montmorency. Right : Duchesse d'Abrantis 
(d. 1838), wife of Marshal Junot, and their son ; medallion by David 
d' Angers. Adjacent, Ary Scheffer (d. 18581, the painter, a chapel 
in which also rests Ernest Renan (d. 1892), author and critic, 
Scheffer's nephew. In the centre, Alexandre Dumas the Younger 
(d. 1896), with recumbent statue by St. Marceaux, under a canopy. 
Left : Cl. Rousset (d. 1895), with a bronze bust. 

We here turn to the left and follow the Avenue de la Cloche. 
On the right: Victor Masse (d. 1884), composer, with bronze 
ornamentation. To the left: De Braux d'Anglure (d. 1849), a bust 
and bas-relief in bronze. Farther on, Jules Simon (d. 1896), philo- 
sopher and statesman. Then, a little to the side, E. Gonzales (d. 1887), 
the writer. In the avenue (left), Armand Marrast (d. 1852), member 
of the government of 1848 and president of the National Assembly. 
On the right, in the second row of graves, reposes Heinrich Heine 
(d. 1856), the poet, monument and bust, by Hasselriis. In the first 
row, close by, Oreuze (d. 1805), the painter. — Farther on, to the 
left, Viollet-le-Duc (d. 1879), architect, and Meilhac (p. 212). 

Opposite is the Chemin Due, crossing the Chem™ Tkoyon, 
which traverses the most interesting part of the cemetery. Left: 
Frederic Lemaitre (d. 1876), the actor, with bronze bust by Gra- 
net; right: Troyon (d. 1865), the painter; Aglae Didier (d. 1863), 
writer. Among the trees, to the left : -8. Deslandes (d. 1890), dram- 
atist, bust by Guilbert; Nefftzer (d. 1876), founder of 'Le Temps', 
with a bronze statue of Grief, by Bartholdi. Farther on, Carlotta 
Patti (d. 1889), singer , medallion by Lormier. — In the main walk, 
left: Clapisson (d. 1866), composer; H. Storks (d. 1866), recorder 


of Cambridge, marble monument, with medallion. Ambroise Thomas 
(d. 1896), composer; Mery (A. 1866), author, with a statue of Poetry, 
in bronze, by L. Durand. — In the Chemin Baudin, to the right, 
Baudin, 'mort en defendant le droit et la loi, le 3 de*c. 1851 : ses 
concitoyens, 1872' ; a handsome recumbent figure in bTonze, by Mil- 
let (the remains are now in the Pantheon). At the end, Thiboust 
(d. 1867), the dramatist, marble relief by Mathieu-Meusnier. A 
little to the right , Martin Bernard (d. 1883), 'representative of 
the people', medallion by Mathieu-Meusnier. — To the right of the 
Chemin Troyon : Rouviere (d. 1865), actor; medallion and bas-relief 
by Preault, representing the deceased as Hamlet. Left, Chaudey 
(d. 1871), editor of the 'Siecle', shot by the Communards; an ex- 
pressive medallion by Renaudot, with a quotation from the journal. 
Near by, Dr. Charcot (d. 1893). Right , Ward Family, with a large 
Christ in bronze. Left, Mine (d. 1879), sculptor. Right: Rostan 
(d. 1866), professor of medicine; marble figure in high-relief, by 
Schroeder. Larmoyer, also in high-relief. Left, Marc-Lejeune, a chapel, 
surmounted by a sarcophagus with four symbolical statues. Behind, 
Duchesse de Montmorency- Luxembourg (d. 1829), a large obelisk. 
Right , Polignac (d. 1863), artillery-officer, a large and rich chapel. 

Those whom time permits may descend to the Avekde Samson by the 
flight of steps a little farther on Right: Samson (d. 1871), actor, bronze 
bust by Crauk. Farther on, beyond the Avenue du Tunnel, to the right : 
Dupoiet de Sennevoy, 'chef de Tecole msgnetique moderne', with a fine 
marble bust by Bracony and bronze ornamentations. Adjacent, to the left, 
Gustave Ricard (d. 1873), painter, with a marble bust by Ferru; to the right, 
Gh. Fourier (see below). 

The Avenue Samson bears to the left, and leads back to the Carrefour 
de la Croix, near the entrance. 

At the end of the Avenue des Anglais, the first diverging to the right 
from the Avenue Samson, are the remains of the composers Offenbach 
(d. 1880), under a rich monument of porphyry with a bronze bust, lyre, 
and palm, and Lio Delibes (d. 1891), with a medallion by Chaplain. 

Farther on in the Avenue Samson, to the right, Ducange (d. 1833), the 
author In the Avenue Travot, to the right, Delphine Gay (d. 1855), the 
wife of Emile de Girardin, founder of the 'Figaro'; General Travot (d. 1830), 
marble bust by Dantan. — Then, in the Avenue Montmorency on the right, 
Gustave Nadaud (J. 1893) the lyrist, and the brothers Edmond and Jules 
de Goncourt (d. 1870 and 1896), sarcophagus with medallions. 

The Rue de Maistre, which lasses by the Jewish Cemetery (p. 212), leads 
to the Rue Lepic (on the left), where the Moulin de la Galette (p. 39) is situated. 

From the cemetery we return to the Boul. de Clichy, and, 
following it to the right, pass a bronze statue (by E. Derre, 1899) 
of Charles Fourier (1772-1837), the founder of Fourierism, the ob- 
ject of which was the establishment of socialistic communities 
('phalansteres') in which capital, labour, and talent should combine 
for the common good. 

In the Place de Clicliy (PI. B, 17; Metropolitan Stat.) rises 
the Monument ofMoncey, erected in 1869. This colossal group 
in bronze, by Doublemard , 19 ft. in height, on a pedestal 26 ft. 
high, adorned with bas-reliefs, represents Marshal Moncey de- 


fending Paris, with a dying soldier beside him, in reference to 
the fact that the marshal distinguished himself in the defence of 
the capital in 1814. 

Opposite the monument of Moncey the Avenue de Clichy ascends to 
the N., and farther on bends to the left, while the Avenue de St. Ouen 
tarns a little to the right. To the left of the latter is the little Square 
des Epinettes (PI. B, 16), with monuments to Marie Deraismes (d. 1828-94 ), who 
championed the emancipation of women, by E. Barrias, and to Jean Leclaire 
(1801-72), by Dalou and Formige. Leclaire, a large manufacturer of paints, 
was the first to introduce the profit-sharing' system with his workmen, in 
the interest of whose health he eliminated the poisonous white lead from his 
preparations and substituted zinc-white. — Clichy (39,521 inhab.) and St. Ouen 
(35,436 inhab.)are uninteresting. The chateau of St. Ouen, where Louis XVIII. 
signed his famous declaration of 2nd May, 1814, no longer exists, being 
replaced by a modern pavilion, and the park is now a Racecourse. 

A little beyond the Place de Clichy, to the left of the Rue de Clichy, 
is the Square Vintimille (PI. B, 17), with a bronze Statue of Berlioi (1803-1869), 
by Alf. Lenoir. 

The outer boulevards (Boulevards des Batignolles and de Courcelles) 
lead on to the W. to (>/j M.) the Pare Monceau (p. 217) and (1 M.) the 
Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile (p. 75). 

In the Boulevard des Batignolles stands the College Chaptal, a handsome 
building in stone and coloured bricks, erected in 1866-72 by Train. 

9. Western Quarters, to the N. of the Champs-Ely sees. 

Stations of the Mitropolitain: Place de l'Etoile (PI. B, 12; I) and Pare 
Monceau (Boul. de Courcelles; PI. B, 15); see Appendix p. 37. 

The Boulevard Haussmann (PI. B, 18, 15 ; II), the prolongation 
of which on the E., from the Rue Taitbout to the Rue Drouot (about 
300 yds.), will eventually connect it with the Grands Boulevards, is 
one of the imposing modern thoroughfares of Paris. In conjunction 
with the Avenue de Friedland (p. 76), by which it is continued to the 
(13/ 4 M.) Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile, it forms a noble street about 
2 M. in length, and is the most direct route from the north-central 
part of the city to the Bois de Boulogne. It owes its name to Baron 
Haussmann (p. xxvii). 

The Chapellb Expiatoire(P1.B,18; //), in a square on the right, 
by the Rue Pasquier, was erected in 1820-26. from designs by Percier 
and Fontaine, to the memory of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, 
on the site of the old cemetery of the Madeleine, where their re- 
mains lay from 1793 to 1815, when they were removed to the royal 
vault at St. Denis. The Swiss guards massacred on August 10th were 
also buried there. 

The chapel, which it is proposed to pull down and which is now closed 
to the public, contains two groups in marble. That on the right, by 
Bosio, represents Louis XVI. and an angel who addresses him with the 
words, 'Fils de St. Louis, montez au del!' Below is inscribed the king's 
will. The group on the left, by Cortot, represents the Queen supported 
by Religion, a figure which bears the features of Madame Elizabeth, the 
king's sister, who was guillotined on 12th May, 1794. Inscribed on the 
monument is the last letter addressed by the queen to her sister-in-law 
(comp. p. 178). — Over the portal is an allegorical relief by Lemaire, re- 
ferring to the removal of the ashes to St. Denis. 

216 9. ST. AUGUSTIN. 

Farther on, the Boul. Haugsmann intersects the Boulevard Males- 
herbes, from which the Avenue de Messine diverges on the right to 
the S. entrance of the Pare Monceau (p. 217). The Statue of Shake- 
speare, in bronze, by Paul Fournier, erected at this point in 1888, 
was presented to the City of Paris by Mr. W. Knighton. 

The Boulevard Malesherbes (PI. R, B, 18; //) is another im- 
posing street , extending from the Madeleine to the fortifications 
(l 3 / 4 M.). — To the right in this boulevard rises the church of — 

St. Augustin (PI. B, 15), built by Baltard in 1860-68, in a mo- 
dernised Romanesque style. The building is in the form of an 
irregulaT triangle, towards the base of which rises a dome 80 ft. in 
diameter and 165 ft. in height, crowned with an elegant lantern and 
flanked with four dome-covered turrets. The portal consists of three 
arches surmounted by a kind of gallery containing statues of Christ 
and the Apostles, by Jouffroy, above which are a rose-window and 
a triangular pediment. On the pillars are statues of prophets and 
doctors of the church, also by Jouffroy. 

Interior. The church has no aisles , properly so called. The nave 
preserves its width the whole way back , while the increasing width of 
the triangle is filled with chapels increasing in depth as they approach 
the choir. Above are galleries , which are continued under the dome. 
The nave is covered with a flat ceiling , borne by arcades of open 
iron-work , and the columns terminate in figures of angels. The high- 
altar, standing beneath a sumptuous canopy, is placed above a crypt, 
which also runs under the nave. The very short transepts terminate in 
chapels. In the nave are two paintings by D. Maillart: Baptism of St. 
Angustine (on the left), Death of St. Monica (on the right). The mural paint- 
ings are by Signol (in the cupola), Bouguereau, and Briiset; the stained 
glass by Marichal and Lavergne. 

In front of the church is a graceful Monument to Joan of Arc by 
Paul Dubois, a replica of that at Rheims; the inscriptions on the 
pedestal are in the old-French of the period. In the adjacent square, 
a bronze group by Mombur, representing 'A Rescue'. 

About 500 yds. farther on the short Avenue Velasquez, on the left 
of the Boul. Malesherbes, leads to the E. entrance of the Pare Monceau 
(p. 217). — At No. 7 Avenue Ve'lasquez is the Musee Cernuschi (PI. 
B, 15), bequeathed along with the house containing it to the city of 
Paris by M. H. Cernuschi. The museum (open Tues., Thurs., and 
Sun. 10-4) consists of a valuable collection of Chinese and Japanese 
works of art, of inferior merit to that in the Muse'e Guimet (p. 221), 
but interesting on account of the bronzes (upwards of 2400). Keeper, 
M. Causse. No catalogue. 

First Floor, to which we ascend by the staircase to the left, leaving 
sticks and umbrellas. Rooms I-III. Furniture, kakemonos, a large bronze vase, 
figures in earthenware, vases of Bizen pottery (imitating bronze), and porce- 
lain; picture-books, small objects in ivory, bric-a-brac, masks. — Room IV. 
In the middle is a seated figure of the Buddha of Meguro, 14 ft. high, from 
near Tokio. In front, an enamelled perfume-burner and a desk-case with 
artistic sword-guards. On the window-side are three statues of Buddha and 
a large perfume-burner in the form of a dragon. Bound three sides of the 
room, on stands, are fine Chinese and Japanese bronzes, some of great 
antiquity, especially those on the right wall. The smaller bronzes are in 


the glass-cases of the gallery. On the rear wall is a beautifully carved 
wooden balustrade, perhaps of the School of Zingcro. — Rooms V-VI. Por- 
celain. Bronzes. — A side-staircase now descends to the Gkound Flooh, 
where two rooms contain Chinese and Japanese porcelain and stoneware. 

The *Parc Monceau, or Pare de Monceau (PI. B, 15), enclosed 
by a very handsome railing, has four entrances, the chief of which 
is in the Boul. de Courcelles ( Metropolitain Stat), wheTe a small 
rotunda, also called the Pavilion de Chartres, has been placed. 

The park owes its name to a property bought in 1778 by Philippe 
d'Orleans, surnamed Egalite, father of Louis Philippe, under whose 
directions it was laid out by Carmontel as a garden. It soon became one 
of the most fashionable resorts of the 'beau monde' ; balls, plays, and 
fetes of the most brilliant description were celebrated here. It is now a 
small park, tastefully laid out by Alphcmd (p. xxvii) in the English style. 

The park retains a few relics of its old attractions, such as the 
Naumachie, an oval piece of water, flanked with a semicircular 
Corinthian colonnade, and adorned with a bronze statue of Hylas, 
by Morice (1880). Not far off is a Monument to Ouy de Mau- 
paisant (1850-93), the author, with a figure of a woman reading at 
his feet, by Verlet. To the right of the Avenue Van Dyck, near a 
bubbling spring , is the tasteful marble monument of Ambroiie 
Thomas (1811-66), by Falguiere; the composer is seated on a rock, 
Mignon offering him flowers. In the transverse avenue on the right 
stands the marble Monument of Gounod (1818-93), byMercie (1903); 
on a.lofty pedestal is a bust of the composer, while grouped around 
are figures of Marguerite, Juliette , Sappho , and a genius discours- 
ing music. Among the other sculptures with which the park is 
embellished are the Ycung Faun, by F. Charpentier ; the Abandoned, 
by V. Cornu ; to the right of the main walk, Boy playing with maTbles, 
by Lenoir; to the left, the Snake-Charmer, by B. de la Vingtrie; 
Wounded lioness, by Yallcn; farther on, to the right, Wounded 
Cupid, by Mabille; to the left, the Sower, by Chapu; to the right, 
the Mower, by Oumery ; behind, the Reaper, by Oaudez. 

From the railings of the Pare Moncean facing the Avenue Van Dyck 
and the Avenue Hoche (PI. B, 12) we observe the gilded domes of the Russian 
Church (PI. B, 12), in the Rue Dam. This church was built in 1859-61 
in the Byzantine-Muscovite style, from a design by Kouzmine, and is in 
the form of a Greek cross. The church is open on Sun. and Thurs., 
3-5 o'clock. The interior consists of a veftibnle, a nave, and a sanctuary 
closed by an 'ikonostasis' adorned with pointings of Christ, the Virgin, 
and several Russian saints, by the brothers Soroiine and by Bronnikoff. 
The rest of the church is adorned with paintings of Scriptural subjects by 
the same artists and of prophets by Vassilieff. — The Avenue Hoche ends 
at the Place de VEtoile (p. 75). 

The Batignolles quarter, to the N. of the Pare Monceau, which 
was incorporated with Paris in 1860, is a favourite residence for 
artists, and contains many handsome and tasteful private residences. 
The traveller will find it worth while to inspect the Rue Prony 
(PI. B, 15, 11), opposite the principal entrance to the park, and. 
several of the side-streets such as the Rues Fortuny and Montchanin, 
and lastly the Avenue de Villiers and part of the Boul. Malesherbes. 

218 9. NEUILLY. 

In the Place Malesherbes (PI. B, 14) is a handsome mansion in the 
style of the 16th century. In the gardens flanking the avenue are 
bronze figures of the Genius of Music , by Bailly, and the Grief of 
Orpheus, by Verlet. Farther on is a bronze Statue of Dumas the Elder 
(1824-1870), designed by Gustave Dore" ; the fine group in front 
represents Reading, and behind is a Musketeer. The Place Males- 
herbes is to be further embellished with statues of Dumas the 
Younger, by Saint- Marceaux, and General Dumas, by A. Moncel, 
and will then be called Place des Trois Dumas. 

In the neighbouring Rue de Tocqueville is the Ecole des Sautes Etudes 
Commercials in front of which is a small square with a bronze statue, 
by Moncel, of Alain Chartier (1383-1449), the poet. 

No. 145 in the Bonlevard Malesherbes is the Lycie Carnot (PI. B, 11, 14), 
formerly the Ecole Monge. Farther to the N. is the Place Wagram (PI. 11), 
embellished with a bronze statue, by F. de St-Vidal, of A. de Neuville 
(1835-1885), the military painter. The Place is situated above the Chemin 
de Fer de Ceinture, not far from the station of Courcelles -Ceinture 
(PI. B, 11). Close by is a monument (bust and reliefs) to Eugene Flachat 
(1802-73), the first French engineer to introduce metal in the construction 
of buildings, executed by A. Boucher. 

To the E., near the station of Batignolles, is the Square des Balignolles 
(PI. B, 14), one of the largest in Paris, but not otherwise interesting. 
It has two fountains and bronze figures of Circe, by Michel, the Gladiator, 
by Ferrary, etc. 

The Avenue de la Grande -Armee (PI. B, 9; Metropolitain 
Stat., Rue d'Obligado, see Appx., p. 37), in a direct line with the 
Avenue des Champs-Elysees on the E., leads to Neuilly. 

Neuilly, a suburb with 37,493 inhab., the K. portion of which was 
occupied prior to its destruction by the mob in 1848 by the chateau and 
park of Louis Philippe, is now covered with numerous tasteful villas. — 
The Fair of Neuilly, from about mid-June to mid-July, is very character- 
istic and attracts large crowds from Paris. 

Immediately beyond the fortification? is the Porte Maillot, the N.E. 
entrance to the Bois de Boulogne (tramway to the Jardin d'Acclimatation, 
see p. 232). A monument to Alfred de Musset, the poet (1310-57), was 
erected here in 1904. — To the right is the Chapel of St. Ferdinand (PI. B, 9), 
a mausoleum in the Byzantine style, erected on the spot where Ferdinand, 
Duke of Orleans, the eldest son of Louis Philippe and father of the Comte de 
Paris, breathed his last in 1842, in consequence of a fall from his carriage. 
Admission daily; visitors ring at No. 13, nearly opposite the chapel (fee). 
Over the high-altar is a Descent from the Cross, in marble, by Triqueti. 
To the left is the Monument of the Duke, also by Triqueti. from a design 
by Ary Scheffer, with an angel by the prince's sister, Marie dCOrUans 
(d. 1839). The stained-glass windows were designed by Ingre*. 

Neuilly is traversed by the broad Avenue de Neuilly (PI. B, 6, 2), the W. 
continuation of the Avenue de la Grande -Armee. — At the Eond-Point 
d'Inkermann are the Romanesque Church of St. Pierre (PI- B, 5), and a 
bronze Statue of Perronet (1708-94), builder of the Pont de Neuilly, Pont de 
la Concorde, etc., executed by Gaudez. Close by is a Mairie (PI. B, 5), 
built in 1882-85 by Andre" in the Renaissance style. In the garden at the 
back is a bronze statue, by Gaudez, of Parmentier (1737-1813), wlio made 
his first experiments in the cultivation of the potato at Neuilly. 

From Neuilly a handsome Bridge (1766-1772) crosses the Seine to the 
N.E., 2 M. from the Arc de Triomphe (p. 75). On the opposite side of 
the river, to the right, is Gourbevoie (p. 332), and to the left is Puteaux 
(p. 332), which are connected by another avenue, '/z M. in length, continuing 
those above mentioned as far as the Monument de la Defense (p. 333). 

10. Western Quarters, to the S. of the Champs-Ely s£es. 

The quickest route from the centre to the Trocadero and the Guimet 
and Galliera Museums is via the Metropolitan to the Trocadero Station, 
changing trains at the Place de l'Etoile (see Appx., p. 37). The Muse'e du 
Trocadero is to the right of the station; the Avenue du Trocadero (opposite) 
leads in 5-7 min. to the other two museums. — The Tramways from the 
Hotel de Ville to Passy (T J), to St. Cloud. Sevres, and Versailles (TAB), 
and from the Eue Taitbout to La Muette (T N) may be used, and Steam- 
boats also are convenient. 

The Muse'e Galliera, the Muse'e Guimet, and the two Muse'es at the 
Trocade'ro are open at the same hours on Sun. and Thurs. only, though 
admission may be obtained to the Ethnographical Museum daily except 

At the S.W. comer of the Place de la Concorde (p. 63) begins 
the Cours-la-Reine (PI. R, 15, 12; II, I), a promenade formed by 
Marie de Me"dicis in 1616, and constituting with the Quai de la 
Conference a single broad avenue. The quay derives its name from 
an old gate through which the Spanish ambassadors entered Paris 
in 1660, to confer with Mazarin on the betrothal of the Infanta 
Maria Theresa with Louis XIV. — To the right are the Petit Palais 
(p. 69) and the Orand Palais (p. 74), between which passes the 
Avenue Alexandre Trois or Allie Triomphale, leading to the Esplanade 
des Invalides (p. 295). 

The *Pont Alexandre Trois (PI. R, 15; II), at the end of this 
avenue, is the largest and handsomest bridge in Paris. The founda- 
tion-stone was laid by the Czar Nicholas II. in 1896, and the bridge 
was completed in 1900, by Resal and Ally, the engineers, and 
Cassien- Bernard and Cousin, the architects. The bridge consists of 
a single flat steel arch 352 ft. in length, and 130 ft. in width. At each 
end is a massive pylon , 75 ft. high, surmounted by gilded groups 
of Pegasi led by Fame, by Fremiet (right bank) and Oranet and 
Steiner (left bank) ; these are flanked by groups representing France 
at different epochs of history, by Lenoir and O. Michel (right 
bank), Coutan and Marqueste (left bank), and by lions led by 
children (Qardet, right bank; Dalou, left bank). The allegorical 
groups in the centre of the arch aie by Recipon; on the downstream 
side are the arms of Paris ; on the other those of St. Petersburg. 

Farther on, to the left, is the Pont des Invalides (PI. R, 14, 
15; II), dating from 1827 (restored in 18 c 5), and adorned with 
Victories by Die'boldt and Vilain . 

To the right, at the corner of the Cours-la-Reine (No. 16) and the 
Rue Bayard, is the house known as the *Kaison Francois Premier 
(Pl.R, 15; II), now private property. Francis I. caused this build- 
ing to be erected at Moret, near Fontainebleau, in 1527, for the 
reception of Diane de Poitiers, or according to others for his sister 
Margaret of Navarre, and in 1826 it was transferred to its present 
site. The style of the facade is quite unique and very unlike that 
of contemporary buildings. On the groundfloor are three large arched 
windows, to which the three square-headed windows of the upper 

220 10. PONT DE L'ALMA. 

floor correspond. The ornamentation on the pilasters between the 
windows and at the corners is singularly rich and elegant. Many 
of the medallion-portraits (including that of Margaret of Navarre, 
between the arms of France and Navarre) have been restored. The 
back is also worthy of inspection, but the sides have been modern- 
ised. — In the adjoining Rue Bayard, No. 17, is the Scottish Pres- 
byterian Church (p. 54). 

To the N. of the Cours-la-Keine is the Rue Jean-Ooujon which attained 
a melancholy celebrity in May, 1897, owing to a terrible fire at a charity 
bazaar, in which 132 persons perished. A memorial chapel, called 'Notre 
Dame -de -Consolation (PI. R, 12; //), has been built in the Louis XVI. 
style, from Guilbert's designs, on the site of the disaster (open 2-4 except 
Mon. and the first Frid. in each month). The fine diorama in the dome 
is painted by A. Maignan ; the sculptures are by Daillion, Franceschi, etc. Bas- 
reliefs in old silver adorn the Stations of the Cross. There is a monument 
to the Duchesse d'Alencon. — Close to the entrance of the Rue Jean-Goujon 
is an Armenian Chapel, also from Guilbert's designs. 

The Pont de l'Alma (PI. R, 11, 12; 7), at the end of the quay, 
was constructed in 1856 and named in memory of the Crimean cam- 
paign. The buttresses are embellished with handsome figures of a 
zouave and a private of the lino by Dieboldt, and an artilleryman 
and a chasseur by Aug. Arnaud. From the bridge the Avenue 
Montaigne leads to the N.W. to the Rond-Point des Champs-Elyse'es 
(p. 74). 

The next quay, the Quai Debilly, leads to the foot of the Tro- 
cadero Park, passing on the left a foot-bridge (now being widened). 
"We, however, follow the Avenue du Trocade'ro on the right. 

In the Quai Debilly, which is called after the general of that name 
who fell at the battle of Jena, at No. 18, is the Manutention Militaire 
(victualling-office), formerly the Savonnerie (p. 323). 

The *Musee Galliera, or Brignole- Galliera (PL R, 12 ; 7), on the 
right of the Avenue du Trocadero, is an imposing building in the 
Italian Renaissance style, by Ginain, erected by the munificence of 
the Duchesse de Galliera (d. 1888) , who , however, subsequently 
bequeathed her valuable art-collections to the city of Genoa. The 
facade towards the avenue is embellished with statues of Sculpture, 
Architecture, and Painting, by Cavelier, Thomas, and Chapu. There 
are other sculptures at the sides : to the right, Pan and a bear, by 
Becquet, The Earth, by A. Boucher; to the left, Education of Bac- 
chus, by Perraud, Patronage and the Future, by Icard. — The 
entrance, which is in the Rue Pierre-Charron (No. 10), is preceded 
by a small square with a bronze group representing 'Wine', by Hol- 
iveck. The museum contains the nucleus of a municipal art-collec- 
tion, but is mainly devoted to temporary exhibitions, such as that 
of modern ivories and 19th cent, work held there in 1903. Open 
free daily, except Mon., 12-4. Curator, M. Formentin. 

The Galeeie de la Coce, which is entered from both sides of the 
vestibule, contains sculptures. These are subject to change, hut at the 
moment of writing the arrangement is as follows. On the right, Bemaille, 


Love; Boisseau, The harvest of war; ffugues. Potter; A. cCHoudain, War; 
Ch. Perron, Wreckage; E. de Gaspary, Desolation. — On the left, Vital Cornu, 
Archimedes; Levasseur, The pearl; H. Peyrol, The combat; E. Chalroutse 
The foster-mother; Lebattut, Cato if Utica; P&zieux, Dream of the future 

Vestibule. Marble statues. To tbe right and left of the door, two 
large 'Beauvais' vases. 

Large Saloon. This and the following rooms chiefly contain Tapestries. 
The best are the five tapestries of SS. Gervais and Protais, hung above the 
others. These were executed in the studios of the Louvre about 1650-1655, 
i.e. fhortly before the establishment of the Gobelins (p. 323), and represent 
the flagellation of the saints, after Le Sueur; their execution, after S. Bour- 
don; the translation of their relics, their appearance to St. Ambrose, and 
the discovery of their relics, after Ph. de Champaigne. In the upper rows 
also are: Month of August, from the studios of tbe Faubourg St. Marcel 
(lith cent.), after Van Orley's 'Chasses de Maximilien' (see p. 389); Rape 
of Helen; Ulysses recognizing Achilles, after Cojpel (Brussels, 1775-78). 
Below, from right to left: Achilles armed and consoled by Thetis, after 
Coypel (Brussels; ca. 1775); Gipsy camp, The falconer, after Casanova 
(Ueauvais; 1770 and 1774); Bivouac, Striking camp (Gobelins; 1763); Snares 
of Marriage. Repast (Faubourg St. Marcel; ca. 1600); Swoon of Armida 
(Gobelins, 1739). — The glass-cases contain modern articles which are 
changed from time to time: porcelain and earthenware by Chaplet and 
Delaherche; glass by L. Tiffany; pewter articles by Baffler, Desbois, Charpen- 
tier, and Ledru; chased silver casket by Barri; goblet (woman and dog) 
and tray (Comparison) by Vernier; cameo (Autumn) by G.Lemaire; another 
(Idyll) by G. Tonnelier. The case iu front of the 'Striking Camp' contains 
enamels by E. Feuilldtre. On the left, Carrier Belleuse, Drinking-vessel (Flora 
and Cupids); P. Roche, Death illustrated. Sculptures: Turcan, Houdon; 
Vital Cornu, Sweet lassitude ; /. A. Pizieux, Youth; Dalou, Armand Renaud ; 
Bayard de la Vingtrie, Pandora; Baffler, Jeannelte. 

Next Gallery. Statue of Diana by A. Boucher, in the centre. Ancient 
Tapestry: in the middle, March (Faubourg St. Marcel); to the right, The 
Endangered Slumber; left, Pan and Amymone (Gobelin?). Above, draw- 
ings by Puvis de Chavannes. Sculpture: Chatrousse, History recording the 
centenary of the Revolution. Below the 'March 1 is a Collection of Russian, 
Works of Art, presented by Baron de Baye : jewelry, silver goblets, weapons, etc. 
The other cases contain objects of art by Minot, Cazin, Tiffany, and others. 
The large fireplace at the left end of tbe room was made at tie Ecole 
Boulle (p 246). At the right end are more specimens of modern art, by 
Carriis, Chaplet, etc. — The Small Rooms at the ends contain a Tapestry: 
Summer (Gobelins) after paintings by Mignard (1678), destroyed with the 
palace of St. Cloud, and (in the 2nd r, om) vases and statuettes: Charpentier, 
Song; Carles, Youth; Riviere, Salammbo. 

Last Room, next the vestibule. Sculptures: Hercule, Primroses ; A.Moncel, 
Ivy, Love; Charpentier, Pewter fountain. Tapestries (in 'low-warp 1 ): 
Summer and a Pastoral Scene (Gobelins). Also silver-work, enamels, en- 
graved glass, cameos, etc. 

In the Place d'lena, to the W. of the museum, an Equestrian 
Statue of Washington, by Dan. French, was erected in 1900, at the 
cost of the women of America (comp. p. 225). Here also is the — 

*Musee Guimet (PI. R, 12; I), a handsome edifice not devoid 
of originality, with a rotunda at the angle, surmounted by a colon- 
nade and cupola. It contains the extensive and valuable collections 
presented to the state in 1886 by M. Em. Guimet of Lyons, con- 
sisting mainly of a Museum of the Religions of India and Eastern 
Asia, but including also a Library and collections of Oriental Pot- 
tery (comp. pp. 165, 216) and of Antiquities. — The museum is 
open daily, except Mon., from 12 to 5 (4 in winter), and is divided 

222 10. MUSEE GUIMET. 

into the Boissiere section and the Iena section (from the streets on 
to which they front, see below), but only one section is shown on 
any one day. Curator, M. L. de Milloue. Explanatory labels are 
attached to the cabinets, setting forth the general divisions, and in 
certain cases to the individual exhibits. Short illustrated catalogue 
(1900), 1 fr. ; descriptive notice of the objects found at Antinoe', by 
Al. Gayet (1902). Sticks and umbrellas must be given up (no fee). 

Ground Floor. The Rotunda contains casts of objects found in An- 
tinoe (Egypt) in 1902. A collection of original objects found in Antinoe 
in 1903 is also placed here temporarily; it includes the "Mummy of a 
magician, with a mirror, magical formulae, etc. (in the case at the end, 
opposite the staircase). 

Galerie dIeha, to the right: 'Chinese tottery. — 1st Section: Develop- 
ment of the manufacture. Case 1. Celadon (the earliest specimens) from 
Nankin (15th cent.). Case 2. Chinese pottery and turquoise-blue enamels 
manufactured at a high temperature. Case 3. 'Crackle' porcelain. Cases 4*5. 
Modern ware from Nankin and Canton. Case 6. Imitations of ancient por- 
celain. Flat cases to the left of the entrance: Chinese bottles found in 
Egyptian tombs of the 19-20th Dynasties (9th cent. B. C). By the wall, 
large lacquer screen representing a fete at the Summer Palace. — 2nd Sec- 
tion: Development of colour. Case 7. Earthenware (wrongly styled 'boc- 
caros'), Chinese white, and ancient blue porcelains. Cases 8-13 (as we 
return). Blue, red, green, yellow, pink, and other varieties. Case 14, to 
the right, Chinese porcelain with European designs. Central case, ancient 
carved lacquer-work from Pekin; variously decora ed china. — 3rd Section : 
Chronological collection from the Sung Dynasty (960-1279) to modern times, 
the finest dating from the time of Khien Long (1736-69; Case 17). 

Galerie BoissiAbe, to the left: 'Japanese Pottery and Bronzes, arranged 
according to artists and provinces. — 1st and 2nd Sections : Case la, earliest 
fayence, porcelain, and earthenware. Case lb. Korean pottery; in the 
middle, 'Bronze lantern from a temple, large lacquered porcelain vase. 
Case 2 (to the r. of the door), articles used in the ceremony of making 
and serving tea. The ritual of this ceremony dates from the 16th cent., 
and the various gestures and expressions may be used only over the tea. 
In the centre is the master of ceremonies (Tchadjin). Case 3. Seto. Case 4. 
Korea and Soma. Cases 5-9. Tokio, Owari, etc. — 3rd & 4th Sections: 
'Dagoba' or bronze reliquary, of the 16th cent.; vases and kakemonos 
(paintings on silk). Cases A-N, contain a collection of 'kogos', or incense- 
boxes. — 5th Section: Case 13. 'Banko' fayence by the arti9t Gonzaemon. 
Cases 14 & 15. Province of Kaga. Case 16. 'Baku' fayence (black and red 
bowls standing on a silk cover; 2nd row on the r.); large lacquered vase 
in fayence. — 6th Section: modern ware from Kioto; Bizen stoneware in 
imitation of bronze. — 7th Section : fayence made by amateurs, from Hizen, 
Kioto , etc. ; at the end, works by the potter Kinsei (17th cent.) ; bronze 
lamp similar to the one at the entrance. 

The Coobt, reached by a door under the staircase, contains casts of 
the large door of a Buddhist temple at Sankhi. 

The Galerie do Siam et do Cambodge, at the end of the court, is 
open only on Sundays, from the first Sun. in December to Easter Sunday, 
inclusive. It is devoted chiefly to statues of Cambodian deities. Room I 
(Rotunda). Reproduction of an elephant (Siam); Annamite temple and 
palace; Indian processional carriage. — Room II. Sandstone statues of 
Brahman deities. — Room III. Model of the gate of the citadel of Angkor- 
torn. — Room IV. Collection of Buddha-padas (footprints of Buddha). On 
the walls of the last three rooms is the cast of a frieze of a royal pro- 
cession, from Angkor- vat. — To the left of the entrance is the Salle des 
Confirmees , where lectures are given in winter on Sun. at 2.30. 

First Floor. In the Rotnnda is the Library. At the entrance are sta- 
tues of Mondshu and Fughen, the two chief disciples of Buddha, upon a 
lion and an elephant; and two reliquaries. The Paintings in the Rotunda 

10. MUSEE GUIMET. 223 

and following galleries, by Begamey, represent Oriental scenes, religious 
ceremonies, priests, etc. 

The Salle des Parsis, to the left of the entrance to the Galerie d'lena, 
contains a group of Parsees with various implements used in the cult of 
Zoroaster (Mazda), and a model of the 'tower of silence', at Bombay, in 
which the Parsees expose their dead to be devoured by vultures, also a 
picture of this tower. 

• Galerie d'Ikna, to the right, as we face the staircase: "Religion! of 
India and China. — Boom I. Vedic religion. Brahminism, and the modern 
Hindu religion (cult of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, the triad representing 
the creating, preserving, and destroying principles). Wood-carvings from 
chariots of Brahma ; articles used in religious services ; representations of 
temples. In the centre is a bronze figure of Lakshmi, the Indian Venus 
(16th cent.); to the left, a recumbent Vishnu, and Skanda, god of war. — 
Room II. Buddhism, the worship of Sakya-Mooni or Buddha, the 'per- 
fect sage'. 1st Section: In the centre, bronze ''Statue of Siva. Six cases 
containing objects connected with Brahmanism (centre) and its allied sects, 
Jainism (case 12) and Buddhism. In Case 8, Ganessa, god of science. 
Cases 9-11. Statuettes, MSS., sacred books and paintings, articles used in 
worship. Case 13 (1. of the entrance). Marionettes and ornaments from 
Java. — 2nd Section: to the left, Lamaism, or Thibetan Buddhism, in which 
spirits, demons, and magicians play a prominent part. Case 14. Mandala, 
or representation of the world in bronze-gilt. Cases 15 and 16. Statuettes : 
Jigsbyed, a god with ten heads, thirty-four arms, and sixteen legs, holding 
a woman with three eyes; Dakinis, goddesses of evil, with lions' heads 
and fiery hair. To the right, Religions of China. Case 17. Buddha in 
his three states: birth, penitence (line bronze statuette, 18th cent.), and 
transfiguration; transformations and cult of Kouanyin, god of charity 
(admirable bronze- gilt statuette, 17th cent). Case 18. "Drawing dating 
from 1081. illustrating the legend of the ogress Hariti. Case 20. Kouanyin 
in his various avatars: man, woman, devil, etc. Case 21. Taoism, or 
Chinese pantheistic idolatry; statuettes, MSS., coloured drawings, geo- 
mantic compasses (for soothsaying); statue of the philosopher Lao-Tse, 
founder of this religion, on a buffalo (16th cent.). Cases 22, 23. Inferior 
deities and spirits. Case 24. "Eleven boxwood statuettes (18th cent.), 
representing celestial deities; paintings on silk; Chinese coins, the most 
ancient, in the shape of bells or knives, dating from a period prior 
to 2000 B.C. Case 25. Indian deities. Case 26. Beautiful urns used in an- 
cestor-worship. Case 27. Confucianism, the imperial religion in China, in- 
volving ancestor- worship. Central case. Reproduction of the temple of 
Ava, which belonged to the high-priest of Mandalay (Burma). — Room III. 
"Salle de Jade or Gem Room, with numerous articles of jade, a stone 
highly prized in China, many of which come from the imperial Summer 
Palace in Pekin. The highly ornate articles resembling croziers are man- 
darins' sceptres. Many other valuable objects. 

Galeries du Fond, looking on the court. The first gallery, which 
is also divided into sections, contains Indo- China Collections, arranged 
according to their place of origin. 1st Section: Cambodia (mixed Brah- 
minism and Buddhism). — 2nd and 3rd Sections: Laos, Burma, Siam (pure 
Buddhism), Annam and Tonkin (mixture of Taoism and Buddhism). Statues, 
statuettes, MSS., books, musical instruments, fans, coins, etc. — 4th Section : 
Shamanism (witchcraft) ; Siberian Buddhism ; and religion of the island 
of Amoy (marionettes for mystery-performances) — Rotunda. "Model of a 
temple in Amoy; religious scenes; marionette-theatre. — The second 
gallery (Salle des Laques) contains the end of the Japanese Collection, which 
begins in the Galerie Boissiere : combs , comic statuettes , medicine-boxes, 
.sabres and hilts, lacquered boxes, etc. — We now pass through the 
Galerie Boissiere, in order to begin at the end next the staircase. 

Galerie Boissiere : "Religions of Japan. — Room I. 1st and 2nd Sec- 
tions : fine statue of Ida-Ten, god of prayer and peace. Shintoism (to the 
left), the national religion, which has no idols but only symbols of the 
Supreme Being, and the temples of which are always closed; Buddhism, 
six different sects; statues, statuettes, priests' vestments; fine bronze 

224 10. MUSEE GUIMET. 

statuettes and kakemonos (Cases 5 and 7). At the end of the 2nd section 
are two statues of the god of travellers, and two bronze vases, with 
representations of the death and ascension of Buddha. — Room II. Model 
of a " Mandara or pantheon, with nineteen personages representing the 
principal Buddhas. The central group represents Dainiti, the highest per- 
fection, and beings who have become 'buddhas', with the eye of wisdom 
in the centre of their foreheads ; those to the right and left represent their 
transformation into beings whose end is the salvation of souls by gentleness 
or by violence. Around are brasiers , fountains, gongs, statue of Sakya- 
Mooni dying. By the walls are seven large statues on pedestals and twelve 
figures in carved wood, representing the hours of the day and the signs of 
the Zodiac. — Room III. 1st Section: Japanese and Chinese legends. Carious 
and grotesque statuettes, often of admirable execution: Case 14, 'Devil 
turned monk in his old age (note the broken horn) ; bell-bearer with long 
legs; fox as priest; in Case 15, the philosopher Tekiai breathing forth his 
soul; in Case 17, gods of good fortune. — 2nd Section: bronze statue of 
Yiso, guardian deity of children ; historical articles, very interesting stat- 
uettes; lion and lioness as guardians of a temple (13th cent.); wooden 
statue of a pilgrim (to the left). — Room IV. Chapel in gilded wood; 
statues of Amida, one of the immortal 'buddhas'; weapons; statue of Dai- 
Zouigou; group representing a Japanese duel; bronze lanterns. In the 
centre, curious figure of the philosopher Dharma rising from his tomb. 
Behind, bronze statues (18th cent.) including the philosopher as beggar (the 
little flag in his mouth represents his soul); men with long legs and arms. 
At the back, some fine large paintings. — Gallery on the right, see p. 223. 

Second Floor. The Rotunda, supported by caryatides, contains Paint- 
ings (titles given), by Regamey. Immediately beside the entrance, in a 
large glass-case, are objects found in the excavations made at Antinoe: 
"Body of a Greek woman named Thais, clothed in her gala-dress, with gold- 
embroidered shoes on her tiny feet; roses of Jericho, bouquet of immor- 
telles, jar containing wine from Mike, and necklaces of real pearls found 
in Thai's's sarcophagus. Beside it, "Body of the hermit Serapion, clothed, with 
enormous iron rings round his arms, legs, and waist, the last connected 
by a bar with the collar encircling his neck. To the right of the entrance, 
painted shroud with the life-size portrait of Thai's holding a cross; in the 
case farther on, Christian fabrics from Antinoe, and a well-preserved her- 
mit's head; to the left, fragment of a veil from a sanctuary at Antinoe 
representing Bacchus and a goddess; pagan fabrics from the same source. 
Then a case containing the costume if a Roman female musician, two 
lyres, jewels, amulets, etc.; at the end, various objects found in the Ro- 
man necropolis at Antinoe, and restored by Paul Gerard. — Opposite 
Thai's, on the other aide of the rotunda, are two cases with articles found 
in Egyptian, Roman, Byzantine, and Coptic tombs at Antinoe: 'Mummy 
of Leukyone, dating perhaps from the reign of Heliogabalus, of the type 
known as 'white mummies', i.e. not embalmed and not treated with bitumen. 
She is in a dress of greyish yellow and wears a woollen veil; gilded eyes 
have been inserted; on the forehead a small gold disc; a wreath of leaves 
binds her black hair, and red leather shoes with gold applique-work cover 
her feet. On the right are an image or emblem of the cult of Isis found 
with the mummy ; twelve Graeco-Egyptian figurines ; a small naos (cella) ; 
phallic collar composed of fifteen Isiac heads of Venus. On the left clothed 
mummy of a Byzantine lady with foliage twined in her hair; round about 
are enamelled marguerites and a wooden tablet with the design of an 
apse, symbol of the Church. 

Galeeie D'IftNA : Japanese Paintings, drawings, albums, and engravings 
(chiefly 18th and 19th cent.), and some admirable sculpture. On the easels, 
a number of framed drawings and sketches. At the end is a palanquin. 
Then, Graeco-Roman Antiquitiet: Statuettes of Bacchus, Apollo, Juno, and 
jEsculapius; busts (fine Greek head by the window to the right; period 
of Pericles). The case to the left of the entrance contains ancient 'Glass 
from Syria (Durighello Collection) ; Phoenician, Egyptian, Roman, Semitic, 
Byzantine, Greeco-Syrian, and Arabian glass. End-cases: large Greek vases; 
Tanagra figurines; sepulchral statuettes in terracotta in attitudes of adora- 

10. TROCADERO. 225 

tion. To the right of the entrance, Greek and Etruscan vases. By the 
window, fragment of a frescoed ceiling, from Pozzuoli. In the adjoining 
case are fragments of frescoes from Pompeii and pottery from Pozzuoli. 

Transverse Gallery (closed). Gallo -Roman bronze va ea fonnd at 
Vienna (France) ; gold ornaments; cut stones; objects from Armenia, Georgia, 
Sog'liana. and Cappadoiia; fabrics, vases, antiquities. Interesting, though 
of small intrinsic value, are the curiosities from Korea: statuettes costumes, 
litters, catafalque, and o'her objects relating to funeral rites; weapons. 

The Rotonda at the end contains the most interesting part of the 
Korean collection: groups of figures, furniture, and paintings. — Turning 
back, we enter the — 

Galeeie Boissiere : Egyptian Antiquities. Coffins with mummies ; ob- 
jects found in graves (canopic va s es, case i) ; reproductions of 8? pulcbral 
paintings (ca. 2500 B.C., descriptions at the sides). To the right of the entrance: 
shoes, quivers, leg-armour, combs, etc., found at Antinoe; marble statue 
of Uiana of Ephesus (copy executed in the l'th or 18th cent.); small 
bronzes; historical and sacrificial articles; deities; statue of Isis ; royal 
figurines (enamelled); Assyrian cylinders and engraver! stones ; at the end, 
Alexandrian deities, objects pertaining to the cult of Isis elsewhere than 
in Egypt. Cases on the left. Objecti found at Antinoe: "Portraits painted 
on plaster and a female sepulchral mask. Cases on the right t4th section). 
More objects from Antinoe. Ri^ht wall, Egyptian portrait, piesented by 
the Egypt Exploration Fund; wooden statue (copy, original at Cairo) of 
the 'Sheik el-Beled' (village-mayor), one of the oldest Egyptian carvings. 
Case 12 t from Antinoe). Mummy-mask, sepulchral statuettes, alabaster vases, 
terracotta figurines, fayence, glass, shoes, fabrics. Then, Phoenician stela; 
from Sidon and Central Asia. 

In the hall which is used as an annexe to the museum a collection 
of pottery, lace, fabrics, jewelry, etc., brought from Russia by the Baron 
de Baye in 1903, finds a temporary place. 

A little to the right of the Mus6e Guimet the Avenue d'le'na 
passes the Place des Etats-Unis (PI. R, 12; J), at the other end of 
which is a fine bronze Oroup of Washington and Lafayette, hy Bar- 
tholdi, presented by several Americans in 1895 in commemoration 
of the aid of France in securing the independence of the United 
States. Thence the Rue Galilee leads to the left to the Avenue 
Kleber, not far from the Trocadero. 

The "Trocadero (PI. R, 8; /) is a height on the right bank of the 
Seine, opposite the Champ-de-Mars, bearing the name of one of the 
torts of Cadiz captured by the French in 1823. Napoleon I. contem- 
plated the erection of a palace here for the king of Rome, but it was 
not until the Exhibition of 1867 that the site was levelled, the con- 
struction of the present edifice and the laying-out of the park being 
postponed until that of 1878. 

The Avenue du Trocadero ends at the top of the eminence , in 
the Place du Trocadero (PI. R, 8, 9, /,- tramways and Me'tropolitain, 
see p. 219), behind the palace. This Place is the converging-point 
also of the Avenue Kleber, coming from the Arc de Triomphe de 
i'Etoile (p. 76), the Avenue Malakoff, coming from the Av. du 
Bois de Boulogne (p. 230), and the Avenue Henri-Martin, coming 
from the Bois itself (p. 230). — The Avenue d'lena, on the other 
hand, leads from the Musee Guimet to the park in front of the palace 

The Palais du Trocadero (PI. R, 8 ; I) is a huge building In 
the Oriental style, designed by Davioud and Bourdais. The cen- 

BaeDEKER. P"ia 15ih Edit 15 

226 10. TROCADERO. 

tral portion consists of a circnlai edifice, 63 yds. in diameter and 
180 ft. in height, flanked by two minarets 105 ft. high and two 
curved wings furnished with galleries, 220 yds. in length, the whole 
edifice thus presenting the appearance of an imposing crescent. The 
terrace in front of the central building is embellished with six 
figures in gilded bronze: Europe, by Schoenewerk, Asia by Fal- 
guiere, Africa by Delaplanehe, N. America by Hiolle, S. America by 
Millet, and Oceana by Moreau. Below the terrace gushes forth a 
large *Cascadb, which descends to a huge basin surrounded by a 
bull, a horse, an elephant, and a rhinoceros in .bronze, by Cain, 
Rouillard, Fremiet, and Jacquemart. Under the arches flanking the 
cascade are allegorical figures of Water, by Cavalier, and Ait, by 
Thomas. On a level with the spring of the dome is another gallery 
adorned with thirty statues representing the arts , sciences , and 
various industries. The dome itself is surmounted by a colossal 
statue of Fame, by A. Mercie. 

The Galleries (cafe-buffet) and Balconies command an admirable "View 
of Paris (best at sunset). Visitors may ascend by a lift (50 c, on Sun. 
25 c), in the N.E. tower. Concerts are often given in the elaborately- 
decorated Salle des Fetes, which contains an immense organ by Cavaille'- 
Coll and has seats for 6000 persons (adm. at other times by order from 
the secretary of the Beaux-Arts, Rue de Valois 3, Palais-Royal). 

The Palais du Trocndero contains important museums of Comparative 
Sculpture (casts) and nf Ethnography. — The *Musee de Sculpture Comparee, 
or Mmfe de' Moulages, occupies the left wing, next to the Place, and part of 
the ri;iht wing of the building. Open as a rule 11-5 from May 1st to Sept. 
30th, at other times 11-4 (closed on Mon.). The casts illustrate different 
phases of sculpture, from Romanesque to Gothic, developed by French art, and 
are arranged chronologically. Explanatory labels are attached to each cast. 
The rooms are designated by letters (A, B, etc. ; corresponding letters in 
the catalogue). Catalogue (IhOO) 1 fr. ; Illustrated Catalogue of the Mon- 
uments of the 14-15th cent. (1892) 4 fr. Curator, M. Enlart. 

The Musee Cambodgien, or Musie des Monuments Khmers, is situated in 
the other wing of the palace, beyond the Rotunda and after Room If. of the 
Musee de Sculpture Compare'e. The shortest way of getting from one 
wing to the other is to pass through the Place. — This collection, which 
is open at the same hours as the museum of casts, consists of original 
sculptures, casts, and reproductions of Monuments of the Khmers, the 
ancient inhabitants of Cambodia. Though fantastic in conception, their 
ideas of art were not without grandeur. Their subjects were taken chiefly 
from the animal and vegetable kingdoms, the 'naga', a colossal hydra with 
seven heads, the three-headed elephant, and the lion being the favourite 
motives. The oldest Khmer monuments are believed to date from the 
4-6th cent, of our era. 

Room I. At the end of the room the entrance to a Khmer sanctuary 
is reproduced, with a statue of Brahma in the middle. Right wall, false 
door from Prah Kou (9th cent.) flanked by 'apsaras' or deified bayaderes 
(Loley); farther on, Brahman deity seated on a seven-headed 'naga' (Prak- 
han). Opposite the door, reconstructed turret trom the temple of Baton 
at Angkor-tom (Siam), adorned with the quadruple face of Brahma. Left 
wall, false door from Me Boune; execution of a condemned man by an 
elephant, bas-relief from Prakhan. — Room II. The case to the left con- 
tains an ancient helmet from Phnom-Penhan ; an antique Khmer statuette 
(Travinh) ; Vedic Trimurti, in bronze; funeral vases and urns from Angkor. 
Farther on, reproduction of the main entrance to the temple of Angkor- 
vat. Then small bronzes ; silver plaquettes with reliefs of Buddha. Rear 
wall, reconstruction of a gallery (painted in colours) from the sanctuary 

10. TROCADERO. 227 

of Angkor-vat ; above the door, Devas and Assuras churning the sea. To 
the right are monuments from Beng-Meala. — Room III. Continuation of 
the Angkor-vat gallery. Between the doors is a polychrome relief of a 
royal barge. On the wall to the right, relief of a princess borne in a 
palanquin, with her suite. A large glass-case contains a "Relief of the 
temple of Baion (p. 226), painted and gilded, on a scale of 1 : 100. — Re- 
turning to Room II, we descend the staircase to the Lower Gbound Floob, 
devoted to larger Cambodian antiquities. In the middle is a colossal naga 
supported by yaks and gods. 

The Ethnographical Museum is on the first floor, behind the rotunda. 
It is generally open on Sun., Tues., and Thurs. 12-4 or 5, but may be 
seen also on Wed., Frid., and Sat. after 1 p.m. by feeing the custodian. It 
is reached by the staircases opposite the entrance to the Muse'e de Sculpture 
Comparee. The exhibits are labelled. Arrangement frequently changed. 
Curators, Or. Harny and M. Lcmdrin. 

The staircases are lighted by handsome stained-glass windows (inscrip- 
tions). We begin on the left side, coming from the Place du Trocadero. — 
1st Vestibule. Casts of statuary from Santa Lucia Cosumalhuapa (Honduras) ; 
Indian hut from Terra del Fuego ; objects from Oceana and Africa, models 
of natives, constructions, etc. — Room on the left of the staircase, or on 
the right as we return. Africa. Great variety of objects from N. (Algeria, 
Tunis), S., and Central Africa. In the middle, plans in relief of Algerian 
tombs and of a subterranean palace in Tunis ; curious statues of three 
kings of Dahomey and a deity of Whydah. — Galleries on the opposite 
side. America. Left-hand gallery : Canoes used by Indians on the Orinoco, 
twenty-one figures of male ana female Indians; rude sculptures, fabrics, 
utensils, vases, etc. Main gallery. 1st section : Indian tribal figures, weapons, 
etc. from the Guianas. The three following sections are devoted to mummies, 
vases, and other objects from Peru and Ecuador. 5th section : similar 
objects from Venezuela, Colombia, and Central America. 6th section: 
sculptures, flints, and bronze axes from Mexico. In the centre, facsimile of 
a Mexican MSS. 7th section : Mexican antiquities continued, including a 
curious terracotta statue with pastillage decoration of a Toltec divinity. 
8th section: flints, weapons, and vases from New Mexico, California, etc. 
9th section: figures, textiles, and so forth, of Indian communities in the 
United States and Canada. — 2nd Vestibule. Europe. Curiosities from Italy, 
Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Galicia, Servia, Albania, Germany, Sweden, 
Norway, Lapland, Iceland, Russia, and Finland. — In the next Room: 
France. Curious specimens of 'Costumes, ornaments, and implements: on 
the right, Shepherd from the Landes ; Woman from Aube ; Breton interior 
(12 figures); Breton head-dresses; left, Group from Ariege; right, head- 
dresses and utensils from Alsace and Lorraine; Group from Savoy ; Woman 
from the district of Bourges; Auvergne interior (11 figures); Mountaineer 
from Aveyron; left, Group from Normandy ; right, Lapidary of St. Claude 
and woman of Besancon; Burgundian interior; Groups from the Pyrenees 
and the Alpes Maritimes. 

The staircase on this side is occupied with objects from Turkey, Por- 
tugal, the Balearic Isles (cyclopean monuments), Labrador, Alaska, and 
Greenland; models of two Esquimaux. — A gallery on the 2nd floor (closed) 
is to be appropriated to exhibits from Oceana. 

The Paec du Trocadero slopes down from the palace to the 
Seine. — To the left of the Trocadero is the Aquarium, properly a 
fish-breeding establishment (tench, salmon, etc.), open daily except 
Mod. ; entrance Quai Debilly. Above is a small garden in the Japan- 
ese style. The public are not admitted, but it can be viewed from 
the upper part of the park. 

Below the middle of the park the Seine is crossed by the Pont 
d'lena (PI. R, 8 ; I), constructed in 1809-13, by Lamande, to com- 
memorate the victory of that name (1806) and widened by 33 ft. 


228 10. PASSY. 

in 1900. It is adorned with eagles and with four colossal horse- 
tamers (Greek, Roman, Gaul, and Arab). Beyond the bridge is the 
Champ-de-Mars (p. 304), with the Eiffel Tower. 

Passy, in which the Trocade*ro is situated, is connected with 
the left bank of the Seine by the Ponts de Passy and de Orenelle 
(p. 229). Its lofty and healthy situation and its proximity to the 
Bois de Boulogne have long made it a favourite place of residence, 
and it contains numerous handsome private mansions. 

On the height to the left, near the palace, is the Cemetery of Passy 
(PI. R, 8; /), with some fine monuments. Entrance, No. 2 Rue des Re- 
servoirs, to the right of the steps. Immediately to the right, inside, is the 
mausoleum of Marie Bashkirtseff (d. 1884), by Emile Bastien-Lepage. An 
avenue on the left of the central avenue leads to the fine monument of the 
Henri Laurent family, by Theunissen. In a corner to the right, at the end 
of the avenue, is the tomb of Jane Henriot, the victim of the fire at the 
Theatre Francais (see p. 8S), with a tasteful marble bust by Puech. 

The Avenue Henhi- Martin (PI. R, 8, 9, 6 ; tramway T N) is the 
principal thoroughfare of Passy. It continues the Avenue du Troca- 
de"ro, and leads to the Bois de Boulogne (1 M.). About half-way 
down the Avenue, on the right, are the large Lycee Janscn de Sailly 
(PL R, 9, 6) and, a little farther on, the Mairie of the 16th Arron- 
dissement (on the left), the latter of which contains paintings by 
Ch. Chauvin. Farther on, to the right, between this Avenue and 
the Avenue Victor-Hugo , is a square with a Statue of Lamartine 
(1790-1869), in bronze, by M. de Vasselot (1886), adjoining which 
is the Artesian Well of Passy (covered). At the point where these 
avenues meet, a few yards beyond, is the Avenue du Trocadero 
Station (PI. R, 6) of the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture. 

The Ligne du Champ-de-Mars, which at first runs parallel to the Ceinture, 
diverges to the left at this station, passing under the heights of Passy. 
There are stations in the Rue de Boulainvillers (PI. R, 5) and on the quay 
of the right bank. The line then crosses the Seine to the AlUe del Cpgnes, 
by the bridges mentioned on p. 229, and goes on along the Ligne des Mou- 
lineaux to the Champ-de-Mars (p. 304). 

In the Rue Singer, at the corner of the Rue Raymond fPl. R, 5), is a 
tablet with an inscription to the effect tbat Benjamin Franklin lived here 
in 1777-85, when envoy to France, and placed on the house the first 
lightning-conductor ever made in France. 

The Porte de la Muette, at the end of the Avenue Henri-Martin, 
is one of the chief entrances to the Bois de Boulogne on this side. 
The pretty park of La Muette (PI. R, 5) is closed to the public. 

In the time of Louis XIV. this was a hunting-lodge. Philippe d'Orle'ans, 
the regent, built a one-storied house there for his daughter, the Duchesse 
de Berry, who rendered it famous by her 'apres-diners de la Muette'. The 
second story and the garrets were added by Louis XV., who held high 
revels there; it is associated with the residence of Mme. Dubarry and 
afterwards of Louis XVI. 

Near it, on the S.W., is the Ranelagh, a triangular grass-plot 
occupying the site of the public establishment of that name, which 
was famous at the end of the 18th century for its fetes, and was 
constructed by order of Marie Antoinette on the model of its London 

10. AUTEUIL. 229 

namesake. Near the tramway-office is the handsome Monument of 
La Fontaine (1621-96), with his bust, a statue of Fame, and figures 
of the fabulist's favourite animals, in bronze, by Dumilatre. Adja- 
cent, to the left, a statue of Cain by Cattle"; to the right, a Fisher- 
man, with the head and the lyre of Orpheus, by Longepied; 'Fugit 
Amor', by Dame, etc. A military band plays here on Thurs. in 
summer (see p. 41). 

Auteuil, a quiet suburban district with numerous villas, like 
Passy, lies to the S.E., between the Seine and the Bois de Boulogne. 
A pleasant route leads thither from the Ranelagh, passing between 
the lakes in the Bois de Boulogne (p. 231) and the racecourse of 
Auteuil (p. 232). It may also be reached from the station of Passy 
via the handsome Rue Mozart ( 2 / 3 M. ; PL R, 5. 4), which is traversed 
by a tramway. From the station of Auteuil,- near the Bois (PI. R, 1), 
tramways ran to the Madeleine, St. Sulpice, and Boulogne (p. 338). 
Here also begins the immense * Viaduct of the Chemin de Fer de 
Ceinture, 11/4 M. long, constructed throughout of masonry, with 
several galleries for foot-passengers beneath the line, and 234 arches. 
It ends with the *Pont a" Auteuil or du Point-du-Jour (PI. (J, 4), 
where the viaduct proper rises between two carriage-roads. 

In the Rue d' Auteuil, No. 2, Moliere's villa once stood. To the 
right, Rue Boileau 12, is the EtaUissement Hydrotherapique d' Auteuil, 
occupying the site of Boileau's house. The Rue d' Auteuil ends at 
the Romanesque church of Notre-Dame-d' Auteuil, restored in 1877- 
81 by Vaudremer. In front is the simple monument of the chan- 
cellor Fr. d'Aguesseau (1668-1751); to the right, the Maison Chardon- 
Lagache, and behind are the handsome Institution Ste. Ferine and 
the Maison Rossini, three charitable houses. The FojnX Mirabeau 
(PI. R, 4), an iron bridge with statues by Injalbert (1895-97), crosses 
the Seine at the end of the Rue Mirabeau. 

To the S.W. of the Porte <T Auteuil, on the S. margin of the Bois de 
Boulogne, lies the EtaUissement Horticole or Fleuriste (PI. R, 1), a large 
municipal nursery - garden for the supply of plants for the public pro- 
menades of Paris (open daily, 1-6, in the second half of April, when the 
azaleas are in blossom ; at other times by permission of the director, at 
the Hotel de Ville). — Near the Gare d' Auteuil is the V&lodrome du Parc- 
des-Princes (p. 42). 

We may return from Auteuil either by the Chemin de Fer de Cein- 
ture (Point-dit-Jour Stat, on the right bank, or Javel on the left; see the 
Appx., p. 39), by tramway (p. 219), or by steamer (Appx. p. 40). — At the 
lower end of the Allte des Cygnes, on the Pont de Grenelle (PI. E, 4-7), is 
a reduced copy in bronze of the statue of Liberty enlightening the World, 
by Bartholdi, in New York Harbour. The Alle'e extends to the Pont de Passy 
(PI. E, 8; /), near the Champ-de-Mars (p. 304; steamboat-stations). This 
bridge was shortened by 66 ft. in 1903 to make room for the Mitropolitain 
viaduct (see p. 28). 


11. Bois de Boulogne. 

Mitropolitain, see the Appx., p. 37; stations at the Porte Maillot and 
Porte Dauphine, p. 37. — Chemin de Fer de Ceinture pare St. Lazare, see 
Appx., p. 39); stations at the Porte Maillot, in the Avenue du Bois-de- 
Boulogne (see below), at Passy (p. 228), in the Avenue Henri-Martin (Troca- 
dero, p. 225), and at the Porte d'Auteuil (see helow). — Tramways: Hotel 
de Ville-Passy ; Muette-Eue Taitbout ; Louvre-Versailles; St. Sulpice-Anteuil ; 
Madeleine - Auteuil ; Madeleine - Neuilly - Courbevoie ; St. Philippe - du - Roule- 
Neuilly-St. James; Place de TEtoile-Courbevoie ; Place de TEtoile-St. Ger- 
main. — The Chemin de Fer du Bois de Boulogne skirts the Bois from the 
Porte Maillot to beyond Suresnes (p. 339; 35 and 25 c. to the bridge). — 
Steamboat (Appx., p. 40) to Suresnes, which is 1/2 M. from the Grande Cascade 
(p. 232) and 1 M. from the Lac Infe'rieur (p. 231). 

If a Cab is taken (by the hour; special tariff, see -A pp., p. 41) visitors 
can make a rapid inspection of the principal points in 2-3 hours. Those 
who do not wish to keep the cab waiting for the return-journey should finish 
their drive in the Bois before visiting the Jardin d'Acclimatation. 

Restaurants, see pp. 15, 18. 

The Avenue de la Grande-Armee, beyond the Atc de l'Etoile 
(p. 75), leads to the Porte Maillot (which is named from the 'Jeu 
de Mail' played here in the 18th cent.), at the beginning of Neuilly 
(p. 218) and near the Jardin d'Acclimatation (p. 232). — The other 
entrances to the Bois are at the Porte Dauphine (PL R, 6), at the end 
of the Avenue du Bois -de - Boulogne (see below) ; the Porte de la 
Muette (PI. R, 5), the nearest to the Trocade'ro (p. 225) ; the Porte 
d'Auteuil (PI. R, 1), on the S.E., about 1 M. from the steamboat- 
station on the Seine (see Appx., p. 40); the Porte de Boulogne, on 
the road to Boulogne (see Plan); the Porte de l' Hippodrome, near the 
Longchamp racecourse; the Porte de St. Cloud, near the Aqueduc de 
l'Avre (p. 232); and the Porte de Suresnes, near the polo -ground 
(p. 232). 

The Avetiue du Bois - de- Boulogne , leading from the Arc de 
l'Etoile to the W. , is the usual route followed by the fashionable 
crowd in carriages, on horseback, or on foot proceeding from the 
Champs-Elyse'es. This avenue, which was laid out in 1853 and 
named the Avenue de l'lmperatrice in honour of the young Empress 
Euge'nie, is about 140 yds. in breadth (including the side-alleys and 
the dividing strips of turf) and is 3 / 4 M. long to the Porte Dauphine. 
To the right, near the beginning of the avenue, is the Monument 
of Alphand (1817-91), under whose superintendence the important 
works which transformed a large part of Paris were carried out (see 
p. xxvii); he is surrounded by his collaborators Bouvard and Huet, 
the painter Roll, and the sculptor Dalou, who executed the group. 

The palatial building in the Louis XVI. style in the Avenue Malakoff, 
which we cross, was built by Samson for Count Bonl de Castellane. At 
No. 59 in the Av. du Bois-de-Boulogne, farther on, on the left, is the 
Musie Dennery, where the dramatic author of that name (1811-99) resided. 
The collections comprise Chinese and Tonquinese curiosities. 

The *Bois de Boulogne (PI. B, 6, 3 ; R, 6, 3, 2, 1) is a beautiful 
park covering an area of 2250 acres, bounded by the fortifications of 


Paris on the E. (see p. xxiv), the Seine on the W., Boulogne 
(p. 338) and the Boulevard d'Auteuil on the S., and Neuilly (p. 218) 
on the N. It is a fragment of the extensive old F6ret de Rouvray, 
which covered nearly the whole of the peninsula formed by the Seine 
on which Paris is built. Princely mansions, like the chateaux of 
Madrid (p. 232), of La Muette (p. 228), of Bagatelle, and the cele- 
brated Abbaye de Longchamps (p. 232), were scattered along the 
borders, but the forest itself received little attention and was long 
in evil odour, being the resort of duellists, suicides, and robbers. 
In 1852 it was presented by the state to the municipality, the latter 
undertaking to reclaim it and also to maintain it in the future. The 
authorities accordingly converted it, at a cost of 220,00(R, into 
the present magnificent park, the favourite promenade of the Paris- 
ians. — The annexed plan will enable the visitor to find his way 
without difficulty. 

The Bois de Boulogne is most frequented in the afternoon 
between 3 and 5 o'clock (later in summer). The principal entrances 
are at the Porte Maillot (p. 218), by the Allee de Longchamp, and 
the Porte Dauphine, where the Route de Suresnes begins. These two 
routes are sometimes so thronged with carriages, motor-cars, and 
bicycles that it is only possible to proceed at a walk. — The Fete 
des Fleurs, which takes place on May 30th and 31st, is a brilliant 

The broad Allee de Longchamp leads straight to the racecourse 
(2 M.; p. 232). Not far from the Porte Maillot, on the right, is the 
Mare d'Armenonville, with the Pavilion d'Armenonville Kestaurant 
(p. 15). — The Route des Erables, to the right as we come from the 
Porte Maillot, is reserved exclusively for cyclists, and the Route de 
la Longue- Queue, between the Porte de Madrid (p. 232) and the 
Carrefour du Chateau-de-Bagatelle (p. 232) for motorists and cyclists 

The spacious Route de Suresnes , which begins at the Pavilion 
Chinois (to the right; cafe', p. 19), leads to the Carrefour du Bout- 
des-Lacs (ca. 1/2 M.), one of the finest points in the Bois de Bou^ 
logne. It lies at the lower end of two artificial lakes, the Lac In- 
ferieur ( 2 / 3 M. in length and 100 yds. in width) and the Lac 
Superieur (t/ 4 M. in length and 60 yds. in width), which are fed by 
the Canal del'Ourcq (p. 236) and the Artesian Well of Passy (p. 228). 
Two brooks issue from the Lac Inferieur, one of which flows to the 
lardin d'Acclimatation, the other, or 'Riviere de Longchamp', to 
the cascade (p. 232). We walk round the lakes, beginning at the 
left side. In the Lac Inferieur are two islands, on one of which is 
a oafe-restaurant in the form of a Swiss chalet. It is reached by a 
ferry (on the left; 10 c. there and back). Near it are boats for hire 
(2 fr. and upwards, see the tariff). 

Beyond the carrefuur the Chemin du Lac Inferieur skirts on the right 
the Photographie Hippique, then the lawns of the Croix Catelan, with the 
chalet, tennis-courts, etc. of the Racing Club (p. 43). 


Between the two lakes is the Carrefour des Cascades, and at the 
S. end of the Lac Superieur is the Butte Mortemart. The Champ 
de Courses d'Auteuil (see p. 41) is situated here. From behind the 
race-stands a fine view is obtained of part of Boulogne and the 
heights of St. Cloud. — Auteuil, see p. 229. 

On arriving at the upper extremity of the Lac Superieur we turn 
to the right and walk along the margin of the lake to the Carrefour 
des Cascades (see above). Hence we follow the Avenue de V Hippo- 
drome to the left, or the walk at the side (see Plan), both of which 
cross the wide Alice de la Heine Marguerite and lead in 15-20 min. 
to the Qrande Cascade, an artificial waterfall issuing from a grotto. 
After viewing the waterfall, we may ascend the eminence in front 
of it, which affords a fine view of the valley of the Seine ; to the left, 
on the opposite bank, lies St. Cloud with its modern church ; nearer 
is the Hippodrome de Longchamp (see below) ; opposite us are a mill 
and two towers of the ancient Abbey of Longchamp , founded in 
1256 by Isabelle de France, sister of St. Louis, which achieved an 
unenviable notoriety at the end of the 18th cent, through the extra- 
vagant society functions held there during Holy Week in connection 
with the 'sacred concerts'. 

The Hippodrome de Longchamp is the principal racecourse for 
flat races in the neighbourhood of Paris (see p. 41). It is also the 
scene of the great military reviews. 

Behind the race-stands are the Chalets du Cycle (see p. 19). 

The Seine may be crossed here either via the Pont de Swesnes (p. 339), 
or by a Foot Bridge (Passerelle de VAquedue de VAvre), on the side next 
Boulogne and St. Cloud. — Near the Pont de Suresnes is the chief station 
of the Chemin de Fer du Bois de Boulogne (p. 230). 

The Route de Neuilly (p. 218), at the opposite end from the racecourse, 
passes between the Champ d'Entrainement and the park of the little chateau 
of Bagatelle (on the right), constructed in one month by the Comte d'Artois 
(Charles X.) in consequence of a wager with Marie Antoinette. The Doc 
de Berry resided here subsequently, and it was afterwards the property of 
Sir Richard Wallace (d. 1890J, from whose heirs it was purchased by the 
municipality of Paris in May, 1904. Between it and the Champ d'Entraine- 
ment is the ground of the Polo Club. Farther on, to the left, in the Seine, 
are the small lie de la Folie and the large He de Puteaux, which is spanned by 
the Punt de Puteaux, and accommodates a boating and tennis club. 

The part of Neuilly adjoining this side of the Bois de Boulogne is 
known as Madrid, a name derived from a chateau which once stood in this 
neighbourhood, built by Francis 1. after the Battle of Pavia, and said to be 
thus named as a reminiscence of his captivity in Spain. Bridge to Puteaux, 
see p. 332. At the Porte de Madrid is a Restaurant. To the right of the 
Route de Madrid is an enclosure called Les Acacias (skating and gun club); 
to the left lie the Mare de St. James and the Jardin d'Acclimatation (see below). 

The *Jardin d'Acclimatation is an enclosed part of the Bois 
de Boulogne adjoining the Boulevard de Maillot , situated to the 
S. of the Avenue de Neuilly, between the Porte des Sablons and 
the Porte de Madrid, and affords one of the most attractive promen- 
ades in the environs of Paris. It was founded by a company in 
1854 'in order to introduce into France and acclimatise foreign 


plants and animals suitable for domestic or ornamental purposes'. 
It covers an area of 50 acres. 

Visitors who hire a cab in Paris, and do not wish to drive beyond 
the fortifications, should dismiss it at the Porte Maillot (p. 230; see also 
Appx., p. 41). From the Porte Dauphine or the Porte Maillot to the Jardin 
is about '/a M. ; a miniature tramway runs from the latter Porte (fare '20 c. ; 
to the lake in the .lardin 35 c). The Chemin de Fer du Bois de Boulogne 
(p. 230) has a station at each end of the garden. — The Porte Maillot 
stati n on the MUropolitain, (see Appx., p. 37) lies opposite the 'octroi' office, 
to the left of which is the tramway station and the road to the Jardin. 

The Jardin d'Acclimatation is open the whole day. Admission 
1 fr. (greenhouses included); on Sundays and holidays l fe fr.; carriagr 
3 fr., in addition to the charge for each person in it; no charge foe 
coachman. Children under seven enter free. Reduced rates for large 
parties. Annual subscription 25 fr. 

The principal entrance is on the E. side, near the Porte des Sa- 
blons, but there are others to the left (at the Palmarium; see below), 
and at the end near the Porte de Neuilly. — The following itiner- 
ary includes most of the objects of interest. Comp. the Plan, p. 231. 

On entering, we find ourselves in a handsome walk, 11 yds. wide, 
which runs round the whole garden. On the left are the Palais du 
Jardin d'Hiver, which includes the Grande Serve (PI. 15), with its 
wealth of exotic plants, and the Palmarium (PI. 14; chair 10 c). 
The orchestral performances, which take place on Sun. and Thurs. 
at 3 p.m., are given here in bad weather instead of outside; the en- 
trance is free but the seats cost 2, 1, and Yg fr. Matinees (plays, etc.) 
at the Palais du Jardin d'Hiver on Thurs. at 2.30 ; tickets 1 fr. ; book- 
ing-fee Y2 fr- The building includes the Cafe-Restaurant du Pal- 
marium (previous inquiry as to prices advisable) ; behind it are the 
Birds, a Parrot House, and the Aquariums. 

Opposite, or to the right as we enter, are two Small Hothouses, 
the Offices (PI. 1) of the company, and a Museum (PI. 2) illustrating 
hunting and fishing, adjoined by the sale-rooms and the Vivarium, 
a small room reserved for rare animals. Farther on, to the Tight, is 
the Singerie, or winter monkey-house (PI. 3). 

To the left are the Grallae, or wading-birds : storks, flamingoes, 
cranes, herons, a secretary-bird, ostriches, cassowaries, marabouts; 
then pheasants. Behind are Vultures, Aquatic Birds (swans, geese, 
ducks of all kinds), and the Pigeon House, \n which carrier-pigeons 
are reared. Then, a pavilion with caymans, turtles, a python, and 
other serpents. • To the right of the walk is the Faisanderie (PI. 4), in 
front of which is a statue in white marble of the naturalist Dauben- 
ton (1716-1799), by Godin. This building contains parroquets, 
herons, ibises, mandarin ducks, and several other kinds of birds, 
besides the pheasants. Next follow the Alpacas; Antelopes; Llamas; 
Yaks; various kinds of foreign Goats; and, behind, the Poulerie 
(PI. 5), a semicircular concrete building. 

At the "W. end of the garden are the Ecuries (PI. 6), or stables, 
and enclosures connected with them, containing quadrupeds trained 


for the purposes of the garden or the amusement of visitors. A great 
source of delight to children here is a ride on the back of an el- 
ephant or dromedary, or a drive in a carriage drawn by ostriches, 
llamas, etc. — The adjoining lawn (Pelouse des Exhibitions) is used 
in summer for encampments of foreign tribes and the like. In sum- 
mer, too, the monkeys disport themselves in the Paradis des Singes, 
and a captive balloon sometimes adds to the attractions, the ascent 
costing 3 fr. from 9 to 12, and 5 fr. from 1 to 6. 

Farther on are the Quagga, Zebra, and Giraffe Houses. To the 
side, the Porcupines, Pacas, Agoutis, Blue Foxes, and various other 
animals. Then, to the left, are Antelopes, Kangaroos, and Llamas, 
and the Reindeer and the Cattle-Shed, to the right. Farther on, to the 
left, are the basin of the Ottaries or sea-lions (PI. 8), which are fed 
at 3 p.m., and a rocky enclosure for Chamois (PI. 9), Mountain Goats, 
and other climbing animals. Behind are Antelopes, Llamas, and 
Alpacas. To the right of the circular walk is the Laiterie, or dairy. 
The Aquarium (PI. 10) is not very interesting. Behind are a Seal, 
the Penguins, the fish-ponds, and the Myopotami. 

Farther on is a Cafe-Buffet (PI. 11 ; closed in winter), opposite 
which is the summer Kiosque des Concerts. Then come the Deer 
Paddocks, and (in summer) the Parrots. Finally, to the right, is the 
Kennel (PI. 13), containing thoroughbred dogs, whose pedigrees are 
carefully recorded. 

12. North-Eastern Quarters. 

With the exception of the park of the Buttes - Chaumont and the ele- 
vated portion of the 'Me'tropolitain' the N.E. quarters of Paris offer no 
attractions to the visitor. The Rue-d Allemagne Station on the Milropolilain 
is the most convenient (see Appx., p. 38), the Kue Secretan leading thence 
(on the right) to the park. The Tramways to La Villette (TD and IP) and 
that from St. Augustin to the Cours de Vincennes {TAD; Appx., p. 31) mav 
also be used. — A. cable-tramway ascends from the Place de la Republique 
(p. 85) to the church of St. Jean-Baptiste (p. 23B). — The Chemin de Fer de 
Petite- Ceinture (Appx., p. 39) has a station (Belleville-Villette) at the N. 
entrance to the park (PI. B, 29). 

The Rue-d' Allemagne Station on the high-level line ('ligne 
aerienne') is situated at the intersection of the Rue Lafayette and 
Rue d' Allemagne (PI. B, 26), in the Boulevard de la Villette. 

The Ligne Airimne du Milropolilain was opened for traffic in 1903 and 
forms part of the Ligne Circulaire Nord (see Appx., p. 37), which runs 
from the Porte Dauphine to the Place de la Nation by the outer boulevards. 
It extends from the Place d'Anvers (PI. B, 20) along the Boulevards Roche - 
chonart, de la Chapelle, and de la Villette, to beyond the Rue d Allemagne, 
just before reaching the Station du Combat, a distance of l'A M. The tran- 
sition from low to high level and vice versa is effected by means of inclined 
planes (gradient 1 : 25). The viaducts are borne by a series of concrete and 
steel arches with an average length of 21 yds., merging into two large tu- 
bular bridges above the North and East lines. The N. bridge has a span 
of 164 yds., or double that of the E. bridge. There are four stations on this 
part of the line, stone steps leading to the booking-offices, halfway up, and 
iron staircases thence to the platforms, which are covered by a glass roof. 
As the train approaches the Rue-d'Allemagne Station the Canal St. Martin is 


visible on the right. A striking scene is presented at night by the innum- 
erable lights of Paris sparkling below us, and the glow of the engine-fires, 
illuminated carriages, and railway-signals around. 

To the left of the Rue-d'Allemagne station (or to the right of the 
exit) we notice a Rotunda. This is one of the 60 propylaea built by 
Ledoux at the order of Louis XVI. outside the gates of Paris (see 
also pp. 247, 328); it is now occupied by the customs-office for the 
Bassin de la Villette (p. 236). — To the Buttes by the Rue Secretan 
is Y4 hr.'s walk. 

Farther on the Mitropolitain passes the Station du Combat, in the Boul. 
de la Villette, at the intersection of the Rue de Meaux and the Eue Grange- 
aux-Belles (PI. B, 27), where the old Barriere du Combat stood, the scene 
of a sharp battle with the allied troops in 1814. It was here, in the 13th 
cent., that the Gibbet of Montfaucon was erected, on which the bodies of 
criminals were suspended after execution. Many historical personages suf- 
fered this ignominy, including Admiral Coligny and other victims of the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, whom Charles X. brought his whole court to 
gloat over. The gibbet was pulled down in 1761. 

The splendid park of the *Buttes-Chaumont (PI. B, 30, 29), the 
hills ('buttes') of which were once a barren waste ('caM montes'), 
and the principal dumping-ground for the refuse of the city, lies at the 
"W. end of the hill of Belleville. It was planned by Alphand (p. xxvii) 
and Bar Met, and extends over an area of about 60 acres. The 
quarries formerly worked here have been transformed into a rocky 
wilderness surrounded by a small lake, while the adjacent rugged 
surface is now covered with gardens and walks shaded by trees. 
A cascade falling from the height of 100 ft. into an artificial stalac- 
tite grotto (formerly the entrance to the quarries) is intended to 
enhance the attractions of the scene. One of the rocks in the lake 
is surmounted by a miniature temple, which commands an admirable 
view in the direction of St. Denis ; the best *View of the city itself, 
with its ocean of houses, is obtained from the second summit to 
the S. An iron suspension-bridge, 70 yds. in length, crosses from 
one of the rocks to another, while above that is another bridge, built 
of brick, which goes by the name of the 'Pont des Suicides'. The 
temple may also be gained by a path among the rocks, reached by 
a boat across the lake (5 c). Here and there are'bronze sculptures : 
on the side next the main entrance, The Rescue, by F. Rolard; 
Eagle-hunter, by Desca, on this side of the large bridge ; Corsair, 
by Oge, near the great waterfall; Wolf Hunt, by Hiolin, in the 
upper part of the park ; nearer the side towards the city, 'Egalitaire' 
('Time, the Leveller), by Captier; beside the small cascade beyond 
the restaurant, The Ford, by C. Lefevre. — The Chemin de Fer de 
Ceinture (p. 29) is carried through the E. end of the park by a 
cutting and two tunnels; in the vicinity, the Belleville-Villette sta- 
tion (see Appx., p. 39). 

There are three Cafis-Rettauranti in the park, one near the suspension- 
bridge, one on the S. side of the hill (with view of Paris), and one above 
the railway cutting. A military band plays here on Sun. and Thurg. in 
summer (see p. 41). 

In the Belleville quarter, inhabited by the working-classes, to the S.E. 

236 12. LAVILLETTE. 

of the Buttes-Chaumont, is the church of St. Jean-Baptiste (PI. B, 33), built 
in the Gothic style of the 13th cent, by Lastus (d. 1857), and consecrated 
in 1859. The chief portal is flanked by two towers, 190 ft. in height, 
which are conspicuous from every part of the city. — A cable-railway 
descends hence to the Place de la Republique (p. 85; 10 c). — To the N. 
of the.Buttes is the large Mairie of the 19th Arrondissement, a modern build- 
ing in the style of Louis XIII. by Davioud and Bourdais. The Salle des 
Mariages is embellished with paintings by Gervex and Blanchon. In front 
is the Monument of Jean Mad (1815-95), the educationalist, by Massoulle. 

"The Bassin de la Villette (PI. B, 26, 27), a harbour and reser- 
voir (16 acres), 75 ft. above the lowest water-level in the Seine, 
is formed by the Canal de I'Ourcq, which connects the Ourcq, an 
affluent of the Marne, with the Seine. This canal, 64 M. long, 
which, above the Bassin, is devoid of locks, cuts off a long curve 
formed by the river , while the Canal St. Denis, 2 J /2 M. long, a 
ramification towards the N.E., shortens the -water-route between the 
Upper and Lower Seine by 10 M. The Canal St. Martin (p. 175), 
3 M. long, with 9 locks, continues the Canal de I'Ourcq to the S. 
The basin is crossed by a lofty Foot Bridge, the single arch of which 
has a span of 310 ft. At the other end, in the Rue de Crimee, is a hy- 
draulic Drawbridge, worked by the water of i the canal. In the Place de 
Joinville, to the right of the Rue de Crimee, is the church of St. Chrittophe 
(PI. B, 28), built by Lequeux in 1841-44. 

The March* de la Villette (PI. B, 31), the "cattle- market of 
Paris, is nearly 55 acres in extent. Visitors are freely admitted to 
the market, which presents a busy scene, especially on Monday and 
Thursday mornings. It consists of three large pavilions, the central 
one of which is capable of containing 5080 oxen, that on the right 
about 2000 calves and 5800 pigs, and that on the left 31,300 sheep. 
Behind the market are stables and offices. 

The Abattoirs de] la Villette (PI. B, 28-31), the ' principal 
slaughter-houses of Paris, are separated from the cattle-market by 
the Canal de I'Ourcq. The chief entrance to them is in the Rue de 
Flandre, on the N.W. side, beside which are two sculptured groups 
of animals, by A. Lefeuvre (In the pasture) and Lefevre-Deslong- 
champs (At the abattoir). The abbatoirs occupy an area of 48 acres, 
and although they are not public, strangers are usually permitted 
to walk round. The busiest time here is also in the morning, but 
the scene is not one which will attract many visitors, though the 
premises are kept scrupulously clean, and the whole organisation is 
admirable. The buildings include about 20 courts, with 200 scald- 
ing-pans. About 1200 bullocks, 500 calves, and 800 sheep are 
slaughtered here daily ; onTues. and Frid. even more. The slaughter- 
house for pigs (about 1000 daily) is by itself, next the fortifications. 

The neighbouring suburbs to the N.E. and E. of La Villette (4-6 M. 
from Paris) of Aubervilliers (31,215 inhab.) and Pantin (29,716 inhab.), to 
which electric tramways ply from the Place de la Republique and the 
Opera, and the village of Le Pri-St-Oervait (11,078 inhab.; tramway from 
the fortifications, 5 c.) are uninteresting. — Lea Lilas, a village of 8925 inhab., 
is situated on an eminence (view). *It is traversed by the tramway from 
the Place de 1* Opera, which passes through Romainvllle (2961 inhab. ; chalk. 


pits) and Noiny-le-Sec (p. 377) to Bondy (p. S96), and by the tramway from the 
Square clu Temple to Noisy-le-Sec. More to the S. lie Bagnolet (8799 inhab. ; 
tramway from the Place de la Re'publique to Fontenay-sous-Bois), 1 near 
which are the hamlet_of Les Brvyeres and the Chateau de Malaisis. 

13. Eastern Quarters. 

The principal attraction of the region lying to the E. of the inner 
boulevards is the Cemetery of Pere-Lachaise. The nearest stations, on the 
Mitropolilain are in the Avenue Philippe-Auguste, not far from the main 
entrance to the cemetery (p. 238), and the Avenue de la Re'publique (Stat. 
Pere-Lachaise; in the direction of the Porte de Vincennes as far as the 
Place de la'Nation, where we change trains, and then in the direction of 
the Porte Dauphine), see the Appx., p. 38. It may also be reached by 
Electric Tramway (Place de l'Ope'ra-Bondy, see Appx., p. 35) to the Boule- 
vard de Menilmontant, a few hundred yards to the N. of the main entrance. 
— The restaurants near the cemetery are inferior. 

The shortest route from the Boulevards to Pere-Lachaise is 
afforded by the Avenue de la Rbfublique (PI. R, 27, 30), which 
was begun under Napoleon III. and finished in 1892. It crosses 
the N. end of the Boulevard Richard- Lenoir (p. 72), passes the 
Ecole Superieure de Commerce (1898) and the Lycee Voltaire, and 
ends at the Boulevard Menilmontant, near the main entrance to the 

The Boulevard Voltaire (PI. R, 26-29; III), which also begins at the 
Place de la Re'publique, leads to the Place de la Nation (p. 246). At its 
intersection with the toul. Richard- Lenoir stands the Monument Bobillot, 
erected to the memory of French soldiers killed in Tonkin in 1883-85, 
with a bronze statue, by Aug. Paris, of Sergeant Bobillot, who fell at 
Tuyen-Quan. — A little farther to the S.E. in the Boul. Voltaire rises the 
handsome Romanesque church of St. Ambroise (PI. R, 29), erected by Ballu 
in 1863-69. The facade is flanked by two towers. 

~ Farther on is the Place Voltaire (PI. R, 29), with the Mairie of the 11th 
Arrondistement and a bronze statue of Ledru-Rollin (1807-74), 'the organiser 
of universal suffrage', by Steiner. — The Square Parmentier (PI. R, 29) is 
embellished with several statues, viz. The Conqueror of the Bastille, by 
Choppin; The Straw-binder, by Perrin; and'Non omnes morimur', by Pezieux. 
,s The Rue de la Roquette (PI. R, 25, 26, 29) leads from the Place Voltaire 
to Pere-Lachaise. The Prison de la Roquette, which was once used as a 
pleasance by Henri II. and Henri IV., and became known later on as the 
place where prisoners condemned to death awaited their execution, was 
pulled down in lt99. Up to that time public executions took place opposite 
the prison, and the stones on which the guillotine was erected may still 
be seen, opposite No. 143. — On 24th May, 1871, during the Communard 
'reign of terror 1 , the Prison de la Roquette was the scene of the murder of 
the venerable Mgr. Darboy, Archbishop of Paris, the President Bonjean, 
the Abbe 1 Deguerry, and three other priests, who had been seized by the 
Commune as 'hostages'. This was followed by a general massacre of those 
who had been imprisoned by the Commune, among j whom were several 
gendarmes. — At No. 34, Rue de la Roquette, is a house dating from 1377. 

"Pere-Lachaise (PI. R, 32), or the Cimetiere de VEst, the largest 
and most interesting of the Parisian burial-grounds (see pp. 211, 
327), is named after Lachaise, the Jesuit confessor of Louis XIV., 
whose country-seat occupied the site of the present chapel. In 1804 
the 'ground was laid out as a cemetery, the precincts of which have 


since been greatly extended, and it now covers an area of about 
110 acres. It is the burial-place of the inhabitants of the N.E. part 
of Paris, but anyone may purchase a grave, and persons of distinc- 
tion from other parts of the city also are generally interred here. 

A Concession it perpituile", or private burial-place, of 2 square metres 
or about 22Vjsq. ft. (the smallest space in which a person over 7 years of 
age can be buried) may be secured for 1000 fr. The charge for a larger 
space is augmented in an increasing ratio , the price of each square 
metre beyond two being 1500 fr. ; beyond four, 2000; and beyond six, 
8000 fr. A Concession Trentenaire, providing that the grave shall remain 
undisturbed for 30 years, costs 300 fr. ; a Concession Temporaire, for 5 years, 
costs 50 fr. — The Fosses Communes (for paupers) are only found in cemeteries 
outside Paris. 

All burials within the Department of the Seine are undertaken by the 
Compagnie des Pompes Funibres, Rue d'Aubervilliers 104. There are nine 
different classes to select from, the tariff of which varies from a few francs 
to nearly 2500 fr. 

It .may be observed here that it is the invariable custom for men to 
take off their hats on meeting a funeral procession, whether in the cemetery 
or in the public streets. 

Cemeteries open at 7 a.m. and close at 7 p.m. from May 1st to 
Aug. 31 st; 6.30 in April ; 6 in March and from Sept. 1st to Oct. 15th ; 
5.30 in Feb. ; 5 fronVOct. 16th to Nov. 15th ; and 4.30 from Nov. 16th 
to Jan. 31st. A quarter of an hour before the closing of the gates a 
bell is rung, and the custodians call out, 'On ferme lea portea\ 
Visitors are not permitted to carry anything out of the cemetery 
without a Haiaaez-paaaer' . 

A general survey of the most remarkable monuments may be 
made in 3-4^2 h rs - by following the itinerary marked in brown on the 
plan and attending to the directions given. Alphabetical list of the 
principal tombs, see p. 242. Conducteura will be found at the small 
building to the right on entering, but their services (5 fr., or more) 
are unnecessary unless the visitor is much pressed for time. — On 
All Saints' Day (Jour de la Touaaaint) and All Souls' Day (Jour 
dea Morta; November 1st and 2nd) the cemetery is visited by about 
130,000 people. 

The Avenue Pbincipale, with its borders of cypress-trees, as- 
cends gradually from the entrance to the — 

**Monument aux Morts, executed by A. Bartholome in 1895-99. 
This is carved out of a block of limestone, and represents a tomb 
towards the broad entrance of which suffering humanity, divided 
between hope and fear, is pressing. A young couple has already 
crossed the threshold of the tomb, which is being held open by the 
angel of immortality, while within reposes a family whom death has 
joined together. The inscription is from Is. ix, 2, and Matt, iv, 16 : 
'The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light'. The 
monument is one of the most touching inspirations of modern 
sculpture. — Chapel and upper part of the cemetery, see p. 240. 

Betracing'our steps, we notice, on the right, Paul Baudry (d. 1886), 
the painter, with Fame crowning Baudry's bust and a statue of Grief, 

Place Gajubetta. 

B*ce €amb*U 

Stat . de. Char onne 

Gra^ etimprime par 

Bue (tela f "Roirupt*** 

13. pEre-lachaise. 239 

In bronze, by Mercie"; left, Th. Couture (d. 1879), painter, bust and 
genii in bronze, by E. Barrias ; Filix Faure (d. 1899), President of the 
Republic, with recumbent statue under the French and Russian flags, 
by St. Marceaux. Farther on the right, Clement Thomas and Lecomte 
(d. 1871), the first victims of the Commune (p. 209), statue of La 
Patrie by Cugnot. Then Alfred de Musset (d. 1857), the poet, who com- 
posed the beautiful lines inscribed onthe monument. Rossini (d. 1868), 
composer (whose remains were removed to Florence in 1887). 

A little farther on we enter the Avbntjb du Puits, to the left, 
out of which a turning on the right leads to the Jewish Cemetery. 
To the right, Rachel (d. 1858), the tragedian. Farther on, to the left 
of the walk, the chapel of the Rothschild Family. — Then, to the 
left, — 

Abelard and Heloise (d. 1141 and 1163). This is one of the most 
popular monuments, and with its Gothic canopy is conspicuous from 
afar. It is, however, not authentic, having been reconstructed from 
casual fragments. The recumbent statues on the sarcophagus are 
supposed to represent the ill-starred lovers. — We now follow the 
Chemin Seeb,^, to the right, where, beyond the Chemin Laine", on 
the right and a little in the rear, is the tomb of Rosa Bonheur 
(d. 1899), painter, in polished granite. Retracing our steps, we turn 
into the Chemin Lebrttn. On the left, the large mausoleum of 
Fr. Lebrun (d. 1824), Duke of Piacenza, minister under Napoleon I. 
On the right, Victims of June, 1832, who fell in a riot instigated by 
the republican faction. — "We then come to the — 

Grand Rond, from which five avenues radiate. — In the centre, 
Casimir Verier (d. 1832), a celebrated orator, and minister of Louis 
Philippe, bronze statue by Cortot. To the N., Raspail (d. 1878), 
the famous democrat and physiologist, with a veiled female figure 
leaning against the grating of a dungeon, an allusion to the death of 
Raspail's wife during his imprisonment in 1848. The monument is 
by Etex. 

"We skirt the Grand Rond to the S., passing the grave of the 
Moreau- Vauthier Family, with a fine statue of a mourner by the 
sculptor Moreau-Vauthier, then turn to the left, enter Division 13, 
between the Avenue Casimir-Perier and the Avenue de la Cha- 
pelle, and descend the Chemin Me'hul to the Chemin Denon. In 
the last, to the right, Chopin (d. 1849), the composer, with me- 
dallion and the figure of Music, by Cle"singer. To the left, Denon 
(d. 1825), director of museums under Napoleon I., bronze statue 
by Cartellier. On the right, Cherubini (&. 1842), the composer, bas- 
relief by Dumont. — "We now ascend to the right and, opposite the 
grave of Talma (d. 1826), the famous tragedian, we enter the so- 
called 'artists' division', one of the oldest in the cemetery. To the 
right, Tamberlick (A. 1889), the tenor, with an angel strewing 
flowers, by Godebski. At the end of the alle'e, Delille (d. 1813), 
the poet, a neglected but very picturesque tomb. 

240 13 pEre-lachaise. 

Ascending now to the Avenue db la Chapellb, we follow it to 
the left (N.W). In front of the Cemetery Chapel (which contains 
nothing noteworthy, hut whence we have a line view of Paris) is 
the Monument de Souvenir. — To the right is the monument of 
Thiers (d. 1877), the celebrated statesman, consisting of a large 
and elaborate chapel by Aldrophe. Above the fine bronze doors is 
a relief of the Genius of Patriotism, by Chapu. The interior (which 
cannot be seen) contains a group, by Mercie*, representing Thiers 
rising to answer the summons of Immortality, and reliefs, by Chapu, 
of the Liberation of French Soil, and the Genius of Immortality. 
The sarcophagus rests in an open crypt. — Farther on, to the left, 
in the Avenue Feuillant (right), Louis David (d. 1823), the painter, 
with medallion. Then, in the Avenue de la Ohapelle, Vartellier 
(d. 1831), sculptor, bust by Rude, bas-reliefs by Seurre. . — In 
the walk behind the cemetery chapel, OvSrinot (d. 1892), architect, 
statue of a weeping woman, by Barrias. 

We now follow the Avenue de la Ohapelle, then take the Chemin 
du Bassin on the left, and farther on, the Chemin Moliere et Lafon- 
taine. At the beginning, to the left, Pradier (d. 1852), the sculptor, 
with bust and reliefs by his pupils. To the left, in the Chemin Laplace, 
Oros (d. 1805), painter. To the left of the path , Count de Valence 
(d. 1822), lieut.-general. Behind, Daubigny (d. 1878), painter, 
with a bust; Corot (d. 1875), painter, with bronze bust. — A little 
farther up the Chemin Moliere, on the left, the tombs of La Fontaine 
(d. 1695), of the Fables, decorated with bas-reliefs and surmounted 
by a fox, in bronze, and Moliere (d. 1673), the dramatist, trans- 
ferred hither in 1817. Farther on, to the right, in the Chemin Ca- 
mille, Alphonse Daudet, the novelist (d. 1897), bronze medallion by 
Falguiere, at the corner of the Allard family vault. 

We return to Pradier's monument and turn to the E. into the 
Chemin du Dragon. To the left, S. Hahnemann (d. 1843), founder 
of homoeopathy, a monument in red granite bearing the titles of his 
works and his motto, with a bronze bust after David d' Angers. About 
140 yds. to the right, the superb mausoleum of the Demidoffs, a 
Russian countess and prince. Behind the three columns is the com- 
mon grave of Manuel (d. 1827) , popular deputy , and Beranger 
(A. 1857), the poet, with bronze medallions. Farther on,, to the 
right, General Gobert, killed in Spain in 1808, a group and bas- 
relief by David d' Angers. Opposite, Beaumarchais (d. 1799 ; p. 85), 
dramatist. To the left, Marshal Massina (d. 1817), monument by 
Bosio and Jacques, and Marshal Lefebvre (d. 1820). 

We here ascend the steps to the left, near the top of which, on 
the right (between the tombs, not along the Chemin des Anglais), 
begins the Avenue Pacthod, which soon crosses the Avenue Trans- 
versale'„No. II and No. III. 

At tie end of the Avenue Pacthod we descend on the right to the corner 
of the cemetery, beside the Mur dei Fidirii, against which the Communards 
taken in the cemetery with arms in their hands were shot in 1871 at the 


end of the insurrection. Demonstrations annually take place here on the 
anniversary of the event, and numerous red wreaths are hung on the wall. 

A little lower down, in the Avenue Circulaire, is the monument 
raised to the victims of the Are at the Opera Comique (p. 82). 

We return to the Avenue Transversals No. II, and proceed 
to the W. Right , A. Terry (d. 1886) , a handsome Renaissance 
chapel, with four statues by A. Lenoir. Beyond, Victor Noir, jour- 
nalist, killed in 1870 by Prince Pierre Bonaparte, recumbent bronze 
statue by Dalou. De Tcaza (d. 1890) , another fine Renaissance 
chapel, with a group of statues inside and a bas-relief outside, by 
Puech. In the next side-avenue to the left (Avenue Carette), right, 
A. Blanqui (d. 1881), revolutionary, recumbent bronze statue by 
Dalou. To the E , beyond the Avenue Transversale No. Ill, left, 
Le Boyer (d. 1899), president of the senate, statue by d'Houdain. 
Farther on in the Avenue Transversale No. II, to the left, Josephine 
Verazzi (d. 1879), marble group by Malfatti. 

To the right is situated the Crematorium, distinguished by its two high 
chimneys, now being enlarged from designs by Formige. It is surrounded 
by two columbaria in the form of colonnades. The black and white squares 
on the walls bear the names of deceased persons and in some cases their 
photograph or portrait. 

Cremation has been practised here since 1889, but up to 1903 only 2841 
bodies were incinerated, mostly those of persons whose remains were un- 
claimed by relatives. — The remains are brought into the public room 
containing a catafalque, and are pushed through an opening in the wall 
into the cinerarium. — The fee for cremation, including the right to a 
place in the columbarium for five years, is 50 to 250 fr. Visitors are ad- 
mitted only with an authorisation from the Directeur des Affaires Munici- 
pales, in the former Caserne Lobau, behind the Hotel de Ville (a stamp 
should be enclosed for the reply). 

Farther on in the Avenue Transversale, to the right, the Mahomet- 
an Cemetery, with a small mosque, where the Queen of Oudh and 
her son are interred ; in front (r.), the monument of the Bennane 
Family, a small Moorish mausoleum capped with a crescent. On the 
left, at the end of the Avenue Transversale No. II, is the grave of the 
*Ruel Family, with a group and medallion by Deschamps. 

The adjoining door leads to the Place in the Avenue Gambetta (p. 245) 

"We return now and follow the Avenue pes Thuyas on the right 
At the end (r.), Felix de Beaujour, consul (d. 1836), a conspicuous 
pyramid 105 ft. in height, commonly called the 'pain de suore', erected 
by himself at a cost of 100,000 fr. 

We continue in a S.W. direction. To the right, in the Chemin 
Casimir-Delavignb , Em. Souvestre (d. 1854); Balzac (d. 1850), 
with bronze bust by David d' Angers; to the left, Nodier (d. 1844); 
C. Delavigne (d. 1843), four well-known authors. — At the Rond- 
Point is an obelisk to the municipal workmen killed by accidents 
( Victimes du Devoir). The paths which radiate from this point in all 
directions contain many interesting tombs, besides forming a kind 
of museum of modern sculpture. — Chemin du Bastion (to the S.E.) : 
left, Michelet (d. 1875), the historian, high-relief by Mercie\ Near it, 
left, Chaplin (d. 1891), painter, monument by Puech ; Belloc (d. 1866) 

Baedeker. Pari* — 15th Edit. 16 


historical painter, bust by Itasse. Adjoining the Eond-Point, Due de 
Morny (d. 1865), politician and minister, a natural brother of Napo- 
leon III., chapel designed by Viollet-le-Duc. — Chemtn de Mont- 
louis (on the left), to the right, Maquet (d. 1888), collaborator of the 
elder Dumas, bronze medallion by Allar ; farther on, to the left, Barbe- 
dienne (d. 1892), manufacturer of bronzes, with a bust by Chapu and 
three bronze figures by A. Boucher, Art, Industry, and a young girl. 

Avenue des Ailantes. By the Rond-Point , Dorian (d. 1873), 
minister during the siege of Paris, bronze statue by A. Millet. Left, 
Countess d'Agoult (d. 1876), who wrote as 'Daniel Stern\ with statue 
of 'La Pensee' by Chapu. 

"We now quit the Rond-Point by the Avenue Cail. At the fork, 
on the right, Croce-Spinelli and Sivel (d. 1875), victims of a balloon 
accident, recumbent figures in bronze, by Dumilatre. — We here 
turn to the left and enter the Avenue Circulaikb. To the right, Jean 
Beynaud (A. 1863), philosopher and publicist, with figure of Im- 
mortality by Chapu and bronze medallion by David; Cail (d. 1858), 
engineer, a large domed chapel. To the left, E. Spuller (d. 1896), 
Gambetta's right-hand man, marble group symbolising National 
Education, by Gasq. To the right, National Guards killed at Buzen- 
val (19th Jan., 1871), and Soldiers who fell at the siege in 1870-71, 
a pyramid of granite with four bronze statues of soldiers by SchroedeT 
and Lefevre. To the left, Mme. Miolan-Carvalho (d. 1895), the 
singer, monument by Mercie. To the left, Ch. Floquet (d. 189G), 
statesman, bronze bust with a figure of the Republic mounting the 
tribune, by Dalou; Anatole de la Forge (d. 1892), defender of St. 
Quentin in 1870, bronze statue by E. Barrias. Ad. Alphand (see 
p. xxvii), bronze bust by Coutan ; H. Cernuschi (d. 1896 ; p. 199), 
stele with bas-relief by A. Carles. 

By reference to the following alphabetical list of the principal tombs any 
particular monument may be easily located; the numbers 1-96 correspond 
to the divisions marked on our plan. 

A. — Abilard and Ueloise, see p. 239. — About, Edm. (d. 1879), author, 
bronze statue by Crauk (36). — Aboville, Comte d' (d. 1817), general (25). — 
Achard, Amidie (d. 1875), novelist (83). — Adam, Edm. (d. 1877), bronze f'ust 
by Millet (54). — Agoult, Comtesse d', see above. — Aguado Family (1842), 
statues (Benevolence and the Arts) and reliefs (45). — Alphand, see above. 

— Andrianoff (d. 1857), Russian dancer (49). — Andrieux (d. 1833), permanent 
secretary of the French Academy (18). — Anjubaull (d. 1868), engineer; 
'Pleureuse' by Maillet (65). — Arago, Fr. (d. 1853), astronomer, bust by David 
d'Angers (4). — Auber (d. 1871), composer, bust by Dantan (4). 

B. — Balzac, see p. 241. — Barbedienne, see above. — BarilUt (d. 1873), 
gardener to the city of Paris (69). — Baroche, Ernest, (d. 1870), killed at 
Le Bourget, bust by Courtet (4). — Barras, Nicholas (d. 1829), member of 
the Directory (.28). — Barriire, Th. (d. 1877). dramatist (54). — Barthilemy 
St. Silaire (d. 1895), writer and politician (4). — Barye, A. L. (d. 1875>, 
sculptor (49; near Delacroix). — Baudry, Paul, p. 238. — Bazin, Jos. (d. 1878), 
composer of operas-comiques, marble bust by Doublemard (32). — Beauci, J. 
(d. 1875), battle-painter (49). — Beattjour, Felix de, p. 241. — Beaumarchais, 
p. 240. — Biclard, Ph. (d. 1864), plenipotentiary at Morocco, 'Grief by 
Crauk (4). — Biclard, P. (d. 1827), anatomist (8). — Bellini (d. 1835), com- 
poser ,whose remains have been removed to Catania, his native place (11). 

— Belloc, H., p. 242. — Biranger, p. 240. — Bernard, CI. (d. 1878),fphysio- 


logist (20). —Berthelier (d. 18S2; 9). — Beuli (d. 1871), archaeologist (4). — 
Bichat, X. (d. 1802), physiologist (8). — Bizet (d. 1875), composer of 'Carmen', 
bronze bust (68). — Blainville, D. de (d. 1850), naturalist (54). — Blanc, Louis 
(d. 1882), historian (67). — Blandin, P. F. (d. 1849), surgeon, bronze me- 
dallion by Clesinger. — Blanqui, p. 241. — Boerne, L. (d. 1837), German 
poet, bronze bust and relief by David d'Angers (30). — Boieldieu (d. 1834), 
composer (11). — Bonheur, Rosa, p. 239. — Boussingault, J. B. (95). — 
BHguet. A. L. (d. 1823), watchmaker (11). — Brillat-Savarin (d. 1826), author 
of the 'Physiologie du Gout' (28). — Brongniart, Al. (d. 1847), mineralogist 
(11). — Brongniart, A. T. (d. 1813), architect. — Bruat, A. J. (d. 1855), admiral, 
sculptures by Maindron (27). — Buloz, Fr. (d. 1877), editor of the 'Revue 
des Deux-Mondes (52). 

0. — Cail, p. 142. — Cambactres, Delphine de, bust by Jouandot (48). — 
Cambactres, Rigis de (d. 1824), colleague of Bonaparte in the Consulate (39). 

— Carlier, bronze group by E. Carlier (63). — Gartellier, p. 240. — Casariera, 
Marquis de, large chapel with a statue (44). — Cernuschi, p. 242. — Challamel- 
Lacour (d. 1896), politician (96). — Champollion (d. 1832), orientalist, obelisk 
with medallion (18). — Chaplin O. J., p. 242. — Chappe. 01. (d. 1805), inventor 
of aerial telegraphy (30). — Chasseloup- Laubat (d. 1833), general (56). — 
Chinier, J. de (d. 1811), poet (8). — Cherubim, p. 239. — Chopin, p. 239. — 
Clairon, Claire (d. 1803), actress (20). — CUray (d. 1882), bronze bust by 
Taluet (71). — Cogniel, L. (d. 1880), painter, medallion and. sculptures (15). 

— Communards, p. 240. — Comte, Augusle (d. 1857), founder of Positivism 
(17). — Constant, Benj. (d. 1830), writer (29). — Corot, p. 240. — Couder, Aug. 
(d. 1873), painter (27). — Cournet, F. (d. 1886), journalist (95). — Cousin, 
Victor (d. 1867), philosopher (4). — Couture ,'fh., p. 239. — Crozatier, Ch. 
(d. 1855), bronze founder and sculptor (49). — Crussol d'Uzes (d. 1815), 
general allegorical bas-reliefs (18). 

D. — Dantan, sculptors' family (4). — Daubigny, p. 240. — Daudet, Alph., 
p. 240. — Daumier, H. (d. 1879). caricaturist (24). — Daunou, P. C.F. (d. 1840), 
historian, medallion by David d' Angers £&). — David, Louis, p. 240. — 
David d'Angers (d. 1856), sculptor (39). — Deburau (d. 1846), pantomimist 
(59). — Dijazet (d. 1875). actress (81). — Delacroix, Bug. (d. 1863), painter 
(49). — Delambre, Jos. (d. 1822); astronomer (10). — Delaplanche, E. (d. 1891), 
sculptor (96). — Delavigne, p. 241. — Delille, p. 239. — Delpech (d. 1863), 
engineer (52). — Demidoff, p. 240. — D'Ennery (d. 1899), dramatist (25). — 
Denon, p. 239. — DUaugiers (d. 1827), song-writer (22). — Desbassayns, Baron 
(d. 1850), 'Pleureuse' by Eicci (6). — Desclie (d. 1874), actress (70). — Deseze, 
R. (d. 1828), one of the defenders of Louis XVI (53). — Deslys, Ch. (d. 1885), 
author (71). — Dort, Qustave (d. 1833), painter (22). — Dorian, p. 242. — 
Dubufe, C. M. (d. 1864), painter (23). — Duchesnois, Josiphine (d. 1835), actress. 

— Dugazon. Louise (d. 1821), actress (11). — Dulong, P. L. (d. 1838), chemist, 
obelisk and medallion by David d'Angers (8). — Dupuylren (d. 1835), surgeon 
(37). — Duret, Fr. (d. 1865), sculptor, medallion by Lequesne and relief by 
E. Guillaume (19). 

E. — Enfantin, Pire (d. 1864), leader of the St. Simonian school, bust 
by A. Millet (39). — Errazu Family, symbolical statues by M. Meusnier 
(68). — Eudes, Em. (d. 1888), revolutionary, bronze bust by T. Noel (91). 

T. — Faure, Filix, p. 239. — Favero'les, Mme. de, sculptures by V. Du- 
bray(48). — Fidiris, Mur des, p. 240. — Flandrin, Hipp (d. 1864), painter, 
marble bust by Oudinc (57). — Floquet, Ch., p. 242. — Ftorens, A. (d. 1885), 
relief by Boussard (47). — Flourens, P. O. (d. 1871), politician (66). — Flourens, 
P. (d. 1867), physiologist (66). — Fould, Mme. (d. 1839), renowned for her 
charity (7). — Foy. General (d. 1825), statues and reliefs by David d'Angers (28). 

G. — Gall, Fr. Jos. (d. 1828), founder of phrenology (18). — Gareau, 
beautiful 'Pleureuse' (10; down some steps). — Gamier - Pagis (d. 1841) 
lawyer and politician ; the empty tribune is an allusion to his eloquence. — , 
Garot (d. 1823), singer (11). — Gatineau (d. 1885), advocate (96). — Gaudin 
(d. 1841), Duke of Gaeta, minister of finance under Napoleon I. (27). — 
Gay-Lussac, J. L. (d. 1850), chemist (26). — Genlis, Stiphanie de (d. 1830), 
authoress (24). — Geoffroy St. Eilaire (d. 1844), naturalist, medallions by 
David d'Angers (30). — GMcault, Th. (d. 1824), painter, bronze statue and 
relief by Etex (55). — Gill, Andri (d. 1887), caricaturist, bronze bust by 


244 13 PJfcRE-LACHAISEl. 

L. Coutan (95). — Girardin, Emile de (d. 1881), founder of the 'Figaro' (8). — 
Girodet- Trioson (p. 1824), painter (28). — Gobert, p. 240. — Gohier, L. J. 
(d. 1830), President of the Directory, medallion by David d' Angers (10). — 
Gouvion-Sl-Cyr, Marshal (d. 1830), marble statue by David d'Angers (37). — 
Gritry (d. 1813), composer (11). — Grisar, Alb. (d. 1869), composer (71). — 
Grot, p. 240. — Grouchy, Marshal (d. 1847), who arrived too late at Waterloo 
(57). — Guirinot, p. 240. 

H. — Habeneck (d.1849), violinist (11). — Hahnemann, p. 240. — Hamelin, 
Admiral (d. 1864), who commanded at Sebastopol (25). — ffaxo. General 
(d. 1838), connected with the siege of Antwerp (28). — Herz, Henri (d. 1888), 
composer and pianist (27). — Houssaye, Arsene (d. 1886), author (4). — Hugo, 
General (d. 1828), father of Victor Hugo (27). 

I. — Ingres (d. 1867), painter (23). — Isabey (d. 1855), painter (20). — 
J. — Junot (d. 1813), Duke of Abrantes. 

K. — Kardec, Allan (d. 1869), one of the founders of spiritualism, monu- 
ment in the form of a dolmen, with bronze bast by Capellaro (44). — 
Kellermann, Marshal (d. 1820), Due de Valmy (18). 

1. — La Bidoyere, General (d. 1815), partisan of Napoleon I., shot under 
the Restoration (16). — Lachambeaudie, P. (d. 1872), fabulist (48). — LafflUe, J. 
(d. 1844), financier (18). — La Fontaine, p. 240. — La Forge, Anatole de, p. 242. — 
Lakanal, J. (d. 1845), member of the Convention (11). — Lameth, Th. (d. 1829) 
and Fr. (d. 1832), politicians of the Revolution (28). — Lanjuinais, J. D. 
(d. 1827), President of the Convention (30). — Lapomeraye, physician, bronze 
bust and relief by Fontaine (6). — Laurent-Pichat (d. 1886), poet and poli- 
tician, bronze medallion by Mercie (8). — Lauriston, Marshal (d. 1823; 14). — 
La Valetle, A. M. (d. 18^0), partisan of Napoleon I.; his wife, by changing 
clothes with him, saved him from prison. — Lavoisier (p. 77), founder of 
modern chemistry (13). — Lebas, J. B. A. (d. 1873), engineer (4). — Lebrun, 
p. 239. — Lecomte, p. 239. — Ledru-Rollin (d. 1874), politician (p. 237), bronze 
bust (4). — Lefebvre, p. 240. — Lemercier, N. (d. 1840), author (30). — 
Lenormand, Mine. (d. 1843), fortune-teller under the First Empire and the 
Restoration (3). — Lepaule, J. A. (d. 1789), clock-maker (7). — Le Royer, 
p. 241. — Lesurques, J. (d. 1796), celebrated victim of a judicial error (8). 

M. — Macdonald, Marshal (d. 1840), Duke of Taranto (37). — Maiton, 
Marshal (d. 1840), leader of the Morean expedition in 1828 (5). — Manuel, 
p. 240. — Maquet, p. 242. — Maret (d. 1839), Duke of Bassano, Doric temple 
(31). — Mars, Mile. (d. 1847), actress (8). — Massina, p. 240. — Mthul 
(d. 1817), composer (13). — Mercoeur, Elisa (d. 1835), poetess (16). — Michelet, 
p. 242. — Miolan-Carvalho, p. 242. — Moliere. p. 240. — Monge, G. (d. 1818), 
mathematician, member of the Convention in 1793 (18). — Monselet, Ch. (1888), 
author (66). — Morean- Vauthier, p. 239. — Moray, Due de, p. 242. — Mortier, 
Marshal (d. 1835), Duke of Treviso (28). — Morts, Monument aux, p. 238. — 
Mouton, Marshal (d. 1838), reliefs by Menn (4). — Mussel, Alf. de, p. 239. 

N. — National Guards, p. 242. — Nilalon, Aug. (d. 1873), surgeon (5). — 
Ney, Marshal (d. 1815) (29). — Nodier, p. 241. — Noir, Victor, p. 241. 

O. — Ozi, Alice (d. 1893), actress, allegorical statue by G. Dore (89). 

P. — Parisel, E. (d. 1847), physician (27). — Parmentier (d. 1813), who 
introduced the potato into France (39). — Parny (d. 1814), poet (11). — 
Peabody, Clara (d. 1882), high-relief in bronze by Chapu (41). — Perdonnet, 
A. A. (d. 1867) engineer, statue and medallion by V. Dubray (4). — Pirier, 
Casimir, p. 239. — Pothuau (d. 1832), admiral (14). — Pradier, p. 240. — 
Pyat,FUix (d. 1889), revolutionary (46). 

R. — Rachel, p. 239. — Raspail, p. 239. — Reber (d. 1880), professor at 
the Conservatoire, symbolical figure of Music by Tony Noel (55). — Regnaud 
de St. Jean d'AngUy (d. 1820), marshal of France (11). — Reille, Marshal 
(A. 1860), monument by Jacques and Bosio (2S). — Reynaud, p. 242. -— 
Ricord, Ph. (d. 1889), physician, Renaissance chapel (54). — Robertson, Etienne 
(d. 1837), physicist (Archimedean mirror) and aeronaut (8). — Roederer, P. L. 
(d. 1835), politician (4). — Rossignol, Oh. (d. 1889), manufacturer, rich Renais- 
sance chapel, with bust, statuette, and sculptures by Boisseau (64). — 
Rossini, p. 239. — Rothschild, p. 239. — Roussin, Admiral (d. 1854), distin- 
guished at the battle of the Tagus in 1831 (25). — Royer-Gollard (d. 1845), 
philosopher and statesman (9). — Ruel, p. 241. — Ruty (d. 1823), general 38). 


S. — St. Pierre, B. de (d. 1814), author (11). — St. Victor, P. de (1881), 
author, bust by Guillaume (9). — Santos, Bias (d. 1832), lofty pyramid with 
sculptures by Fessard (48). — Savary, Reni (d. 1833), Duke ofEovigo, who 
executed the Due d'Enghien by Napoleon's order (35). — Say, Lion (d. 
1896), politician and writer (36). — Scribe (1821), dramalist (35). — Sirurier, 
Marshal (d. 1819; 39). — SUyes, E. J. (d. 1836), consul along with Bona- 
parte (30). — Sivel, p. 242. — Soldiers killed at the Siege of Paris in 1870-71, 
p. 242. — Soulii, Fr. (d. 1847), novelist (48). — Souvestre, p. 241. — Spmelli, 
p. 242. — Spuller, p. 242. — Suchet, Marshal (d. 1826) , reliefs by David 
d'Angers (39). 

T. — Talma, p. 239. — Tamlerlick, p. 239. — Taylor, Baron (d. 1879), 
p. 241. — Thiers, p. 240. — Thomas, Oliment, p. 239. — Tirard (d. 1893, 
traveller and philanthropist, statue by G. J. Thomas (55). — Terry, A., 
minister of finance, relief representing Duty by St. Marceaux (51). 

TT. — Uhrich, General (d. 1886), defender of Strassburg in 1870 (50). — 
Xfrth Family, richly decorated Renaissance chapel (53). 

V. — Valence, p. 240. — Verazzi, p. 241. — Victor, Marshal (d. 1891), 
Duke of Belluno (17). — Vignon, Claude (Mme. Rouvier; d. 1888), bronze 
bust by herself. — Visconti, E. Q. (d. 1818), archaeologist (4). — Visconti, L. T. J. 
(d. 1853), one of the architects of the Louvre, son of the last-named, re- 
cumbent statue by L. Durocher (4). — Vuidet, G. (d. 1891), composer of 
sacred music, rich monument and bronze statue by Aubet (92). 

W. — Walewski (d. 1868), illegitimate son of Napoleon I., statesman, 
mausoleum (66). — Wilhelm (G. L. Bocquillon; d. 1842), composer, medallion 
by David d' Angers (11). — Wimpffen, General (d. 1884), bronze bust by 
F. Kichard (47). — Winsor («i. 1830), promoter of gas-light illumination (37). 

Y. — Yakovltff (d. 1882), marble chapel in the Byzantine style, with 
paintings on a gold ground, by F^dorofi' (82). — Ycaza, de, p. 241. 

The Avenue Gambetta (PI. R, 23 ; Pere-Lachaise Stat, ou the Mitropoli- 
tain, p. 237), to the N. of the cemetery, passes near a square adorned with 
sculptures (The gardener, by Baffler, The decline, by Steiner), and reaches 
the Place Gambetta (PI. R, 33), not far from the new entrance to the ceme- 
tery. The Mairie of the 20th Arrondissement (Menilmontant; PI. R, 33) in this 
Place is decorated with paintings by Glaize and Bin. From the Hopital 
Tenon (918 beds ; Rue de la Chine 2) the Mairie is separated by a square 
embellished with a bronze group, by L. Michel, representing the Lame and 
the Blind, and the Datura (Nightshade), a statue by Galy. The Avenue 
Gambetta is continued, to the left, to the Riservoirs de la Dhuis (see below). 
— The Place Gambetta is passed by the tramway from the Cours de Vin- 
cennes to St. Augustin (TAD), by which we may proceed to the Buttes- 
Chaumont (p. 235). — The Rue Belgrand, to the right of the mairie, leads 
to Bagnolet (ca. ii/4 M. ; p. 237) , on the tramway-line from Le Raincy (see 
Appx., p. 35) to the Place de la Concorde. At the farther (N.) end (I1/4 M.), 
near Les Lilas (p. 236), this tramway intersects the line from Pantin to 
Ivry, which proceeds thence to ('/s M.) Montreuil on the S. (p. 252). 

About Va M. to the N. of Pere-Lachaise, on a height to the right of the 
Boul. de Menilmontant, rises the conspicuous church of Notre-Dame-de-la- 
Groix (PI. R, 30), a fine Romanesque edifice, built in 1865-70 by Heret, ap- 
proached by an imposing flight of steps, with a spire over the portal. 

Near this church pass the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture and the tramway 
from Noisy-le-Sec to the Square du Temple (see Appx., pp. 39, 35). — The 
Mitropolitain runs under the Boul. de Belleville and the Boul. de Menil- 
montant, to the W. of Notre-Dame-de-la-Croix (PI. R, 30). — It was on this 
portion of the line (at Les Couronnes station) that the frightful accident in 
August, 1903, took place, when upwards of 80 persons lost their lives. 

The Rue de Menilmontant and Rue St. Fargeau (entrance at No. 36) lead 
to the E. from Ihe church to ('/4hr.) the Reservoirs de la Dhuis or de Minlil 
montant (PI. R, 36; visitors admitted), which supply one-fifth of Paris wih- 
water, vie. the high-lying quarters on the right bank, from Charonne to Passy. 
The Dhuis is a tributary of the Surmelin, which itself joins the Marne 
near Chateau-Thierry. 


The Boulevard de Menilmontant (PI. R, 32; stations on the 
Metropolitain , see Appx., p. 38; tramway TE, see Appx., p. 30), 
which passes the principal entrance to Pere-Lachaise, is prolonged 
on the S. by the Avenue Philippe-Auguste, which goes on to the Place 
de la Nation (see below). The tramway follows the Boul. de Cha- 
ronne, which diverges to the E. and terminates on the E. of the Place 
de la Nation, in the Cours de Vincennes (p. 247). The Mtftropolitain 
pursues the same route , turning to the right along the Avenue de 
Taillebourg to join the central Paris line at the Place de la Nation. 

The Faubourg St. Antoine, to the E. of the Bastille (p. 174), 
which is so intimately connected with the Revolution, is the great 
centre for the manufacture of furniture. The Rue du Faubourg-St- 
Antoine (PI. R, 25, 28, 31), its main thoroughfare, leads to the Place 
de la Nation (l 1 /^ M.). It is traversed by the tramway T K, and in 
its W. portion by the tramway TY (see Appx., p. 31). On the right, 
near the opening of the Avenue Ledru-Rollin, rises the Statue of 
Baudin (1801-51), 'representative of the people', who was killed on 
a barricade erected here on the occasion of the 'coup d'etat' of Dec, 
1851 ; the work (bTonze) is by Boverie (1901). In the Av. Ledru- 
Rollin is the new Church of St. Antoine, in the Romanesque-Byzantine 
style (1903). Farther on, in the Rue du Faub.-St-Antoine, on the 
right, the Hopital St. Antoine (PI. R, 28), which occupies the ancient 
convent of St. Antoine-des-Champs, founded in 1198 and rebuilt 
in 1770. Opposite are a fountain and a curious 'boucherie' dating 
from the period of Louis XV. 

The side-streets opposite the Hopital St. Antoine lead to — 

Ste. Marguerite (PI. R, 28), a 17th cent, church, the chapel of the former 
convent of the Filles de Ste. Marguerite, founded in 1681, and rebuilt in the 
18th century. To the left of the entrance, Descent from the Cross, by 
Salviati; Massacre of the Innocents, by Giordano. In the nave: right, Martyr- 
dom of St. Margaret, by Maindron; left, St. Elizabeth, by Debay. On the 
pulpit are 17th cent, reliefs. To the right of the altar, Le Brim, Descent 
from the Cross. Ambulatory: right, Qigoux, Israelites in the desert; left, 
Oleyre, Pentecost; lower down, Le Brim (?), Crucifixion. In the Chapelle 
Ste. Marguerite, to the left of the altar, /. Restout, St. Francois de Sales 
and St. Vincent de Paul. Chap, of the Souls in Purgatory : Grisailles, by 
Brunetli; behind the altar, Souls leaving Purgatory, by Briard. 

Farther on, to the right, the Rue de Reuilly (Metropolitain Stat.) recalls 
by its name the castle of Romiliacum, the residence of the Merovingian 
kings (Dagobert). The £cole Boulle (decorative art) is situated there. 

The Place de la Nation (Pl.R, 31 ; entrance to the Metropolitain 
station at the end of the Rue Fabre-d'Eglantine; exit at the end of 
the Avenue du Bel -Air), formerly the Place du Trdne, forms 
the E. extremity of Paris, while the Place de l'Etoile forms the 
N.W. end, upwards of & l /> 2 M. distant. In the centre is a basin, 
surmounted by a bronze group by Dalou, representing the Tri- 
umph of the Republic; the figure of the Republic is seated in a 
chariot drawn by lions and escorted by the genius of Liberty, while 
to the right and left are personifications of Labour and Justice; 


behind is the goddess of Abundance. In 1660, aftei the conclusion 
of the Peace of the Pyrenees, Louis XIV. received the homage 
of the Parisians on a throne erected here, and from that event the 
'place' derived its former name. The two Pavilions surmounted by 
lofty columns, which were erected here by Ledoux on the site of 
the old Barriere du Trone in 1788 (comp. p. 235), are adorned with 
bas-reliefs by Desboeufs and Simart and surmounted with bronze 
statues of St. Louis, by Etex, and Philippe Auguste, by Dumont. 

The Foire an Pain oTEpiees, or 'gingerbread fair', held in the Place 
de la Nation and in the Cours de Vincennes during three weeks after 
Easter, always presents a very lively scene. 

Tramway-lines run from the Place de la Nation as follows: TO to 
the Bastille and Vincennes (see below); TAD to St. Augustin, Pere-Lachaise, 
and La Villette; TS9 to the Place Valhubert (Jardin des Plantes) and Mon- 
treal (p. 252), see the Appx., p. 32. M&tropolitain, see Appx., pp. 36, 38. 

The broad roads which radiate from the Place de la Nation are, 
in addition to the Rue du Faubourg-St-Antoine: the Cours de Vin- 
cennes, leading to Vincennes (see below), the Avenue Philippe- Auguste 
(p. 246), the Boulevards Voltaire (p. 237) and Diderot (p. 176), and 
the Avenue du Bel-Air, which joins the Avenue de St. Mande. 

The Mttropolitain makes the entire circuit of the Place de la Nation 
underground. From the Avenue de Taillebourg (p. 246) it runs round the 
monument of the Republic, and after passing by the two columns follows 
the Boul. de Charonne, rejoining the Ligne Circulaire Nord at the station 
of Avron. Another cross-line on the S.W. connects the Circulaire Nord 
with the line No. 1 at the entrance to the Boulevard Diderot. Finally, 
under the Cours de Vincennes (see above) are sidings with four lines of 
rails arranged under double arches of 24 yds. span. — The terminus of 
the Ligne Circulaire Sud (from the Place d'ltalie) will also be situated 
near the Place de la Nation. 

To the S. of the Place, Rue de Picpus 35, is the convent-church of the 
nuns of the Sacre-Cosur and the Adoration Perpetuelle. At the end of 
the garden is the Cemetery of Picpus (Fl. G, 31 ; adm. 50 c), which con- 
tains the tombs of members of some of the oldest families in France. 
In one corner is the tomb of Lafayette (d. 1834). At the end is the 
'Cimetiere des Guillotines', where 1340 victims of the Revolution, ex- 
ecuted at the Barriere du Trone in 1794, are interred. Their relations 
who include the families of La Rochefoucauld, Gouy d'Arcy, etc., obtained 
burial-places in the same spot. — To the S. of the Cours de Vincennes is 
the Rue Michel-Bizot, with the new Bdpital Trousseau (PI. G, 34). 

14. Vincennes. 

The Chateau being closed to the public, the principal attraction in this 
neighbourhood is the Bois de Vincennes. The nearest stations are Vincennes 
on the N. or Charenton on the S., accessible by the Metropolitain, by tram- 
way, steamboat, or by the Chemin de Fer de Vincennes which connects 
with the Petite Ceinture (see p. 248). 

Of the above routes the 'Metropolitain' is the most rapid from 
anywhere W. of the central quarters of the city ; its terminus lies 
close to the Porte de Vincennes (PI. R, 34 ; see Appx., p. 36). About 
300 yds. farther on, beyond the barrier, is the Paris- Metropolitain 
station of the Chemins de Fer Nogentais (see Appx., p. 35); visitors 

248 14 VINCENNES. 

may take the train hence to the Chateau de Vincennes (10 oi 15 c), 
and thus save a walk of 20-25 minutes. 

The Tramways running between Paris and Vincennes or Charen- 
ton perform the journey in about 1 hr. There are four lines. 

1. Tramway from the Louvre to Vincbnnbs {TC; see Appx., 
p. 30), in 50 min. (fares 40 & 20 c), starting from St. Germain- 
l'Auxerrois (PI. R, 21; ///). Route: Rue de Rivoli (p. 90), Rue 
St. Antoine (p. 173), Place de la Bastille (p. 174), Rue du Fau- 
bourg-St-Antoine (p 246), and Place de la Nation (p. 246). Thence 
by the Boul. de Picpus, Avenue St. Mande, and through the Porte 
St. Mande', reaching Vincennes at the Oours Marigny, to the N. of 
the Chateau. 

2. From the Louvrb to Charenton and Cretbil (TK; see 
Appx., p. 30), in 1 hr. (40 & 20 c); starting as above. This line 
follows the Quays, with fine views of the river and the Cite' on the 
right, and of the Place du Chatelet, Tour St. Jacques, Hotel de Ville, 
etc., on the left. It bends to the left along the Boul. Henri IV. 
(p. 175), passes the Bastille (p. 174), skirts the Bassin de V Arsenal 
(p. 175), and crosses by the Pont d'Austerlitz (p. 318) to the right 
bank of the Seine. Passing next the Ponts de Bercy and de Tolbiac, 
and, on the right bank, the Entrepots de Bercy (PI. G, 28, 29), the 
most extensive docks in Paris, it reaches the Pont National, half 
of which is used by the Ceinture railway, and then the fortifications. 
Beyond the city, on the right bank, are the Magasins Oeneraux des 
Vins (PI. G, 33). Spanning the river is the Pont de Conflans or 
d'lvry, and on the other side Ivry (p. 404). On the right bank are 
Conflans, with a convent of the Sacre*-CoeuT, and Les Carrieres, 
which form part of Charenton (p. 252). The cars stop near the 
bridge (see below). 

3. From the Place de la Rbpubliqtje to Charenton (T Y; 
see Appx., p. 31; 40 & 20 c). Along the Orands Boulevards to 
the Bastille (p. 174). Then, Faubourg St. Antoine (p. 246), Rue 
Croiatier, behind the Hopital St. Antoine (p. 246), and along the Rue 
de Charenton, skirting for a moment the Bois de Vincennes. Termi- 
nus, Place des Ecoles (PI. G, 36). 

4. From the Bastille to Charenton - St - Maurice (TS 10; 
see Appx., p. 32; 30 & 20 c). Skirting the Chemin de Fer de 
Vincennes by the Avenue Daumesnil on the left, it passes the Mairie 
of the 12th Arrondissement and the Square Daumesnil , containing 
a group (Faun and Satyr) by Hioile. Traversing the Place Daumesnil, 
with a fountain adorned with bronze lions, it enters the Bois, run- 
ning between St. Mande (p. 249) and the Lac Daumesnil (p. 251). 
It stops in the upper part of Charenton. 

The Steamboat Trip is very pleasant in fine weather (stations, 
see Appx. , p. 40). The route as far as the Pont d'Austerlitz hae 
been described at p. 318 and above. Passing beneath the Pont 
de Conflans (see above) and the Passerelle d' Alfortville , we rhacs 

14. VINCENNES. 249 

near a lateral canal, the confluence of the Marne, up which we steer. 
We pass under the bridge of the Paris-Lyons railway and , after 
stopping at Alfortville (p. 252), disembark at the Pont de Charenton, 
nearly ^2 M. to the S. of the Bois de Vincennes. 

Chemin de Fer de Vincennes. This line has a station at the 
Bastille (PI. R, 25), whence trains run every 1 /4 nr -i the4M. journey 
occupying about V4 hr. ; fares 45 & 30 c. Following the Avenue 
Daumesnil, the train stops at Beuilly (PI. G, 3 1), near the Place Dau- 
mesnil (p. 248), and Bel- Air (PI. G, 34), where there is a connection 
with the Ceinture railway (see Appx., p. 39). Both these stations 
are within Paris. — Next comes St. Mande, a locality with. 15,276 
inhab. situated near the Bois de Vincennes and the Lac de St. Mande" 
(p. 250), with two refuges for the aged and a large cemetery (Rue de 
Lagny, to the N. of the Rue de Paris, see the Map) containing a 
bronze statue by David d' Angers of Armani Carrel, who was killed 
in a duel (1836) by Emile de Girardin. 

Vincennes. — The Railway Station is in the Rue de Montreuil, which 
leads on the right (S.) to the N.W. corner of the Chateau. The Rue du 
Midi, opposite the station, leads to the Cours Marigny (see below), another 
way to the Chateau (S. side). 

Cafes-Restaubants. — Caft de la Paix, Cours Marigny, near the tram- 
way-terminus, dej. 2 1 /], D. 3 fr. ; Continental, Rue de Paris 30, with a small 
garden, below the chateau, similar charges (also beds) ; Francaii, in front 
of the chateau; Cafi-Reetaurant de la Porte Jaune, in the wood, on an 
island in the Lac des Minimes (p. 252), good; Chalet du Lac, at the Lac de 
St. Mande (p. 250). — A hand plays on Thurs. and Sun. in summer in the 
Cours Marigny. 

Tramways. 1. To Parit, see p. 248. — 2. Chemin de Fer NogentaU (see 
Appx. p. 35) to Noqent-tur-Marne (Pont de Mulhouse ; in 8 /<br., 50 or 35 c; 
p. 406), Bry-sur- Marne (p. 406), Ville-Evrard, Noisy-le- Grand, Charenton (p. 
252), Villemomble (p. 408), and Champigny (p. 407) ; numerous other inter- 
mediate stations (15 or 10 c.). 

Foil and Telegraph Office in the Rue de l'Hotel-de-Ville. 

Vincennes, a town with 31,405 inhab., is a place of no import- 
ance except as one of the fortresses in the outskirts of Paris. The only 
object of interest in the town is the bronze Statue ofOen. Daumesnil 
(1777-1832), by Rochet, in the Cours Marigny, near the tramway- 
station. The attitude of the figure is an allusion to the anecdote 
that when the general, who defended the chateau in 1814 and 1815, 
was called on to surrender, he replied that he would not do so till 
the Allies restored to him the leg he had lost at the battle of Wag- 
ram. At the end of the Cours is the modern Renaissance Mairie. 
The annual fete takes place on the day of the Assumption and the 
following Sunday. 

The Chateau de Vincennes was founded in the 12th cent, and 
afterwards gradually enlarged. It was used as a royal residence till 
1740, and afterwards served various purposes. In 1832-44, under 
Louis Philippe, the chateau was strongly fortified and strengthened 
by the addition of an E. wing. An order from the Governor of Paris 
(at the Hfitel des Invalid es) is necessary to view it (12-4); but the 

250 14. VINCENNES. 

chapel is public at the services on Sun. and holidays, 8, 10, and 
11.15 a.m. The Chapel, with its tasteful Gothic facade, begun in 
1397 and completed in 1552, has recently been restored. The lofty 
vaulting and the stained glass by Cousin are worthy of notice. The 
window at the end of the nave, representing the Last Judgment, 
includes a figure (recognisable by the blue ribbon in her fair hair) of 
Diane de Poitiers. The monument of the Due d'Enghien, erected by 
Louis XVIII. in 1816, now in the old sacristy, is a poor work by 
Deseine. The Donjon, or Keep, in which state -prisoners were 
formerly confined, is a massive square tower of five stories, 170 ft. 
in height, with four smaller towers at the corners. 

St. Louis visited this chateau frequently, and is said to have administered 
justice under an oak-tree in the wood (see below). Many reigning sover- 
eigns and other illustratious personages died within its walls: Louis X. 
(in 1316), Philippe V. (1322), Charles IV. (1328), Henry V., King of England 
(1422), Charles VI., Charles IX (1574), Mazarin (1661). Charles V. was 
horn there in 1337. Queen Isaheau de Baviere retired thither. The chateau 
also was used as a State Prison from the days of Louis XI. (1461-83) on- 
wards. Among others who have been confined there may be mentioned 
the King of Navarre (15741. the Grand Conde" (1650). Cardinal de Retz (1652), 
Fouqnet (1661), Diderot (1749), Count Mirabeau (1777), the Due d'Enghien 
(1804), who was shot there for conspiracy, by order of Napoleon I., the min- 
isters of Charles X. (1830), and the conspirators against the National 
Assembly (15th May, 1848). 

The Bois de Vincennes, which was laid out in 1860-67, owes less 
to art than the Bois de Boulogne, and is of scarcely inferior attrac- 
tion. The park, including the Champ de Manoeuvres in the middle 
and the artillery 'Polygone', covers an area of about 2300 acres. 

The street to the right of the chateau soon brings us to the 
Esplanade and the most frequented paTt of the Bois. To our left is 
the Plaine de Oravelle , which divides the Bois into two distinct 
parts. The plain extends from this point to the chateau, nearly 2 M. 
distant, and is at places nearly 1 M. in width. At the beginning, 
on the right, are large Barracks. On the left lies the Champ de 
Manoeuvres, used for infantry drill; and farther distant, on the 
left, is the Polygone de VArtillerie. At a crossway in the Champ 
de Manoeuvres, to the S. of the Ecole de Pyrotechnie, rises a modern 
Pyramid, where the oak under which St. Louis administered justice 
is said to have stood. 

The first walk on the right leads to the Lac de St. Mande, near 
the village of that name (p. 249), the smallest but prettiest of the 
lakes in the Bois, with beautifully wooded environs, affording 
charming walks {Cafe du Chalet- du- Lac, good). — The Avenue 
Daumesnil, which also begins at the Esplanade and may be reached 
by various paths to the left of the lake, is a continuation of the 
street of the same name in Paris. The route diverging to the left, 
at the point where the tramway from the Bastille also turns (p. 248), 
leads towards Charenton (p. 252). 

At the end of the Avenue Daumesnil nearest Paris (No. 1W») is a 
School of Arboriculture and Gardening, open to the public on Sun., Tuea., 


14. VINCENNES. 251 

Thurs., and holidays from 1 to 5 or 6 p.m. — At the turning of the tram- 
way is the Restaurant de la Demi-hunt (a la carte). 

The Lac Daumesnil, or de Charenton, is the largest lake (60 acres) 
in the Bois. It contains two pretty islands, the lie de Reuilly (Cafe 
des Iles-Daumesnil; concert at the kiosque on Sun. 3-6, sometimes 
military hands during the week), with a pretty artificial grotto beneath 
a small temple, and the lie de Bercy, with the Museum of Forestry. 
These islands are connected with each other and with the mainland 
on the Charenton side by bridges, and may be reached by a ferry 
(10 c.) from the Avenue Daumesnil. 

The Museum of Forestry, in the He de Bercy, is usually open on Sun. 
from 10, and on Tues., Thurs., and Sat. from noon to 4 or 5. In the large 
saloon on the groundfloor, between the tree-trunks acting as columns, are 
grouped specimens of wood of all kinds, with articles made from them. 
Implements of forestry are also exhibited here, and in an annexe is a 
Diorama, representing the inundation-works and afforestation of an Alpine 
valley. — The rooms on the first floor contain farther specimens of wood; 
two paintings (inundation- works in the Alps and (Pyrenees), curiosities 
{e.g. injuries cause* by insects), naturalized animals, etc. 

To the 8.W. of the lake is the Piste Vilocipedique Municipale 
(p. 42; 4 laps to the mile). The 'Grand Prix de Paris' (10,000 fr.) 
is competed for here in July. 

The Avenue de Gravelle, to the left before Charenton (p. 252) 
as we come from the Lac Daumesnil, traverses the S. part of the 
Bois. A little to the right are the Asile de Vincennes, for convales- 
cents of the artizan class, and the Asile Vacauy, for the victims of 
accidents in Paris. About l^M. from Charenton this avenue ends 
at the Lac de Oravelle, a reservoir fed by means of a steam-pump 
on the bank of the Marne, and connected by streams with the other 
lakes. A few paces from the lake is the Bond-Point de Oravelle, com- 
manding a survey of the valleys of the Marne and Seine. Adjoining 
it is the Cafe'-Restaurant du Plateau-de-Gravelle (dej. 3, D. 4fr.). 

The Race Course of Vincennes, a little to the left, is the largest 
racecourse near Paris (see p. 41). 

Farther on, to the right, we pass the Redoubts of Oravelle and 
La Faisanderie, two forts ending the wood on this side and com- 
manding the loop of the Marne (see p. 306). Between them is a 
Model Farm (experimental husbandry) worked by the Ecole d'Alfort 
(p. 262) and the Institut Agronomique of Paris. By the second re- 
doubt is the Ecole Militaire de Gymnastique of Joinville. 

Beyond the Bedoute de la Faisanderie we have three roads before 
us. That to the left (Route de Joinville") leads direct to Vincennes, 
passing between the camp and the Lac des Minimes (see p. 252)* 
that in the middle (Avenue de la Belle-Gabrielle or des Minimes) 
also leads towards the lake (by the turning to the left a little farther 
on ; the turning to the right ends at the Fond de Beaute, with a fine 
view, passing on the way the Jardin Colonial on the left, an annexe 
of the Natural History Museum); lastly, the road to the Tight leads 
to Nogent-sur-Marne. 

252 14. CHARENTON. 

The Lac des Minimts, which was excavated on ground belonging 
to the order of the Miaimes, is 20 acres in area and contains three 
islands. The smallest of these, the Be de la Porte-Jaune at the N. 
end, is connected with the mainland by a bridge and contains a 
Cafe- Restaurant. Near this point passes the tramway from Nogent 
to Paris by which we may return (Porte de Vincennes stat. on the 
Metropolitain, see p. 249). The other islands, though united with 
each other, can be reached only by boat. Round the lake, at some 
distance from its banks, runs the Route Circulaire (2 M.) and an 
avenue also skirts the bank (10 min. shorter). The 'route circulaire' 
passes an open grassy space affording a view of the drill-ground and 
pyramid, the infantry-butts, and the artillery-range. 

Opposite the He de la Porte-Jaune begins an avenne leading to Fontenay- 
sut-Bois (p. 406), a station on the Vincennes railway, about l /» M. to the 
N.E. A tramway runs hence to Paris (Place du Chatelet) via Montreuil- 
sous-Bois (see below). 

On the S.W. of the park of Vincennes lies — • 
Charenton. — Caf£s-Restaurants. Cafi de la Terraste, Cafi du Pont, 
both at the bridge; Restaurant Barat, Rue de St. Mande 64, unpretending hut 
good, with garden. — PUteVilocipldique Municipale, Avenue de St. Mande (p. 42). 

Charenton, or Charenton-le-Pont, the terminus for the Paris steam- 
boats and several lines of tramways (see p. 248), reached also by 
numerous trains (from the Gare de Lyon 60, 45, or 30 a), is situated 
at the confluence of the Marne and the Seine. Including Conflans 
and Les Carrieret, which adjoin it on the "W., it numbers 17,980 in- 
habitants. It is known for its lunatic asylum (see below). Fetes are 
held here on the 1st and 2nd Sun. in July and September. 

A little farther on is St. Mauriee (pop. 7325) with the large Lunatic 
Asylum of Charenton, about 1/3 M. from the bridge. It was founded in 1641 
and was administered originally by the friars of St. Jean-de-Dieu. Until 
the abolition of 'lettres de cachet 1 (p. 175) it was not only an asylum for 
nsane people, placed there by their relatives, but a prison for victims of 
ireachery and greed. The present buildings, dating from 1830, with arcades 
and roofs in the Italian style, rise picturesquely on the slope of the plateau 
occupied by the Bois de Vincennes. In the Place de la Mairie is a Monument 
to Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863), the painter, who was born at St. Maurice ; 
bust by Dalou. 

On the left bank of the Marne is Alfortville (15,980 inhab.), connected 
with Charenton by a bridge. The Veterinary College of Alfort, Grande Rue 7, 
was founded in 1766 and trains also for the army. Alfortville is traversed 
by tramways running to Creteil (p. 407), Bonneuil, and Paris, and to Vin- 
cennes and Boulogne (see Appx., p. 33). 

From Charenton to St. Maur, see p. 407. 

Vincennes is continued on the N. by (l'/« M.) Montreuil-sous-Bois (4>/zM- 
Ecl(' Paris), with 31,773 inhab., a place noted for its peaches, the culti- 
vation of which occupies an area of 700 acres. It has a market on Sun. 
band Thurs., and a fete on the 1st Sun. in July and the 2nd Sun. in Sep 
mofrber. — Montreuil is connected with Paris by a tramway (TX) starting 
Otem the Chatelet (40 or 20 c. ; in 33 min.) and by the tramways : Montreuil 
fromise)-Rosny-sous-Bois, Boulogne-Montreuil, and Quatre Chemins-Ivry-Port. 
ogmnibus from Vincennes, 20 c. Conveyances from the Avenue Victoria, 40 c. 


The Cite (PI. R, 20, 23, 22 ; V) is the most ancient pait of Paris. 
Here lay, in the time of Caesar, the Gallic town of Lutetia Parisiorum. 
and the Paris of the Romans and the Fianks was confined to the 
same site, with the addition of a small settlement on the left bank 
of the Seine. At a later period the town gradually extended on 
the right bank, but the Cite* still retained its prestige as the seat 
of the old Royal Palace and of the cathedral of Notre-Dame. On 
one side of Notre-Dame rose the Episcopal Palace and the Hotel- 
Dieu, originally an asylum for pilgrims and the poor ; on the other 
side was the Cloitre Notre-Dame, or house of the Canons, who play 
so prominent a paTt in the history of the university. In the Cite" the 
predominant element in the population was the ecclesiastical, while 
the burgesses and the men of letters chiefly occupied the districts to 
the N. (right bank, la Ville) and S. (left bank, V Universite) respect- 
ively. — The Cit6 has long ceased to be the centre of Parisian life, 
but it possesses the two finest sacred edifices in Paris, the Cathedral 
of Notre-Dame and the Sainte-Chapelle. The Hotel-Dieu still exists, 
but the site of the royal palace is occupied by the Palais de Justice. 

The semicircular part of Paris which lies on the left bank of the 
Seine forms fully one-third of the whole city, its distinctive feature 
consisting of numerous learned institutions , the chief of which is 
the Sorbonne, or university, in the Quartier Latin. At the W. end 
of this part of the town are several ministries and embassies, the 
Chambre des Deputes, the Senate, a number of large military establish- 
meats, and the residences of the old aristocracy (in the Quartier St. 
Oermain). The chief objects of interest on the left bank are the 
Palais du Luxembourg with its gallery of modern works of art, the 
Pantheon, the Musie de Cluny, the Jardin des Plantes, and the 
Hdtel des Invalides. 

15. The Cite and the He St. Louis. 

The Cite* is approached from the right bank of the Seine by the 
Pont-Neuf, the Pont au Change, the Pont Notre-Dame, and the Pont 
d'Arcole (p. 169). 

The *Pont-Neuf (PI. R, 20; V), at the W. end of (he Cite - , a 
bridge 360 yds. in length and 25 yds. in width, crossing both arms 
of the Seine, is, in spite of its name, the oldest bridge in Paris. It 

254 15. PONT AU CHANGE. 

was constructed in 1578-1604, but was remodelled in 1852, while 
the end next the left bank was restored in 1886. The masks sup- 
porting the cornice on the outside are copies of those originally 
executed by J. B. Duceroeau. On the island, halfway across the 
bridge, rises an *Equestrian Statue of Henri IV., by Lemot, erected 
in 1818 to replace one which had stood here from 1635 to 1792, 
when it was melted down and converted into cannon. By way of 
retaliation Louis XVIII. caused the statue of Napoleon on the Ven- 
dome Column, another of the emperor intended for the column at 
Boulogne-sur-Mer, and that of Desaix in the Place des Victoiies to 
be melted down in order to provide material for the new statue. 
The Latin inscription at the back is a copy of that on the original 
monument. At the sides are two reliefs in bronze, which represent 
Henri IV. distributing bread among the besieged Parisians, and caus- 
ing peace to be proclaimed by the Archbishop of Paris at Notre-Dame. 
— The bridge commands an admirable *View of the Louvre. The 
large edifice on the left bank is the Monnaie (p. 284), and beyond 
it is the Institut (p. 282). 

In the 17th and 18th cents, the Pont-Neuf was the favourite rendez-vous 
of news-vendors, jugglers, showmen, loungers, and thieves. To this motley 
crowd Tabarin, a famous satirist, used to spout his witticisms, from a plat 
form which he set up between (he Nos. 13 and 15. One of the first hydraulic 
pumps, the 'Samaritaine', was erected on this bridge (model at the Muse'e 
Caroavalet, p. 185). Hear by are the swimming-baths of 'La Samaritaine 1 
(see p. 24). Down below, behind the statne of the king, is the Jardin 
Henri IV. or Jardin du Vert-Galant. Second-hand book stalls line the quays. 

Opposite the equestrian statue, a few paces distant, is the Place 
Dauphine (called Place de Thionville under the Revolution), partly 
surrounding which are some 17th cent, houses of brick, with festoons 
of white stone. — The W. facade of the Palais de Justice (p. 255), 
towards the Place Dauphine, was constructed by Due in 1857-68. 
The gravity of the style accords well with the purpose of the building. 
Eight engaged Doric columns and two corner-pillars support the 
rich entablature. The six allegorical figures below the windows re- 
present Prudence and Truth, by Dumont ; Punishment and Protec- 
tion, by Jouffroy; Strength and Justice, by Jaley. Three inclined 
slopes ascend to the entrance of the Vestibule de Harlay (p. 256). 

The Pont au Change (PI. R, 20; V) leads from the Place du 
Chatelet to the Cite (p. 168). The bridge, which is one of the most 
ancient in Paris, and was only less celebrated than the Pont-Neuf, 
was entirely rebuilt in 1858-59. Its name is derived from the shops 
of the money-changers and goldsmiths with which the old bridge 
was flanked. 

The bridge commands a fine view. Opposite lies the Cite, with the 
Palais de Justice and the Tribunal de Commerce ; higher up the river are 
the Hotel Dieu and Notre-Dame ; to the left the Hotel de Ville and the 
Tour de St. Gervais; down the river appear the Pont-Neuf, the Louvre, etc. 
To the right is the Quai de la Migisserie (tannery), which used to be called 
the Quai de la Ferraille, from the dealers in old iron who resorted there. 
To the left is the Quai de FHorloge, formerly the Quai des Lunettes, which 
name is partially justified by the opticians 1 shop still to be seen. It is also 


known as the Quai des Morfondus ('of the chilled 1 ) on account of the icy 
blasts which sweep it in winter. 

On the other side of this bridge is the Boulevaed du Palais, 
the prolongation of which on the right bank of the Seine is formed 
by the Boulevard St. Michel (p. 263). 

The *Palais de Justice (PI. R, 20 ; V), a vast complexus of build- 
ings, has occupied since the 16th cent, the site of the ancient palace 
of the kings of France, which was itself preceded by that of the old 
Roman governors. St. Louis (d. 1270) presented part of the building 
to the Parlement, or supreme court of justice, Charles VII. adding 
the remainder. In 1618 and again in 1776 the palace was so much 
injured by fire that only four towers, parts of the basement, and the 
Sainte-Chapelle (p. 256) have been preserved. The Tour de I'Hor- 
loge, at the corner, dates from 1298 and is adorned with sculptures 
by Germain Pilon, restored in 1852. Its clock, which has a handsome 
dial, was reconstructed in 1370 and restored in 1685 and 1852; it is 
perhaps the oldest public clock in France. On the N. side are the 
Tour de Cesar and the Tour d' Argent, and farther on the crenellated 
Tour St. Louis or Bon-Bee. The Tours de Cesar and de l'Horloge, 
which formerly stood at the head of the bridge of Charles the Bald 
(823-877), now flank the entrance to the Conciergerie (p. 257). 

The Palais is open daily, 11-4, except Sundays and holidays, and visitors 
may then inspect the Salle des Pas-Perdus and the Ste-Chapelle; the courts 
themselves, which are also public,